Communication Cambridge University Press-Books Pdf

Communication Cambridge University Press
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Communication, Introduction to the Cambridge Life Competencies. There have been many initiatives to address the skills and competencies our learners need for the. 21st century each relating to different contexts At Cambridge we are responding to educators that. have asked for a way to understand how all these different approaches to life competencies relate to. English language programmes, We have set out to analyse what the basic components of these competencies are This is to help us. create an underlying framework to interpret different initiatives. We have identified six life competencies which are linked to three foundation layers of the. THE CAMBRIDGE LIFE COMPETENCIES FRAMEWORK, Creative Learning to Collaboration. Thinking Learn, Critical Communication Social, Thinking Responsibilities. Emotional Development, Digital Literacy, Discipline Knowledge.
The Learning Journey Defining COMMUNICATION, The competencies vary depending on the stage of the learning journey from pre Competencies. primary through to learners at work Communication is an essential professional and life skill enabling us to share information and ideas as. well as express feelings and arguments Cenere et al 2015 It is also an active process influenced by. the complexities of human behaviour in which elements such as non verbal behaviour and individual. styles of interpreting and ascribing meaning to events have significant influence Mastering effective. communication is a skill which can be developed and honed and is distinct from mastering the core. linguistic features of a language, We have identified three core areas within the area of Communication. Using appropriate language register for context refers to a learner s understanding that there. are formal and informal contexts situations which require them to vary language expressions and. Pre Primary Primary Secondary adapt their communication style so that they are appropriate to the context they are in Learners. can use language for effect by employing a variety of language and rhetorical devices to be more. persuasive in an argument to engage and catch attention and add emphasis or humour. Managing conversations is related to a learner s ability to converse with others effectively and. efficiently by knowing how to initiate maintain and end conversations appropriately Learners are. aware of key communication strategies that can help them and their peers convey their messages. This will ensure that they are also able to support others to communicate successfully. Participating with appropriate confidence and clarity refers to a learner s ability to communicate. effectively with appropriate fluency confidence and pace This may include using appropriate tonal. Higher Education At Work and structural variation facial expression and eye contact as well as an ability to structure content. to create coherent and cohesive texts, We are developing Can Do Statements see page 6 to describe what can be expected of a learner at. each stage of learning for each competency The Can Do Statements are phrased as what a learner. should be able to do by the end of that stage of learning We have started to develop Can Do. Statements as descriptions of observable behaviour. The Framework provides different levels of detail from the broad Competencies to the specific Can. Do Statement, Competency Core Area Can Do, COMMUNICATION Can Do Statements STAGE OF. CORE AREAS CAN DO STATEMENTS, In this section we have provided some examples of Can Do Statements which detail what learners can.
SECONDARY Managing Effectively manages conversations using appropriate language to. be expected to do for each competency by the end of that stage of the learning journey These Can Do conversations. CONTINUED show understanding, Statements will vary in their suitability for learners in different contexts and so are provided as a starting signal lack of understanding. point in the development of a curriculum programme or assessment system seek repetition. The Can Do Statements at each level generally assume that the learners have developed the skills at a seek clarification. previous stage of learning although this is not true of the Higher Education and At Work stages which are control speed and volume of others speech. treated as being in parallel check own understanding. check others understanding, Can use simple techniques to start maintain and close conversations of. STAGE OF CORE AREAS CAN DO STATEMENTS various lengths. LEARNING Uses appropriate strategies to deal with language gaps by. signalling a gap, PRE PRIMARY Using appropriate Understands and carries out basic instructions for class school appealing to conversation partners for assistance. language and Expresses basic likes dislikes and agreement disagreement. using non linguistic means e g pointing or drawing. register for Uses simple polite forms of greetings introductions and farewells i e saying. using an appropriate synonym, context hello please thank you and sorry. Adjusts language for playing different roles e g a teacher an animal or a guessing coining a new item from existing language knowledge. character from a story Paraphrases what others say in order to help communication. Invites contributions from others in a conversation. Managing Listens while others are talking Uses appropriate strategies to develop a conversation e g showing interest. conversations Shares and takes turns when speaking giving non minimal responses or asking follow up questions. Responds appropriately to questions, Uses basic communication strategies such as asking for repetition or making Participating Speaks with suitable fluency.
