Cloud Topology And Orchestration Using Tosca A Systematic -Books Pdf

Cloud topology and orchestration using TOSCA A systematic
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2 J Bellendorf and Z A Mann, topology graph also contains relationships between components e g a hosted. on relation indicates the allocation of virtual to physical components. In imperative processing a Management Plan defines the management op. erations and their execution order using a workflow language such as Business. Process Model and Notation 31 or Business Process Execution Language 29. In declarative processing no Management Plans are defined instead a runtime. system infers the necessary steps for typical operations e g deployment from. the application topology based on some conventions 5. TOSCA has played various roles in different research approaches some used. TOSCA as part of a more general methodology others extended the modeling. capabilities of TOSCA or designed tools to manipulate TOSCA models The. multifaceted use of TOSCA and the growing number of relevant papers make it. hard to track all related research The aim of this paper is to give an overview. of the use of TOSCA in the research community We performed a systematic. literature survey to devise a taxonomy of the main research topics that have. been addressed in connection with TOSCA, To identify relevant papers we first used Scopus1 with the search string. Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications. AND ABS tosca OR TITLE tosca Here ABS tosca OR TITLE tosca. means that the word TOSCA must be contained in the abstract or title ensuring. that TOSCA is a main aspect of the paper In addition we are looking for the. full term Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications to. exclude papers that use the word TOSCA in another meaning We focused on. the period 2012 2017 since the first TOSCA papers were published in 2012. and 2017 was the last full year until the time of writing We found 89 papers. We excluded 6 very short papers less than 4 pages Using Google Scholar2. we found 8 more papers that were not in Scopus but fit our search string This. led to a total of 91 papers Afterwards we read each paper and categorized it. using open coding By continuously refining our coding scheme we built up a. taxonomy in a bottom up fashion Finally we analyzed the results to identify. focal points of existing research and directions for further research. 2 Survey results, Fig 1 presents the taxonomy that we developed based on the analyzed papers. On the highest level we categorized the papers based on their main contribution. regarding TOSCA We identified the following categories. 1 Tools papers describing a tool for TOSCA Further categorization is pos. sible based on the type of tool in particular this includes modeling tools. tools for deployment automation and run time environments. 2 Extension of language approaches that extend the TOSCA language. The extension may relate to topologies Management Plans or both Fur. thermore extensions aiming at a visual notation also belong to this category. https www scopus com,https scholar google com,Cloud topology and orchestration using TOSCA 3. Papers relating to TOSCA, Extension of Methodologies for mani Relation to other Usage of TOSCA.
language pulating TOSCA models solutions TOSCA introduction. Modeling Topology Topology processing Comparison Case studies. Deployment Management plans Combining declarative and Conversion DevOps. imperative processing,Run time Topology and Policy enforcement IoT. environment management plans,Visual notation Verification of cloud Testing. orchestration, Fig 1 Taxonomy for categorizing the processed papers. 3 Methodologies for manipulating TOSCA models papers describing. a methodology for processing TOSCA models The identified sub categories. are papers about processing TOSCA topology models approaches that com. bine declarative and imperative processing solutions to enforce some given. policies and verification of cloud orchestration, 4 Relation to other solutions papers about a relation comparison or. conversion between TOSCA and some other technique, 5 Usage of TOSCA papers demonstrating the use of TOSCA This in.
cludes case studies that showcase the practical applicability of TOSCA pa. pers about the contribution of TOSCA to DevOps papers about the use of. TOSCA in an IoT Internet of Things setting as well as papers about the. use of TOSCA models for testing purposes, 6 TOSCA introduction papers that introduce TOSCA or some of the con. cepts within TOSCA, The following paragraphs describe some representative papers in each cate. gory of the taxonomy of Fig 1 except for the category TOSCA introduction. Due to space limitation we cannot describe all found papers in detail. 1 Tools The Tools category consists of papers mainly presenting tools for. describing deploying and instantiating cloud applications using TOSCA Pro. totypes that only serve to evaluate an approach are not assigned to this category. Kopp et al present the web based modeling tool Winery 23 First Winery. includes the Topology Modeler with which components can be combined to form. an application topology Second Winery contains the Element Manager which. can be used to create modify and delete components Kopp et al propose an. extension to Winery that can be used to model Management Plans 24. Binz et al describe OpenTOSCA a runtime for imperative processing of. TOSCA applications 1 This tool executes the defined Management Plans re. spectively the operations described within the nodes Wettinger et al present. an extension to OpenTOSCA in the form of a unified invocation interface 40. 4 J Bellendorf and Z A Mann, Breitenbu cher et al present Vinothek which offers the user an interface for. providing an instance of an application 7 For this purpose the user is offered. the set of applications without having to deal with the technical details. Katsaros et al also provide a tool to deploy and manage software components. 21 The execution environment TOSCA2Chef parses TOSCA documents and. deploys the components described in OpenStack Clouds using the Opscode Chef. configuration management software and BPEL processes. 