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CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook
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Notice of Disclaimer, This Energy Efficiency Handbook has been prepared by the Council of Industrial. Boiler Owners CIBO Neither CIBO nor any of its members nor any person acting. on behalf of them make any representation or warranty whatsoever whether express. or implied or assume any legal liability regarding the completeness or accuracy of the. information contained herein with respect to the use of any information apparatus. method process or similar item disclosed in this handbook including merchantability. and fitness for a particular purpose or that any such use does not infringe on or inter. fere with privately owned rights including any party s intellectual property. Furthermore neither CIBO nor any of its members nor any person acting on behalf of. them assume any responsibility resulting from any person s selection or use of this re. port or of any information apparatus method process or similar item described in. this report Reference to any specific commercial product process or service by trade. name trademark manufacturer or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorse. ment recommendation or favoring The views and opinions of the authors expressed. herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government any. state government or any federal or state agency thereof Any person wishing to use the. information technologies or procedures described herein should consult with a quali. fied expert to ascertain their fitness for the intended use. November 1997, Copyright 1997 Council of Industrial Boiler Owners. All rights reserved The reproduction of this work in any form whether by copying in. printed or machine format including xerography photocopy sound recording or ma. chine readable format and in any information storage and or retrieval system is strictly. prohibited without the prior written approval of the publisher. ii Council of Industrial Boiler Owners, Table of Contents. List of Figures and Tables v, Acknowledgments vii, Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Chapter 2 Water Treatment 3, Boiler Water Problems 3.
Deposit Related Problems 3, Corrosion Related Problems 5. Boiler Water Treatment 7, Benefits From a Proper Water Treatment Program 11. Operator s Checklist for Water Treatment Systems Maintenance 11. Chapter 3 Combustion 13, Air Infiltration 13, Combustion Air Temperature 13. Fuel and Air Linkages 14, Types of Combustion Systems and Their Particular Requirements 14. Operator s Checklist for Combustion Systems Efficiency and Maintenance 18. Chapter 4 Boilers 19, Boiler Efficiency 19, Conservation of Energy 19.
Heat Loss Sources 19, Turbulators and Firetube Boilers 21. Operator s Checklist for Efficient Boiler Operation and Maintenance 21. Chapter 5 Controls 25, Burner Controls 25, Supervisory Monitoring and Control Strategies 29. Chapter 6 Heat Recovery 33, Economizers 33, Air Heaters 33. Other Sources of Heat Recovery 34, Energy Efficiency Handbook iii. Chapter 7 Auxiliaries 35, Boiler Feedwater Pumps 35.
Motors and Turbines 36, Electronic Motor Drives 36. Materials Handling Equipment 37, Boiler Sootblowers 37. Cogeneration 38, Sale of Excess Electricity 39, Chapter 8 Energy Auditing 41. Steam Systems 41, Steam Utilization 41, Cooling Towers 41. Compressed Air 42, Chapter 9 Flue Gas Treatment 43.
NOx Reduction Techniques 43, Solid Particle Removal 44. Chapter 10 Steam Systems 47, General Operational Procedures 47. Steam Traps 48, Insulation 48, Pressure 49, Chapter 11 Compressed Air Systems and Diesel Engine Power Cogeneration 51. Operator s Checklist for Compressed Air Systems 52. Diesel Engine Power Cogeneration 52, Chapter 12 Electrical Distribution Systems 55. Monitoring and Metering Techniques 56, Chapter 13 Cooling Systems 57.
Cooling Tower Inspection Process 57, Energy Efficiency in Cooling Tower Operations 58. Appendix A Excess Air Levels 59, Appendix B Savings Possible through Heat Recovery on Continuous Blowdown. and Improved Blowdown Control 61, Appendix C References 63. iv Council of Industrial Boiler Owners, List of Figures and Tables. 2 1 Effects of boiler scale on tube metal temperature 4. 2 2 Effect of CaSO4 scale on high heat flux boiler plate 5. 2 3 Clarifier 7, 2 4 Two bed demineralizer 8, 2 5 Deaerator 8.
3 1 Underfeed stoker 16, 3 2 Spreader stoker 17, 3 3 Mass feed stoker 17. 4 1 Heat loss sources in a stoker boiler 19, 4 2 Operator s log for twice daily readings 22. 4 3 Operator s log for hourly readings 22, 5 1 Typical computer monitored metered combustion control system 26. 5 2 Carbon monoxide content compared to a preset point 27. 5 3 Relationship between boiler efficiency steam cost and incremental steam cost 31. 7 1 Static pressure rise and power versus air flow 38. 7 2 Industrial steam electric cogeneration system thermal efficiency 80 to 90 38. 7 3 Industrial combination turbine combined cycle cogeneration system thermal. efficiency 80 to 90 39, 7 4 Generation and cogeneration operation and benefits comparisons 39. 11 1 An ebullient system 53, 12 1 Electrical power distribution system 55.