a self repair in a very simple way with appropriate Writes at a suitable pace. Speaks with clarity when participating in group activities confidence and Starts and manages conversations with confidence. clarity Speaks effectively with unfamiliar persons. Participating Asks and answers simple questions Uses facial expressions and eye contact appropriately to support verbal. with appropriate communication, confidence and Can develop a clear description or narrative with a logical sequence of points. Uses a number of cohesive devices to link sentences into clear coherent. PRIMARY Using appropriate Talks about their day their family their interests and other topics suitable for. language and primary school HIGHER Using appropriate Demonstrates awareness of differences in communication styles between. register for Appropriately asks for permission apologises makes requests and agrees or EDUCATION language and individuals and between cultures. context disagrees register for Demonstrates awareness of how suitability of conversation topics can vary. Uses polite forms of greetings and address and responds to invitations context according to context and culture. suggestions apologies etc Expresses a point of view elicits and politely responds to others points of. Changes sound levels and pitch of voice when doing drama or acting a role in view. a play to communicate different emotions Persuasively puts across a point of view backing it up with evidence and. anticipating counter arguments, Managing Takes turns appropriately in a conversation Expresses themselves clearly and politely in a formal or informal register. conversations Interrupts others politely appropriate to the situation and the person concerned. Tries to use alternative words or expressions if they are not understood. Asks for clarification when they have difficulties in understanding what others Managing Can engage in a discussion on different topics using appropriate language. have said conversations Uses appropriate strategies to deal with language gaps by. Shares ideas with a peer before writing and speaking tasks in order to signalling a gap. improve the quality of their work where necessary appealing to conversation partners for assistance. using non linguistic means e g pointing or drawing. Participating Contributes in lessons by asking questions attempting responses and. using an approximate synonym or guessing coining a new item from. with appropriate explaining understanding, existing language knowledge. confidence and Shares their thoughts with others to help further develop ideas and solve. Intervenes when it appears that there is a misunderstanding in a conversation. clarity problems, or discussion, Can tell a story or describe something in a simple way. Anticipates possible areas of communication breakdown in an interaction. Uses simple connectors such as and but or because to link groups of. and is able to use appropriate strategies to deal with this. Participating Participates actively in discussions and debates on topics of interest. SECONDARY Using appropriate Uses appropriate forms of address greetings and farewells. with appropriate Varies tone of voice and sentence and discourse structure to engage. language and Presents points clearly and persuasively. confidence and listeners readers, register for Uses language for effect e g exaggerations or cleft sentences.
clarity Presents their point of view in a task even with no preparation. context Adapts language according to who they are speaking writing to e g to a. Organises spoken and written text logically and thematically paying. friend or to someone they don t know, attention to coherence and cohesion as well as styles and registers. Demonstrates understanding of which topics are appropriate for conversation. Supports and expands main points with details and examples and provides. in different contexts, an appropriate conclusion, CORE AREAS CAN DO STATEMENTS. Practical Guidelines for Teaching, AT WORK Using appropriate. language and, Adapts register to different types of conversation partner e g colleagues. managers and customers, Communication Competencies.
register for context Keeps a discussion moving by periodically summarising and moving to the In an increasingly interconnected world communication is an essential skill that enables us to get our. next topic ideas needs and feelings across to others in meaningful useful ways It allows us to access information. Sums up the outcomes of a discussion and elicits confirmation. Can communicate effectively with speakers in their community and speakers opportunities and develop relationships In the language classroom learners need extensive practice. of the target language taking into account social cultural and linguistic and feedback in order to use new language confidently and fluently This is often facilitated through. differences productive communicative activities like asking and answering drills role plays and the multitude of. Varies sentence patterns to achieve effect when speaking or writing e g activities that require learners to engage with one another in order to get or share information Due. adding emphasis and humour, Draws on a range of discourse functions e g questions commands to gain. to their communicative nature these activities also present an opportunity to work with and develop. others attention or to make an important point communication competencies. Learners reach for communication strategies during many classroom activities because of an inherent. Managing Interrupts a colleague appropriately in a meeting when necessary. Changes topic of conversation in an appropriate way. need for them Not having these strategies to draw upon may result in learners hitting communicative. conversations, Successfully chairs a meeting e g keeps to the agenda clarifies actions etc blocks more frequently and being less able to benefit from time spent in the classroom Communication. Paraphrases summarises the speech of others to check comprehension strategies have a broad range of benefits for language learners within the classroom and beyond. Can initiate maintain and end conversations effectively and appropriately For example being able to continue with a speaking task despite not knowing key vocabulary avoid. Takes an active part in conversations and discussions by using appropriate. language and effective turn taking, misunderstandings by checking what has been said or tell more engaging stories. Can use context to understand unknown language Learners and teachers benefit from developed communication skills by. Asks for clarifications re formulations or examples when lacking key. language expressing themselves appropriately and enabling a positive productive learning environment. Provides constructive feedback, Gives suggestions and contributes ideas during communications of various being more able to collaborate effectively with others. being more able to take more responsibility for their learning articulate their needs access. Participating Proposes courses of action elicits ideas from others and responds to others. information and support, with appropriate proposals politely.
confidence and Organises and executes spoken and written forms of communication. being more able to engage in and benefit from communicative language practice activities. clarity effectively e g writes effective emails and business letters and gives. effective presentations, Creates coherent and cohesive texts making appropriate use of a variety of. experiencing increased motivation as a result of success in communicative activities. organisational structures and a wide range of cohesive devices. Director for, University Press, Suggestions for classroom practice. The ideas presented here are intended as a general indication of the types of activity that might develop. Communication Introduction to the Cambridge Life Competencies Framework There have been many initiatives to address the skills and competencies our learners need for the 21st century each relating to different contexts At Cambridge we are responding to educators that have asked for a way to understand how all these different approaches to life competencies relate to English language

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