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CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Springer
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Circuits and Systems for Wireless,Communications,Markus Helfenstein. George S Moschytz,Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS,NEW YORK BOSTON DORDRECHT LONDON MOSCOW. eBook ISBN 0 306 47303 8,Print ISBN 0 792 37722 2,2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. New York Boston Dordrecht London Moscow,All rights reserved.
No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic. mechanical recording or otherwise without written consent from the Publisher. Created in the United States of America,Visit Kluwer Online at http www kluweronline com. and Kluwer s eBookstore at http www ebooks kluweronline com. Part I RF System Integration,RF System Integration 3. Chris Toumazou,1 1 Introduction to the following papers 3. References 7, RF System Board Level Integration for Mobile Phones 9. Gordon J Aspin,2 1 Introduction 9,2 2 Design approach 10.
2 3 Key GSM system specs 10,2 3 1 Transmitter phase error 10. 2 3 2 Transmitter modulation spectrum 11,2 3 3 Transmitter noise in the receiver band 11. 2 3 4 Receiver blocking vs sensitivity 13,2 4 Architecture choices 13. 2 5 Results 17,2 5 1 Transmitter phase error 17,2 5 2 Transmitter modulation spectrum 18. 2 5 3 Receive sensitivity 19,2 5 4 Blocking performance 20.
2 6 Future options 21,Integration of RF Systems on a Chip 23. Peter J Mole,3 1 RF issues 23,3 1 1 Receiver concerns 23. 3 1 2 Transmitter concerns 25,3 2 Radio architectures 26. 3 2 1 Receiver architectures 26, vi CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS. 3 2 2 Transmitter architectures 29,3 2 3 Architectures overview 31.
3 3 Some design issues 32,3 3 1 Power supply and ground coupling 32. 3 3 2 Substrate coupling 33,3 3 3 On chip oscillators 34. References 35, Towards the Full Integration of Wireless Front End Circuits 37. Michiel Steyaert,4 1 Introduction 38,4 2 Technology 38. 4 3 Fully integrated CMOS down converters 39,4 4 The synthesiser 41.
4 5 RF CMOS up converters 43,4 6 Fully integrated CMOS transceivers 45. 4 7 Conclusions 45,References 46, GSM Transceiver Front End Circuits in 0 25 m CMOS 49. Qiuting Huang Paolo Orsatti and Francesco Piazza,5 1 Introduction 49. 5 2 Transceiver architecture and relevant GSM specifications 50. 5 3 Low noise amplifier 53,5 3 1 Input stage 54,5 3 2 Output stage 58. 5 4 Single and double balanced mixer 60,5 5 The transmitter preamplifier 62.
5 6 Power consumption 64,5 7 Measured results 64,5 8 Conclusions 68. References 69,Part II RF Front End Circuits,RF Front End Circuits 73. Qiuting Huang,6 1 Introduction to the following papers 73. Phase Noise to Carrier Ratio in LC Oscillators 75,Qiuting Huang. 7 1 Introduction 76,Contents vii, 7 2 The weaknesses of existing phase noise models 77.
7 2 1 Linear frequency domain analyses with noise sources. additive to the carrier signal 77, 7 2 2 Linear frequency domain analyses with noise sources. additive to the phase of the carrier 79, 7 2 3 Time domain analyses with noise sources additive to. the carrier signal 80, 7 2 4 Time domain analyses with noise sources additive to. the phase of the carrier 80, 7 3 General description of LC oscillator operation and determina. tion of oscillation amplitude 81, 7 4 Oscillator response to an interfering current 91.
7 5 Noise to carrier ratio in a CMOS colpitts oscillator 97. 7 6 Exact design of RF oscillators 102,7 7 Conclusions 104. References 106, Design Study of a 900 MHz 1 8 GHz CMOS Transceiver for Dual 109. Band Applications,Behzad Razavi,8 1 Introduction 109. 8 2 Receiver design considerations 110,8 3 Receiver building blocks 113. 8 3 1 LNA mixer 113,8 3 2 IF mixer 114,8 4 Transmitter design considerations 116.
8 5 Transmitter building blocks 121,8 5 1 First up conversion 121. 8 5 2 SSB modulator 123,8 5 3 Differential to Single Ended Converter 124. 8 5 4 Output buffer 125,8 6 Conclusion 125,References 126. Integrated Wireless Transceiver Design 127,Mihai Banu Carlo Samori Jack Glas and John Khoury. 9 1 Introduction 127, 9 2 Integrated transceiver conventional wisdom 128.