2 Extension of language Brogi et al extend TOSCA by means for specifying. the behavior of the application components when executing the management. operations defined in the nodes 9 Considering the effects of the operations to be. performed and the states that the components assume after execution makes the. validation of Management Plans possible Breitenbu cher et al propose a visual. notation to unify the presentation of nodes within the topology 8 Kopp et al. extend the BPMN to provide direct access to the topology elements 22 The. extension called BPMN4TOSCA can be transformed into standards compliant. 3 Methodologies for manipulating TOSCA models Various approaches. have been proposed to work with TOSCA models Some focus on the processing. of topologies whereas others also take Management Plans into account to enforce. policies to verify the orchestration of the components or to combine declarative. and imperative processing, Processing of Topologies Brogi and Soldani describe an approach that in. volves matching between individual Node Types and Service Templates 11 12. This matching allows sets of Node Types to be grouped together in a topology. to reduce its complexity In addition proven combinations of Node Types can be. reused in new application topologies Service Templates which do not fit exactly. can be adapted to create a template that matches exactly to a given node type. Binz et al observed that container components e g virtual machines are. often underutilized by a single application component so that additional com. ponents can be hosted by these containers 3 For this purpose the topologies. from two applications that use the same container components are merged into. one topology in which both applications retain their respective functionality. Saatkamp et al present an approach for adapting the application topology when. a provider specifies a new offer and certain components of the application need. to be migrated to new container components 33, Multiple approaches for topology completion were proposed with the aim.
that an application developer only has to model the business relevant compo. nents and the underlying infrastructure is automatically added The approach. of Hirmer et al is based on a repository of nodes and relationships to fill in in. complete topologies 20 Brogi et al present an approach to collect information. about suitable cloud offerings by crawling the network and storing their TOSCA. representation in a repository 10 This representation can be used by applica. tion developers to complete the topology Soldani et al propose TOSCAMart. an approach to reuse proven topologies in new environments 35 The developer. Cloud topology and orchestration using TOSCA 5, of a composite application defines a node in the topology that describes the re. quirements for the fragment being inserted TOSCAMart then selects a solution. suitable for these requirements from a repository of various existing topologies. Combining declarative and imperative processing Breitenbu cher et. al propose an approach that combines declarative and imperative processing. to achieve hybrid processing 5 6 The defined application topologies are inter. preted and finally the associated Management Plans are generated Calcaterra. et al present a similar approach also based on interpreting a topology and. providing the appropriate Management Plan 14, Policy Enforcement Waizenegger et al present a TOSCA runtime exten. sion to enforce policies describing non functional requirements specifically secu. rity properties such as the encryption of a database or the geographic positioning. of privacy related data 37 38 Policies can be defined using both single node. management operations and Management Plans, Verification of Cloud Orchestration Yoshida et al describe an approach. to the formal verification of TOSCA topologies that can be used to test the. achievement of a target state in the declarative processing of the TOSCA model. 42 The execution of the management operation is described by a state transi. tion system in which a state with a certain property is to be reached Chareonsuk. and Vatanawood use Model Checking to verify security properties for impera. tive processing 15 The approach of Tsigkanos and Kehrer is about defining. patterns and anti patterns and finally checking their presence or absence in the. topology of a service template so that quality aspects can be proven 36. 4 Relation to other solutions A comparison between TOSCA and the Heat. Orchestration Template HOT is provided by Di Martino et al 17 HOT is. the template format used to define the structure of an application for declarative. processing by the OpenStack orchestrator Heat The main difference between the. two approaches is that HOT is declarative while TOSCA supports both declar. ative and imperative processing Also similarities are shown for example both. provide a catalog of nodes and resources that can be composed to applications. Yongsiriwit et al address the interoperability of standards for describing. cloud resources TOSCA Open Cloud Computing Interface OCCI and Cloud. Infrastructure Management Interface CIMI 41 For interoperability ontologies. are defined that describe the resources noted in each standard In addition an. upper level ontology is presented to describe cloud resources regardless of the. used standards Using inference rules the special descriptions can be translated. into this higher level format and vice versa which also allows the translation. from one standard to another Using the upper ontology a knowledge base could. be created providing insights into relationships and possible inconsistencies. 5 Usage of TOSCA This category consists of approaches that use the exist. ing TOSCA notation Kostoska et al present a case study of the use of TOSCA. for specifying the University Management System iKnow 25 This system of. fers professors and students a platform to exchange electronic information and. 6 J Bellendorf and Z A Mann, provide electronic services Besides a detailed description of node and relation. ship types this paper also mentions the challenges of using TOSCA for the. specification of this application, A different domain for using TOSCA is the specification of Internet of Things.
