Comparison Of 6 7 Amp M Radiances Computed From Aircraft-Books Pdf

Comparison of 6 7 amp m radiances computed from aircraft
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21 304 SAI THE AND SMITH COMPUTED AND OBSERVEDRADIANCES. Whilethismayreflecta drybiasin theVaisalathin filmcapacitive. hygrometer, thisinstrument, isconsidered, thebestinusefor. balloonsoundings, andcompareswell with stratospheric. andgasexperiment, SAGE II observations, Larsenetal 1993. The aircraft basedmoisturemeasurements, usedin this study 228. helpeliminate, someof the uncertainties, thatwereunavoid.
able in the earlier balloon basedstudiesand allow a critical exam. inationof the manyotherfactorsinfluencing, the comparison. betweencomputed andobserved, The datausedin thispaperaresoundings. of theatmospheric, temperatureandmoisture, measured fromtheNCARSabreliner. and6 7 IJ mradiances, by the VAS instrument, GOES 7 satellite i I i. 2 i AircraftData Latitude DegreesNorth, Duringtwofieldprojects.
weconducted, of Figure 2 Channel10 brightnesstemperatureobservedby GOES. theuppertroposphere fromtheNCARSa VAS alongthe horizontaltrackof a typicalaircraftsoundingfor. andlowerstratosphere, onRapidlyInten the satelliteimage closestin time solid line and next closest. breliner Thefirstproject partof theExperiment, sifyingCyclones offthe dashedline to the sounding. overtheAtlantic ERICA wasconducted, Maine coastin January1989 The secondwasbasedin Cham. paign Illinois andEdmonton, Alberta duringJanuary, NCAR Sabreliner was instrumented to measure numerous meteo Twelve profileswere extractedfrom the data The soundings.
generallyextendto an altitudeof 12 km into the lower strato. rological chemical andmicrophysical parameters themeasure. mentsof interestin thisstudyaretemperature moisture andcloud sphere Above this altitude thereis very little water vapor Ell. saesser 1983 and hence little contributionto the outgoing. particleconcentration Temperature wasmeasured witha Rose. montplatinum resistancesensor withaccuracy of 1 K resolution radiancenear6 7 IJ m For the purposesof radiativetransfercalcu. of 0 006K andresponse time of 0 1 s Moisturewasmeasured lations theprofilesof temperature andmoisturewereextrapolated. witha newlydeveloped frostpointhygrometer thatusesa cryogen to an altitudeof 100 km The temperature extrapolation followsan. ically cooledmirror pyers Duran 1990 The cryogenic hy exponential thatmatches themean slope at thetop of themeasured. profileandapproaches a value2 K greateror lessthanthehighest. grometer has1 stemporal and0 05 Kfrostpointresolution anda. frostpointrangeof 10 Cto 90 C Ambientfrostpointisderived observedvalue dependingon theslope The specifichumidityde. via a modifiedGoff Gratschformulation Buck 1981 from theva cayslinearlywith pressure Thismethodensures thatthecomputed. weightingfunctionsdecaysmoothlyto zero withoutan artificial. porpressure yieldedbythehygrometer Thecryogenic hygrometer. frequently performs poorlyat low altitudes andthefrostpointis peakatthetopof theobserved profile The computed radiances. substitutedwith the value from a conventionalchilled mirror hy insensitiveto reasonable variationsin theextrapolation. alsoaboardtheaircraft, Cloudparticle, concentration. was 2 2 Satellite Data, by a forwardscattering, spectrometer. probe FSSP that, detectsthe concentration, andsizedistributionof cloudparticles The VAS channel10 or water vapor WV channelfilter re. sponseis centeredat a wavelengthof 6 725 tm wavenumber. cm 1andwidth, 150cm 1 inthe6 5 tm, vibrational rota. 0 01 I tionalabsorption bandof water See for example Montgomery. and Uccellini 1985 for a detaileddescription, of theGOES VAS.
system Figure1 showstheWV channelfilter functionalongwith. 0 008 I 0 8 a high resolutionspectrumof radiancecomputedfrom a typical. aircraftprofile, o o0o Satellitedatawere obtainedfrom the SpaceScienceandEngi. neeringCenterat the Universityof Wisconsinasbrightness tem. o o04 0 4 peraturevaluesalong the satellitescanlines The geographical. positionof individualpixelswas derivedusingthe navigational. t g dataand routinesprovidedwith the imagedata At midlatitudes. o oo the horizontalresolutionof the imagepixelsis about8 km east. I west and 11 km north south, The slopingaircraftsoundings will crossmany satelliteimage. m pixelsasthe aircrafttravelshorizontally Figure2 showsa typical. exampleof the brightness temperature observedoverthetrackof. Fibre 1 Spectrum of radiance, in cgsunitscomput by a line. by lineradiativetransfermodelfroma typic mraft sounding an aircraft. sounding thesolidline shows datafromtheimageclos, solidlinO GOES VAS ch el 10 filter ncfion dash line estin time to thesounding andthedashedline showsdataanhour. e GOES ch nel 10 radi ce is the inte at productof these later The variationin the satellitebrightnesstemperature overthe. two ncfions soundingmakesthe collocationof the aircraftandsatelliteobser. SALATHE AND SMITH COMPUTED AND OBSERVED RADIANCES 21 305. vationsuncertain Typically however the upperportionof the zenith angle0 is computedfrom the aircraftmeasurements of the. sounding above4 km was takenover a smallerhorizontaldis temperatureand moistureprofiles The profilesselectedfrom the. tance but we includedatafrom the returnleg to the airportto fill aircraft data were chosenso that the atmospherewas cloud free. thelowerpartof thesounding Thebrightness temperature is rela abovethe groundor a denselow cloudlayer The lowerboundary. tivelyinsensitiveto theair sampledin thelowerleg thustheob emission. l v zo makesa contribution, to theoutgoingradiance.