9 3 IF sampling Conditions and limitations 131,9 4 Band pass A D conversion 136. 9 5 Conclusions 137,References 138, Transmitter Concepts Integration and Design Trade Offs 141. viii CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS. Stefan Heinen and Stefan Herzinger,10 1 Introduction 141. 10 2 GSM transmitter requirements 142,10 3 Basic GMSK TX architectures 144. 10 3 1 Direct modulation 144,10 3 2 IF modulation 149.
10 3 3 Modulation loop 149,10 4 Implementation results 152. 10 5 Conclusions and future requirements 154,References 155. RF Challenges for Tomorrow s Wireless Terminals 157. Petteri Alinikula,11 1 Introduction 157,11 2 Capacity for wireless multimedia 158. 11 3 Multiple radios in one unit 160,11 4 The smaller the better 161. 11 5 for the lowest cost 162,11 6 Conclusions 163,Part III Wideband Conversion for Software Radio.
Wideband Conversion for Software Radio 169,Jos E Franca. 12 1 Introduction to the following papers 169,References 172. Wide band Sub Sampling A D Conversion with Image Rejection 173. C Azeredo Leme Ricardo Reis and Eduardo Viegas,13 1 Introduction 173. 13 2 Oversampled architectures 175,13 3 Power dissipation issues 176. 13 4 IF sampling architectures 178,13 5 Image rejection sub samplinq ADC 178.
13 5 1 Case study 181,13 6 Digital tuning 182,13 7 Architecture simulation 182. 13 8 Conclusions 185,References 185,Wide band A D Conversion for Base Stations 187. Raf L J Roovers,Contents ix,14 1 Introduction 187,14 2 Performance metrics for A D converters 188. 14 3 Receiver architecture and ADC specification 190. 14 4 Case study 193,14 5 Conclusions 196,References 196. Low Spurious ADC Architectures for Software Radio 197. Bang Sup Song,15 1 Introduction 197, 15 1 1 Technical challenges in digital wireless 199.
15 1 2 ADC state of the art 199,15 2 Techniques for High Resolution ADCs 200. 15 3 Outlook 204,15 4 Conclusions 210,References 210. Part IV Process Technologies for Future RF Systems. Process Technologies for Future RF Sytsems 215,16 1 Introduction to the following papers 215. Low Cost Si and Si Si1 xGex Heterostructure BiCMOS 217. Technologies for Wireless Applications,Clifford A King. 17 1 Introduction 218,17 2 Silicon BiCMOS 218,17 2 1 High energy implanted sub collector 218.
17 3 Lateral etching and amorphous Si refilling process 218. 17 4 Si Si 1 r Ge r heterostructure bipolar transistors 222. 17 4 1 Epitaxial growth and material properties of Si1 xGex 223. 17 4 2 Si1 xGex bipolar transistor structures 225,17 5 Summary 228. References 229, GaAs Based RFIC Technology for Consumer Radios 231. Rob Christ,18 1 The RF integration paradigm is different 232. 18 2 Where is RF integration being used 232,18 3 GaAs for mobile power applications 233. 18 4 GaAs in mobile receivers 235, X CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS.
18 5 Testing the assumptions 235, 18 6 Advantages disadvantages of different RFIC technologies 238. 18 7 Predicting the future Where are consumer radios going 238. 18 8 Low tech GaAs MESFETs Cost effective RF integration 240. 18 9 Conclusion 241, Monolithic Integrated Transceiver Circuits for GHz Frequencies 245. Urs Lott and Werner B chtold,19 1 Some myths about RF integrated circuits 245. 19 1 1 Is using a single technology an advantage 245. 19 1 2 Present technologies for RF integrated circuits 246. 19 1 3 Technology choices for baseband circuits 248. 19 1 4 Pros and cons of complete integration 248,19 2 Examples of GHz transceiver circuits 249. 19 2 1 Low noise amplifiers in the 2 GHz range 249. 19 2 2 5 GHz LNA with switch for antenna diversity 251. 19 2 3 17 GHz PHEMT power amplifier 253,19 3 Conclusions 257.
References 259,Part V DSP for Wireless Communications. DSP for Wireless Communications 263,Urs Fawer and Gertjan Kaat. 20 1 Introduction to the following papers 263,20 2 Trends 264. 20 3 Presentation overview 264,Efficient Design Flow for Fixed Point Systems 265. Holger Keding Martin Coors and Heinrich Meyr,21 1 Introduction 266.
21 2 The FRIDGE design flow 268,21 3 Fixed C and local annotations 269. 21 3 1 The data type Fixed 270,21 3 2 The data type fixed 270. 21 3 3 Interpolator directives 272,21 4 Interpolation 272. 21 4 1 Maximum precision interpolation 272, 21 4 2 Utilisation of statistical knowledge for interpolation 273. 21 5 Back ends 274,21 5 1 ANSI C and fast simulation back end 275.