IoT applications Li et al show how TOSCA can be used for an IoT application. an Air Handling Unit AHU that controls air circulation in modern buildings. 26 Da Silva et al demonstrate the feasibility of defining IoT applications using. TOSCA in the context of different technologies 16 In another paper Da Silva. et al address the multitude of sensor data produced in IoT 34 The authors. describe how Complex Event Processing Systems can be deployed using TOSCA. to process the incoming data and efficiently use network resources. 3 Discussion, Our survey shows the versatility of TOSCA its use in different domains also. beyond cloud computing for different purposes in different phases of the ser. vice lifecycle by different groups of users This versatility is mainly due to i the. possibility to define custom types for nodes relationships and capabilities and. ii the possibility to define and manipulate partial topologies However this ver. satility also poses the risk of the proliferation of incompatible TOSCA dialects. Hence we expect that interoperability will play an increasingly important role. Some further topics received limited attention so far and represent important. targets for future research First given the enormous importance of security in. cloud computing it is striking that very few papers address it so far although. several authors mentioned it as future work 41 33 Also TOSCA support for. other related topics like data protection needs to be investigated 28 Second. the topic of verification and validation V V is also addressed by few papers. Given the importance of V V we expect to see more work on how TOSCA can. be used to improve V V Third partial topologies open many possibilities for. optimization from which only a little has been investigated mainly in connection. with cost minimization Many other aspects of optimization e g related to. performance and reliability are yet to be explored Finally TOSCA has been. shown to be useful in areas such as IoT and DevOps 39 We expect to see. TOSCA being applied to new domains like network function virtualization 18. or fog and edge computing, Acknowledgment This work received funding from the European Union s Horizon. 2020 research and innovation programme grant agreement 731678 RestAssured. References, 1 Binz T Breitenbu cher U Haupt F Kopp O Leymann F Nowak A Wag. ner S OpenTOSCA A runtime for TOSCA based cloud applications In Proc. ICSOC 2013 pp 692 695 2013, 2 Binz T Breitenbu cher U Kopp O Leymann F TOSCA Portable Automated. Deployment and Management of Cloud Applications In Advanced Web Services. pp 527 549 2014,Cloud topology and orchestration using TOSCA 7.
3 Binz T Breitenbu cher U Kopp O Leymann F Wei A Improve resource. sharing through functionality preserving merge of cloud application topologies In. Proc CLOSER 2013 pp 96 103 2013, 4 Binz T Breiter G Leyman F Spatzier T Portable Cloud Services Using. TOSCA IEEE Internet Computing 16 3 80 85 2012, 5 Breitenbu cher U Binz T Ke pes K Kopp O Leymann F Wettinger J. Combining declarative and imperative cloud application provisioning based on. TOSCA In Proc IC2E 2014 pp 87 96 2014, 6 Breitenbu cher U Binz T Kopp O Ke pes K Leymann F Wettinger J. Hybrid TOSCA provisioning plans Integrating declarative and imperative cloud. application provisioning technologies In Proc CLOSER 2015 pp 239 262 2016. 7 Breitenbu cher U Binz T Kopp O Leymann F Vinothek a self service. portal for TOSCA In Proc ZEUS 2014 pp 72 75 2014, 8 Breitenbu cher U Binz T Kopp O Leymann F Schumm D Vino4TOSCA. A visual notation for application topologies based on TOSCA In Proc OTM. 2012 pp 416 424 2012, 9 Brogi A Canciani A Soldani J Modelling and analysing cloud application.
management In Proc ESOCC 2015 pp 19 33 2015, 10 Brogi A Cifariello P Soldani J DrACO Discovering available cloud offerings. Computer Science Research and Development 32 3 4 269 279 2017. 11 Brogi A Soldani J Matching cloud services with TOSCA In Proc ESOCC. 2013 pp 218 232 2013, 12 Brogi A Soldani J Finding available services in TOSCA compliant clouds Sci. ence of Computer Programming 115 116 177 198 2016, 13 Brogi A Soldani J Wang P TOSCA in a nutshell Promises and perspectives. In Proc ESOCC 2014 pp 171 186 2014, 14 Calcaterra D Cartelli V Di Modica G Tomarchio O Combining TOSCA. and BPMN to enable automated cloud service provisioning In Proc CLOSER. 2017 pp 159 168 2017, 15 Chareonsuk W Vatanawood W Formal verification of cloud orchestration de.
