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Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels According to the. Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction FBP System. Third ten year Quebec forest survey program,Georges Pelletier F Eng. Jacques St Onge F Tech,Pierre Bordeleau F Tech,Pierre De Rainville F Tech. Francine Bart F Tech,mile Aubin Sp F Tech,Jean Fran ois Roy Sp F Tech. Gaston Therriault Sp F Tech,Soci t de protection des for ts contre le feu. Minist re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune. Direction de l environnement et de la protection des for ts. Quebec October 2009, MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program.
Contributors,Soci t de protection des for ts contre le feu. Fran ois Lefebvre Philippe Dion and Ga tan Lemaire. Minist re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune. Julie Fortin Nathalie Lavoie Michel Huot Louis Deschamps Yves Dumont Sylvie Delisle Justine Gilbert and. Sylvie Jean,Photo credits,St phane Chalifour and Jacques St Onge. English Translation,Valerie Leger C Tr,For further information. Minist re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune. Direction des communications,5700 4e Avenue Ouest bureau C 409. Qu bec Qu bec GlH 6R1,Telephone 418 627 8600 or 1 866 248 6936.
Fax 418 643 0720,E mail services clientele mrnf gouv qc ca. Website www mrnf gouv qc ca,Publication number DEPF 0319. Soci t de protection des for ts contre le feu SOPFEU. Jean Lesage International Airport,715 7e rue de l A roport. Qu bec Qu bec G2G 2S7,Telephone 418 871 3341,Website www sopfeu qc ca. This publication designed to be printed on both sides is available at the following website address in French. www mrnf gouv qc ca forets fimaq information fimaq information resultats combustible jsp. Reference French, Pelletier G et al 2009 Classification des peuplements forestiers en tant que combustibles.
selon la m thode canadienne de pr vision du comportement des incendies de for t Troisi me. programme d cennal d inventaire forestier du Qu bec Qu bec Soci t de protection des for ts. contre le feu et minist re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune Direction de l environnement. et de la protection des for ts 56 p, Keywords classification comportement feu for t incendie m thode protection pr vision Qu bec. French type de combustible,Reference English, Pelletier G et al 2009 Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels According to the Canadian. Forest Fire Behavior Prediction FBP System Third Ten Year Quebec Forest Survey Program. Qu bec Soci t de protection des for ts contre le feu et minist re des Ressources naturelles et. de la Faune Direction de l environnement et de la protection des for ts 51 p. Keywords classification fire forest fuel type method prediction protection Quebec. Government of Qu bec, Minist re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune 2009. Legal deposit Biblioth que et Archives nationales du Qu bec 2009. ISBN 978 2 550 58300 4, MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program. Data from Quebec s third ten year forest survey program became available in December 2001. The forest fuels working group was then able to start establishing links between forest stands. surveyed and types of forest fuels defined in the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction. FBP System The same type of work had already been done with data from the second ten. year forest survey program 1994 2001 Based on this work and the analysis of available data. it was possible to establish a new preliminary classification table of forest stands This table was. validated and corrected Then in the fall of 2007 we finished revising the classification rules. guidelines The entire project was seven years in the making. The forest fuels working group was made up of representatives from the Soci t de protection. des for ts contre le feu SOPFEU and the environmental and forest protection branch of the. Minist re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune MRNF They brought valuable and much. appreciated experience and expertise to the project Since 2001 some of the members of the. working group have left the MRNF for a well deserved retirement Their major contribution to. this classification has been acknowledged by naming them as co authors of this document We. would like to express our sincere gratitude for their involvement and professionalism. The classification method described in this document was developed after flying over forest land. many times analyzing all data gathered and holding several discussions with working group. members In addition several site visits were done The contribution of all members of the. working group was required to ensure that results met expectations Since these persons. experienced the project first hand they may not need this document as a reminder of their work. However to help the new generation of workers leave an account of the work accomplished. explain the approach taken and facilitate the next fuel classification this document is essential. Produit le 17 f vrier 2010, MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program.
Table of Contents,Introduction 1,1 Territory Surveyed 2. 2 Fuel Classification 3,3 Available Forest Data 3,4 Classification Process 3. 5 Classification Rules 6,5 1 Validation results 6,5 1 1 Mixedwood species groups 6. 5 1 2 Plantations 11,5 1 3 Forest stands affected by mortality 12. 5 1 4 Forest stands with lichen 16,5 1 5 Non regenerated burned areas 16.