21 6 Conclusion 276,References 277,Contents xi,R E A L DSP 279. E Lambers C Moerman P Kievits J Walkier and R Woudsma. 22 1 Introduction 280,22 2 Towards a new DSP architecture 280. 22 3 The R E A L DSP architecture 281,22 4 The R E A L DSP instruction set 283. 22 5 R E A L DSP development tools 285,22 6 R E A L DSP ASIC implementation 285. 22 7 R E A L DSP facts and figures 286,References 287.
Dedicated VLSI Architectures 289,Bruno Haller,23 1 Introduction 290. 23 2 The art of VLSI signal processing 291,23 3 Overview on smart antennas 292. 23 4 QRD RLS algorithm and systolic architectures 294. 23 4 1 QRD RLS algorithm 296, 23 4 2 Hardware implementation of the QRD RLS algorithm 297. 23 4 3 Application to temporal reference beamforming 303. 23 4 4 Simulation results 305, 23 5 Application to adaptive DS CDMA receivers 309. 23 6 Summary and conclusions 311,References 311, Evolution of Speech Coding for Wireless Communications 317.
Gilles Miet,24 1 Overview 318,24 2 Narrow band AMR 319. 24 2 1 Need for a new standard 319, 24 2 2 Variable bit rates for speech and channel codecs 319. 24 2 3 Complexity performance compromise of the AMR 321. 24 3 Multi mode AMR 321,24 4 Wide band AMR 322,24 4 1 Wide band versus narrow band quality 322. 24 4 2 Minimum bandwidth for speech to sound wide band 323. 24 5 Conclusion 323,References 324,Digital Signal Processing and DSP 325. Javier Sanchez,25 1 Introduction 326,25 1 1 DSP functions and applications 326.
xii CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS. 25 1 2 Characteristics of digital signal processing 327. 25 1 3 Characteristics of digital signal processors 329. 25 2 Benchmarks of digital signal processing routines 330. 25 2 1 Standard benchmark routines 330,25 2 2 DSP architectural features 331. 25 2 3 Evolution of features for DSP implementation 332. 25 2 4 General purpose versus application specific DSPs 333. 25 3 Conclusion 333,References 334,Part VI Blind Channel Equalization. Blind Channel Equalization 337,Ruey wen Liu,26 1 Introduction to the following papers 337. References 339,Adaptive Interference Suppression 341. H Vincent Poor,27 1 Introduction 342,27 2 Signal model 342.
27 3 Adaptive MOE detection 344,27 4 Adaptive subspace detection 345. 27 5 Enhancements 346,References 348, Channel Estimation and Equalization in Wireless ATM 351. 28 1 Introduction 352,28 2 Wireless ATM 353,28 2 1 Switching 353. 28 2 2 Wireless ATM 355, 28 3 Channel estimation and equalization in wireless ATM 356. 28 3 1 PACE Protocol aided channel equalization 357. 28 4 Conclusion 361,References 363, Blind Separation and Combination of High Rate QAM Signals 365.
John Treichler C R Johnson Jr and S L Wood,29 1 Introduction 365. 29 2 Three related interference problems 366,29 3 A solution 370. Contents xiii,29 4 Performance 371,29 5 Conclusions 372. References 373,Glossary 375, This book contains revised contributions by the speakers of the 1st IEEE Workshop on. Wireless Communication Circuits and Systems held in Lucerne Switzerland from. June 22 24 1998 The aim of the workshop was to apply the vast expertise of the. CAS Society in the area of circuit and system design to the rapidly growing field of. wireless communications The workshop combined presentations by invited experts. from academia and industry with panel and informal discussions The following topics. were covered, RF System Integration single chip systems CMOS RF circuits.
RF Front End Circuits CMOS RF oscillators broadband design techniques. Wideband Conversion for Software Radio A D conversion issues wideband sub. sampling low spurious A D conversion, Process Technologies for Future RF Systems Si SiGe GaAs CMOS packaging. technologies, DSP for Wireless Communications DSP algorithms fixed point systems DSP for. baseband applications, Blind Channel Equalization adaptive interference suppression design techniques. channel estimation, The workshop was a great success with over 130 participants from 19 countries. from the U S to Europe and Asia including a large contingent of participants from. industry 60 Feedback from the participants showed that the carefully selected. combination of tutorial like lectures with lectures on specialized and advanced topics. was a feature of the workshop that was particularly appreciated Due to the relatively. strong involvement of industry both in the form of lecturers and listeners a high. level of discussion was attained in both panel sessions an. Integration of RF Systems on a Chip Peter J 13 5 1 Case study 13 X CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 235 238 238 240 241 245 245 245 246 248

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