sign with TOSCA and BPEL In Proc ECTI CON 2016 pp 1 5 2016. 16 Da Silva A Breitenbu cher U Hirmer P Ke pes K Kopp O Leymann F. Mitschang B Steinke R Internet of things out of the box Using TOSCA for. automating the deployment of IoT environments In Proc CLOSER 2017 pp. 330 339 2017, 17 Di Martino B Cretella G Esposito A Defining cloud services workflow a. comparison between TOSCA and OpenStack Hot In Proc CISIS 2015 pp 541. 18 Dra xler S Karl H Mann Z A Joint optimization of scaling and placement of. virtual network services In Proc CCGrid 2017 pp 365 370 2017. 19 Haupt F Leymann F Nowak A Wagner S Lego4TOSCA Composable build. ing blocks for cloud applications In Proc CLOUD 2014 pp 160 167 2014. 20 Hirmer P Breitenbu cher U Binz T Leymann F Automatic topology comple. tion of TOSCA based cloud applications In Proc Informatik 2014 pp 247 258. 21 Katsaros G Menzel M Lenk A Rake Revelant J Skipp R Eberhardt J. Cloud application portability with TOSCA Chef and Openstack Experiences from. a proof of concept implementation In Proc IC2E 2014 pp 295 302 2014. 22 Kopp O Binz T Breitenbu cher U Leymann F BPMN4TOSCA A domain. specific language to model management plans for composite applications In Proc. BPMN 2012 pp 38 52 2012,8 J Bellendorf and Z A Mann. 23 Kopp O Binz T Breitenbu cher U Leymann F Winery a modeling tool for. TOSCA based cloud applications In Proc ICSOC 2013 pp 700 704 2013. 24 Kopp O Binz T Breitenbu cher U Leymann F Michelbach T A domain. specific modeling tool to model management plans for composite applications In. Proc ZEUS 2015 pp 51 54 2015, 25 Kostoska M Chorbev I Gusev M Creating portable TOSCA archive for iKnow. university management system In Proc FedCSIS 2014 pp 761 768 2014. 26 Li F Vo gler M Clae ens M Dustdar S Towards automated IoT application. deployment by a cloud based approach In Proc SOCA 2013 pp 61 68 2013. 27 Mann Z A Resource optimization across the cloud stack IEEE Transactions on. Parallel and Distributed Systems 29 1 169 182 2018. 28 Mann Z A Metzger A Optimized cloud deployment of multi tenant software. considering data protection concerns In Proc CCGrid 2017 pp 609 618 2017. 29 OASIS Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2 0 Apr. 2007 OASIS Standard, 30 OASIS Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications Version. 1 0 Nov 2013 http docs oasis open org tosca TOSCA v1 0 os TOSCA v1 0. os html OASIS Standard, 31 OMG Business Process Model and Notation BPMN Version 2 0 Jan 2011.
OMG Document Number formal 2011 01 03, 32 Palma D Rutkowski M Spatzier T TOSCA Simple Profile in YAML. Version 1 0 Dec 2016 http docs oasis open org tosca TOSCA Simple Profile. YAML v1 0 TOSCA Simple Profile YAML v1 0 html OASIS Standard. 33 Saatkamp K Breitenbu cher U Kopp O Leymann F Topology splitting and. matching for multi cloud deployments In Proc CLOSER 2017 pp 247 258 2017. 34 Franco da Silva A Hirmer P Breitenbu cher U Kopp O Mitschang B Cus. tomization and provisioning of complex event processing using TOSCA Computer. Science Research and Development pp 1 11 2017, 35 Soldani J Binz T Breitenbu cher U Leymann F Brogi A ToscaMart A. method for adapting and reusing cloud applications Journal of Systems and Soft. ware 113 395 406 2016, 36 Tsigkanos C Kehrer T On formalizing and identifying patterns in cloud work. load specifications In Proc WICSA 2016 pp 262 267 2016. 37 Waizenegger T Wieland M Binz T Breitenbu cher U Haupt F Kopp O. Leymann F Mitschang B Nowak A Wagner S Policy4TOSCA A policy. aware cloud service provisioning approach to enable secure cloud computing In. Proc OTM 2013 pp 360 376 2013, 38 Waizenegger T Wieland M Binz T Breitenbu cher U Leymann F Towards. a policy framework for the deployment and management of cloud services In Proc. SECURWARE 2013 pp 14 18 2013, 39 Wettinger J Behrendt M Binz T Breitenbu cher U Breiter G Leymann.
F Moser S Schwertle I Spatzier T Integrating configuration management. with model driven cloud management based on TOSCA In Proc CLOSER 2013. pp 437 446 2013, 40 Wettinger J Binz T Breitenbu cher U Kopp O Leymann F Zimmermann. M Unified invocation of scripts and services for provisioning deployment and. management of cloud applications based on TOSCA In Proc CLOSER 2014 pp. 559 568 2014, 41 Yongsiriwit K Sellami M Gaaloul W A semantic framework supporting cloud. resource descriptions interoperability In Proc CLOUD 2016 pp 585 592 2017. Cloud topology and orchestration using TOSCA 9, 42 Yoshida H Ogata K Futatsugi K Formalization and verification of declarative. cloud orchestration In Proc ICFEM 2015 pp 33 49 2015.

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