servedbrightness temperatures, arebasedonlyontheshorterupper that canbe largewhenthe boundaryis elevated i e a cloud To. leg Thescatter in theobservedbrightnesstemperature overtheup estimateI v zo the lowerboundaryis assumed. to radiateas a, persounding is notsystematic andtheobserved valueis takenas blackbodyat the temperatureobservedby the GOES IR window. theaveragebrightness temperature For sounding E067in Figure channel over the aircraft soundingand is assignedan altitude. 2 theobservedbrightnesstemperature Twv OBS 224 4K was wherethis temperaturematchesthe temperature profile from the. takenfromtheportionnorthof 54 N Thisis compared tothecom aircraft This may yield a different lower boundarytemperature. putedbrightness temperature of 225 3K On the basisof the thanwouldbe derivedfrom the aircraftcloudandtemperatureob. brightness, temperature variabilityfor all cases thereis a random servations but the satellite derived. boundaryconditionis self con, uncertainty, in theobserved brightness temperature of lessthan2 sistentand accountsfor the nonblackemissivityof clouds. 3K The monochromatic radianceis calculatedusingLBLRTM and. In thispaper wewill alsoconsider, theGOES7 channel.
8 orIR theWV channelbrightness temperatureTwv is foundby solving. observations, ofradiances, 140cm 1 Since, theatmosphere. transparent, atthis lt vlvdV, lt vBv Twv dv 1, wavelength. thischannel, givesthetemperature, of theopaque, er boundaryfor theradiativetransfercalculation. where v is the WV channelfilter functionandBv Twv is the. monochromatic emissionof a blackbodyat thetemperature Twv. 3 Radiative Transfer The zenithangle0 is foundgeometricallyfrom thepositionsof. the satelliteand soundinglocation GOES 7 was the only geosta. The third versionof the fastatmospheric signaturecode FAS. tionary meteorologicalsatellite in operationover the western. CODE called the line by line radiative transfermodel LBL. hemisphere duringthe field projects andit wasshuttledbetween. RTM Cloughet al 1981 1992 was usedfor the radiative positionsoverthe eastandwestcoastsof NorthAmerica depend. transfercalculationsin thispaper LBLRTM usesthe HITRAN92 ing uponthe season Thus duringERICA the satellite sviewing. Rothrnanet al 1992 spectraldataand is amongthe mostad anglechangedeachday andits daily positionmustbe takeninto. vanced models for radiative transfer calculations, account The rangeof zenithanglesin thisinvestigationis from44. In the regionof the infraredspectrumcoveredby the GOES to 57. 10filter i e 1413, cm 1 Figure, 1 H20is byfar This methodfor computingthe GOES 7 brightnesstempera.
theprincipalgaseous, Rinslandetal 1989 havedemon turesinvolvesseveralassumptions and thereare many sourcesof. stratedtheimportance, of molecularoxygencontinuum absorption uncertaintythat caninfluencethe results The impactof theseas. in thetransferof radiationin the atmosphere, by observations. sumptionson the comparison of computedand observedbright. lowerstratosphere andit is certainto be discernible. in theupper nesstemperatureswill be discussed, in section6. troposphereaswell To estimate theimpactof methane andmolec. ularoxygenandothertracegasesonthecomputation of theGOES. 6 7 gmbrightness temperatures LBLRTM wasrunwithonlywa 5 Comparison of Computed and Observed. ter vapor with a singleadditionalgas andwith all majorgases Brightness Temperatures. These calculationsindicatethat molecularoxygencontinuumab The brightnesstemperatures observedover the aircraftsound. sorptionreducesthecomputed brightnesstemperatureby lessthan ings and simulatedas describedaboveare summarizedin Table 1. 0 4 K methaneby lessthan0 06 K andall gasestogetherby less Entriesin columnslabeledGOES IR indicatethe lowerboundary. than 0 5 K so that the effect of all othermajor constituents. is un conditionsasestablishedfrom the IR window channelobservation. detectable The contributionof the oxygencontinuum however is. andthoselabeledAircraftindicatethe temperature, andheightof.