5 1 6 Cutting with protection of regeneration and soils 16. 5 1 7 Species groups dominated by 10 year old jack pine regenerating and burned. area under 20 years old regenerated with jack pine 17. 5 1 8 Cedar and larch stands 17,5 1 9 Forest stands equivalent to C 3 17. 5 1 10 Type C 2 true and drainage class 17, 5 1 11 Regenerated or non regenerated wildlands 18. 5 1 12 Young softwood plantations with undetermined species 18. 6 Forest Fuel Classification Table 2009 19, 7 Comparison of 2001 and 2009 Classification Results 31. Conclusion 34, Appendix A Classification of forest stands as fuels Second ten year forest survey. program 35, Appendix B Classification of forest stands as fuels First ten year forest survey program 43.
Bibliography 50,Produit le 17 f vrier 2010, MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program. List of Tables and Figures, Table 1 Reconnaissance flight results for mixedwood species groups 8. Table 2 Reconnaissance flight results for softwood plantations 11. Table 3 Percentage of areas affected by a moderate or severe defoliation by. ecological sub region from 1967 to 2003 13, Table 4 Reference mortality year by ecological sub region 15. Table 5 Fuel classification table Third ten year forest survey program 2009 19. Table 6 Area occupied by fuels in intensive protection zone in 2001 and 2009 31. Table 7 Explanations for variations in results for 2001 and 2009 32. Table 8 Fuel classification table Second ten year forest survey program February. Table 9 Fuel classification table First ten year forest survey program July 2002 44. Figure 1 Reconnaissance flight zones and areas surveyed 2. Figure 2 Fuel classification process 5, Figure 3 Distribution of forest fuels in Qu bec in 2009 33. Produit le 17 f vrier 2010, MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program.
Introduction, Since 1995 the forest fuel working group has shared the results of its work to classify forest. stands as fuels Pelletier et al 1995 1999 and 2001 In 2001 the group published a. classification method developed using data from the second ten year Quebec forest survey. program The classification method presented in this document describes the one developed. following the completion of the third ten year forest survey program. After the second ten year forest survey program several changes in the forest situation forced. us to add new rules to the classification method Indeed the MRNF completely reviewed its way. of naming mixedwood stands and plantations Furthermore during the 1980s reforestation. efforts were stepped up with the objective of planting some 300 million seedlings per year. which led to the creation of 259 new forest species groups The ecological characteristics of. forest stands e g deposit drainage and presence of lichen were also added to the database. Because of all these changes we no longer had a base on which to classify stands resulting. from the third survey We often had to go back to square one to develop new rules. In this document you will find the results of our forest stand analysis along with the new. classification table which serves to determine fuel types prior to a fire The data used come from. the raster based forest information system known as SIFORT 1 To validate the classification of. forest stands the forest fuels working group carried out six forest reconnaissance flight. programs Many site visits were also made The results of these activities enabled us to prepare. a map of forest fuels for Quebec The new classification of forest stands as fuels is based on all. this work and work done in the past It is the logical next step. Although it is referred to in this document the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction System. FBP and the forest fuel types it uses are not described Further information on this system can. be found on the Canadian Forest Service Natural Resources Canada 2009 website. To document previous classification work Appendix A contains the table built using data from. the second ten year forest survey program This table includes the changes made since its. publication in September 2001 Appendix B contains the classification table built using data from. the first ten year forest survey program However this table has never been published To the. best of our knowledge it was developed in 2001 to meet a request to classify all available forest. 1 This system was developed by SOPFEU the MRNF and the Soci t de protection des for ts contre les insectes et les maladies SOPFIM. Produit le 17 f vrier 2010 1, MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program. 1 Territory Surveyed, Only forest land under timber supply and forest management agreements were surveyed for the. third ten year forest survey program from 1990 to 2001 This territory corresponds to the. intensive forest fire protection zone Figure 1 The limited protection zone was not surveyed. during this survey program However a certain portion was surveyed during the second. program Data from the second survey program continue to be valid and are still used in the. new forest stand classification method, To validate the classification of these stands six reconnaissance flight programs were carried. out between 2001 to 2007 The four zones West Centre East Lower St Lawrence Gasp. Peninsula covered by these reconnaissance flights are shown on the map below in Figure 1. Figure 1 Reconnaissance flight zones and territory surveyed. Produit le 17 f vrier 2010 2, MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program.
2 Fuel Classification, In 2001 three classes were established combining several fuel types of fuel These classes are. still valid and used in the new classification, Fuels defined in the Canadian FBP method class with types C 1 C 2 1 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6. C 7 D 1 M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 S 1 S 2 O 1a and O 1b, Fuels not defined in the Canadian FBP method class with among others burned areas. BR dry bare areas DS and cedar stands, Non fuels class with several elements such as water EA wet bare areas DH and. farmland AU,3 Available Forest Data, In 2001 to classify the province s forest stands data from the SIFORT2 system Minist re des.
Ressources naturelles et de la Faune 2009 were used For this new classification we not only. used data from the third ten year forest survey program which were also stored in SIFORT but. also some data from the second survey program This information gave us the type of forest. cover stand density and the species groups present before certain initial disturbances. The territory surveyed is classified considering not only productive and unproductive forest land. but also non forest land, The description and content of all data used in the forest stand classification table are found in. the SIFORT users guide Pelletier Dumont and B dard 2007 In French. 4 Classification Process, There are four steps in the forest stand classification process Figure 2 The first step is the. acquisition of original or updated forest data from SIFORT and historical data on forest fires. The second step is the classification of data according to preliminary and adjusted rules. where a series of variables or conditions are taken into account The third step is the. compilation of results which serve to build the forest fire information system SIIF establish. the vulnerability of the forest and calculate a fire s intensity or rate of spread The last step is. validation The results are verified at the site and with reconnaissance flights This work. enables us to validate or invalidate the classification rules and even to establish new ones. 1 For this type of fuel we found forest stands with the same structure as those of the C2 type in the Canadian FBP method However many species. groups of the softwood type cover were impossible to classify since they neither have the desired structure nor composition We therefore grouped. them together in the C 2 other C 2a fuel type as opposed to the true class C 2 C 2v When adding all C 2 areas without distinction over 77. are classified as C 2a, 2 This system is based on dividing up the territory into raster cells A raster cell is a territorial unit measuring 15 seconds of longitude by 15 seconds of. latitude Its average area is 14 ha,Produit le 17 f vrier 2010 3. MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program. About validation of results, When developing a classification method always ensure that the results obtained by applying.
established rules conform to what exists in the field Otherwise the method should be revised at. least partially, Our results were validated from the air since this technique is closest to aerial photography. vertical view of forest stands and fuel characteristics In addition during site visits the structure. of the forest cover was examined so we could determine the herbaceous shrub and tree strata. composition We took photographs from both the air and ground to confirm our findings for the. forest stands and fuel types observed, To validate the new forest stand classification we covered several management units. overlapping more than one ecological region four zones were flown over Figure 1 This. enabled us to test the method and see how reliable it was before applying it to all of Qu bec. The reconnaissance flights and validation process were only carried out for species groups with. significant presence We did not validate or locate strata that were rare in Qu bec forests. The species groups whose name was not changed between second and third ten year forest. survey program were not visited They were therefore subjected to the same classification rules. as those established with the second survey program This includes almost all deciduous forest. stands and certain softwood forest stands, The new classification method third ten year forest survey program was validated over several. years In 2002 we visited mixedwood forest stands softwood plantations with black spruce. white spruce Norway spruce white pine and red pine dry bare land with lichen in southern. part of territory black spruce stands with lichen and mixedwood or deciduous forest stands. invaded by alder or non commercial hardwoods In 2003 we continued examining mixedwood. forest stands dry bare land with lichen and spruce stands with lichen We looked at burned. areas on bedrock steep slope or till over 20 years old and under 20 years old In 2004 we. completed the classification of mixedwood forest stands We analyzed regeneration after cutting. in jack pine We flew over burned areas dry bare land with various deposits and bare land and. semi bare land in the ecological region west of Mistassini lake In 2005 we finished analyzing. dry bare lands with lichen cutting with protection of high regeneration or small merchantable. stems and young 10 year old jack pine stands We explored cedar and larch stands both at dry. and wet sites We classified forest stands meeting the criteria of type C2 true but for wet sites. Lastly we analyzed spruce stands with black spruce or fir and fir stands with balsam fir or black. spruce with densities over 60 and heights over 17 m We did not evaluate any stands in 2006. In 2007 we completed the rest of the third survey data by verifying the presence of grass and. shrubs in very young plantations and evaluating regenerated burned areas non regenerated. wildlands non regenerated areas that were cut with protection of regeneration and whose cover. before disturbances was not determined and young deciduous or mixedwood forest stands on. Produit le 17 f vrier 2010 4,Produit le 17 f vrier 2010. MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program. ACQUISITION CLASSIFICATION COMPILATION VALIDATION,UPDATED FOREST RESULTS VALIDATION.