nontrivial We performedcalculationsusing FASCODE2 and the lower boundaryas observedfrom the aircraft The following. HITRAN86 andfoundthatthe changesmadein theseupdatesap columnidentifiesthe type of lower boundary The next two col. pearto havelittle effecton thecomputed, brightness. temperatures umnslist thebrightnesstemperatures, observedby GOES andcom. for the GOES WV channel, putedby LBLRTM The final threecolumnsindicatethe upper. Toyieldanexceedingly, fastline by line, computation. LBL tropospherichumidity UTH as definedbelow, RTM optimizesthenumberandplacement of computational.
layers In Figure3 the computedbrightness, temperatures. are plotted, basedon a user provided maximumratio of Voigt widths 1 05 against the GOES observations The solid line showsthe linear. andtemperature difference variesfrom 2 0 K nearbaseto 2 5 K trendof theresults andthedottedline indicateswherecomputed. at top betweenadjacentlayers Alteringthe verticalresolution andobservedvaluesare equal To summarizetheseresultsandal. doesnothavea significant effectonanyof themodelresults Since low comparisonto otherstudies Table 2 listsstatisticsfor the com. the brightnesstemperature dependsbothon the watervaporand parison The linearcorrelation. is quitehigh andtheslopeis nearly, temperature profiles the verticalresolutiondoesnot havea sys 1 indicatingthat the computationreturnsthe full rangeof ob. tematicimpacton the computedresult servedbrightness temperatures The computed brightnesstemper. atures however are on average greater than the observed. brightnesstemperatures This biasimpliesthatthe aircrafthumid. 4 Computed BrightnessTemperatures, ity measurements indicatea drier atmospherethan would be in. Themonochromatic radiance l v Zoo O alongthepathfrom ferred from the satelliteobservationsor that the atmosphereis. the surfaceto Zoo top of the atmosphere, takenas 100km with more opaquethan indicatedby the radiativetransfermodel The.
21 306 SALATHEAND SMITH COMPUTED AND OBSERVEDRADIANCES. Table 1 Summaryof Results, IRa Aircrafta Surface Twv. T C z km T C z km Type GOES LBLRTM GOES LBLRTM Aircraft. E017 34 6 2 40 7 cloud 232 0 232 6 47 5 44 3 30 3, E043 15 2 4 24 4 cloud 233 6 236 8 37 1 25 7 29 1. E044 6 1 8 0 0 ground 242 6 244 6 12 9 10 2 12 5, E054 32 5 0 32 5 cloud 227 4 231 2 48 2 31 1 38 2. E060 4 1 0 10 2 cloud 235 4 238 6 27 7 19 1 25 6, E067 32 4 0 42 5 cloud 224 4 225 4 61 3 54 9 38 0. E072 24 0 0 22 0 ground 228 1 227 1 44 1 49 6 41 6. E083 3 0 0 4 0 ground 245 6 244 4 9 0 10 3 4 6, E084 1 0 0 5 0 ground 235 5 238 7 26 1 18 0 7 6.
C063 19 4 2 10 3 cloud 229 0 236 0 50 3 22 4 27 0, C083 9 2 0 10 1 cloud 233 0 238 8 31 8 16 2 13 9. C103 10 2 5 5 0 cloud 233 0 236 3 31 8 21 7 25 2, Twv is watervaporchannel. brightness, temperature, UTH is uppertropospheric, GOESrefersto satelliteobservations. refersto computedvalues seesection5, aretemperature. T andheight z ofthelowerboundary, biasin thepresent of 2 6 K ismuchbetter ThefactorPois theratioof thepressure.
LBLRTM computations at ambienttemperature, thanthe 5 27 K biasfoundby Hayden 1988 andcomparable to 240 K to 300 mbar The valuesof UTH computedastheweighted. the 2 4 K biasfoundby Sodenet al 1994 B J Soden private meanof the aircrafthumiditymeasurement labeledAircraft and. communication 1995 computedfrom 2 usingboththe observedandcomputedbright. For illustrativepurposes, thebrightness temperatures maybe nesstemperatures GOES andLBLRTM aregivenin Table 1. interpreted asuppertropospheric, humidityaccording toa relation Thisinterpretation. of Twv asUTH showsthatthe2 6 K biasin, shipderived bySoden andBretherton 1993 1996 Theweighted the LBLRTM computedbrightnesstemperatureis equivalentto. meanuppertropospheric humidityis relatedto theWV channel the satelliteUTH being 10 percentage pointsmoremoistthanthe. brightness temperatureTwv by UTH derivedfrom the computedbrightness temperature Another. observed value depending on the slope The specific humidity de cays linearly with pressure This method ensures that the computed weighting functions decay smoothly to zero without an artificial peak at the top of the observed profile The computed radiances are insensitive to reasonable variations in the extrapolation 2 2 Satellite Data

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