DATA SIFORT RULES FUEL TYPES OF RESULTS, INPUT FUELS DEFINED IN THE CANADIAN VALIDATION PROCESS. TYPE OF LAND FBP SYSTEM, ECOLOGICAL REGION FUELS NOT DEFINED IN THE DIVERGENT BEHAVIOR OF A FOREST. INITIAL DISTURBANCE NUMBER OF CANADIAN FBP SYSTEM FIRE. HISTORICAL FOREST YEARS NON FUELS CHOICE OF TYPES OF FOREST STANDS. FIRE DATA TYPE OF DISTURBANCE NUMBER OF CHOICE OF MAPS. YEARS PLOTTING MAPS FOREST AND,TYPE OF COVER TOPOGRAPHICAL. SPECIES GROUP DATABASES CLASSIFICATION RECONNAISSANCE. DENSITY CLASS SIIF AND FLIGHT, HEIGHT CLASS MESONET QU BEC COMPILATION OF VALIDATION RESULTS. TYPE OF DEPOSIT,TYPE OF DRAINAGE,SLOPE CLASS,MORTALITY YEAR FUEL MAPS.
COVER SPECIES GROUP AND,DENSITY BEFORE CUT,NUMBER OF SOFTWOOD STEMS. VULNERABILITY OF,MUNICIPALITIES,MODIFICATION OF,Figure 2 Fuel classification process. MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program. 5 Classification Rules, The classification of forest stands is primarily based on forest stratification established by photo. interpreters cover species groups and sub groups density classes height classes age. classes disturbances initial disturbance surface deposits drainage classes ecological types. and types of terrain For more accurate results it is necessary to take into account forest stand. tables and the territory separated into ecological regions. According to the data of the third ten year forest survey program there are 39 species groups. with deciduous cover 15 in plantations 251 with mixedwoods 111 in plantations and 210 with. softwoods 133 in plantations To better classify some species groups certain additional. variables are used such as the ratio of softwoods number of softwood stems in relation to. total number of stems mortality number of years passed since an insect epidemic destroyed. a stand and age number of years or period passed since the last disturbance other than an. insect infestation, It should be pointed out that it takes 10 to 20 years for survey data to be updated and that. during this time forest stands evolve considerably To take this into account we introduced the. notion of fuel type evolution in the classification. In all some 109 rules were established to ensure forest fuels were classified properly. Classification rules that were established for a given stratum apply to all territory. 5 1 Validation Results,5 1 1 Mixedwood species groups.
This type of cover was completely revised during the third ten year forest survey program. However the percentage of softwoods 25 to 75 characterizing these groups was not. modified Two groups are possible and are differentiated by deciduous dominance and. softwood dominance, The way the groups are named was also modified For forest stands over 7 m high the first. letter or the two first letters in the name designate the dominant species of the group e g EBB. for spruce stand with white or gray birch and BBE1 for white birch stand with black or red. spruce Forest stands from 4 to 7 m high that are not associated with any species group but. are composed of deciduous and softwood species are identified by the letters MR softwood. dominant mixedwood species MF deciduous dominant mixedwood species and MX. mixedwood species regenerating, For the second ten year forest survey program we had already established different softwood. ratios corresponding to three modifiers each associated with a percentage of softwoods 35 55. and 70 M 1 35 M 1 55 and M 1 70 It is important to specify that fuel type M 1 becomes M 2. when leaves appear, Only species groups that are well represented in the four zones flown over west east centre. and Lower St Lawrence Gasp Peninsula were verified Table 1 We included strata with the. same composition or similar to it but which were not as well represented. Letters correspond to French names of stands,Produit le 17 f vrier 2010 6. MRNF Classification of Forest Stands as Fuels Third Quebec ten year forest survey program. All mixedwood species groups with white pine red pine or Eastern hemlock as a dominant. species or white pine or red pine as a companion species were classified as C 5 regardless of. the softwoods ratio Shrub and tree strata are not often present Their association with. deciduous tree species differentiate them from other mixedwood groups. The majority of deciduous dominant mixedwood species groups belong to types M 1 35 or M. 1 55 depending on the softwoods ratio As a result a deciduous dominant stratum will be. classified as M 1 35 provided that the ratio of softwoods is under 44 otherwise it will be M. 1 55 Pelletier et al 1995 1999 and 2001 When the area was flown over we identified ten. softwood dominant mixedwood strata RBJ RBJ RFT CBJ CBJ REO RER RFH RFI. and RPE that meet the same rules, The other softwood dominant species groups except those stated previously were mostly.
classified as M 1 70 However when the softwood ratio was under 60 the stand was. classified as M 1 55 Pelletier et al 1995 1999 and 2001. Lastly mixedwood groups regenerating designated as MF were classified as M 1 35 Those. called MR were classified M 1 70 whereas MX remained in the generic class M 1 55.

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