B 1 The production of flash steam from boiler breakdown 61. 2 1 Solubility of chemical compounds 3, 2 2 Suggested water chemistry limits industrial watertube high duty primary fuel fired. drum type boilers materials upstream of attemperation water source 6. 3 1 Effects of air properties 13, 3 2 NOx formation and control 15. 5 1 Comparison of centralized vs distributed control systems 25. 10 1 Estimate of steam losses 49, 13 1 Cooling tower check list 58. A 1 Typical boiler efficiencies for common fuels as a function of excess air 60. Energy Efficiency Handbook v, This page intentionally left blank. vi Council of Industrial Boiler Owners, Acknowledgments.
The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners CIBO wishes to express its sincere appreciation to. the members of the CIBO Energy Efficiency Subcommittee for their direction and insight into. the process of preparing this Energy Efficiency Handbook to Ted Jones and the Alliance to Save. Energy for their support and contributions to Neil Johnson recently retired from SFT Engi. neering and formerly with Detroit Stoker Company for his detailed reading and editorial com. ments and to Ronald A Zeitz the editor of the handbook who pulled everything together and. turned it into a publication that will be extremely useful to the members of our profession. Finally and most importantly we would like to thank the many CIBO members too numerous. to mention who participated in the preparation of this handbook and also their employers for. allowing these members to contribute freely of their time and expertise. Energy Efficiency Handbook vii, This page intentionally left blank. viii Council of Industrial Boiler Owners, Chapter 1 Introduction. he Energy Efficiency Handbook was pre Auditing contains a summary checklist of. pared to help owner operators get the energy saving tips. best and most energy efficient perform Chapters are supported by graphic diagrams. ance out of their boiler systems This manual and charts for a better understanding of what is. gives information and helpful operational tips on being discussed. virtually every aspect of boiler operation from The publication of this Handbook by the. Water Treatment through Combustion and Heat Council of Industrial Boiler Owners CIBO is be. Recovery to Flue Gas Treatment and Cogenera lieved to be the first of its kind and as such. tion could benefit from comments by its readers, It is written in a style that is easy to under Please feel free to let us know what you think of. stand and minimizes technical description In this first time effort including additional mate. some instances there is a necessity to explain why rial you feel should be included We will consider. certain actions occur and why to help the reader your suggestions in future revisions. understand how to minimize energy consump, tion and increase boiler efficiency. Since each boiler system is unique much of Council of Industrial Boiler Owners CIBO. the material is general in nature written to rep 6035 Burke Center Parkway 360. resent the majority of operational components Burke Virginia 22015. Each chapter concludes with a checklist of sug Phone 703 250 9042. gested actions for maximizing efficiency where Fax 703 239 9042. appropriate In addition Chapter 8 Energy World Wide Web http www cibo org. Energy Efficiency Handbook 1, Chapter 2 Water Treatment.
ater is the essential medium for steam Compound ppm as CaCO3. generation Conditioning it properly, Calcium 32 F O C 212 F 100 C. can increase the efficiency of the boiler, as well as extend the boiler s life Treating boiler Bicarbonate 1 620 decomposes. water also insures safe and reliable operation Carbonate 15 13. without proper treatment severe problems can Sulfate 1 290 1 250. develop some so severe that the boiler itself can, be destroyed. This chapter will describe some of the more Bicarbonate 37 1 decomposes. common and severe water related problems that Carbonate 101 75. occur in industrial boilers and follows with a dis Sulfate 170 000 356 000. cussion on proper boiler water treatment, Each boiler and its water supply represents a Sodium. unique situation The information given here is a Bicarbonate 38 700 decomposes. generalized discussion it is important to enlist Carbonate 61 400 290 000. the help of experts such as water service compa, Chloride 225 000 243 000.
nies or consultants to select the proper water, treatment equipment and chemicals or to modify Hydroxide 370 000 970 000. an existing program to increase boiler efficiency Sulfate 33 500 210 000. and reduce corrosion, Table 2 1 Solubility of Chemical Compounds. Boiler Water Problems, gases and boiler water It can drop a boiler s effi. Boiler water problems generally fall into two ciency by as much as 10 12. classes deposit related and corrosion related Scale forms as the solubilities of the scale. Because the two often interact it is very common forming salts in water decreases and the tem. to find a boiler experiencing both simultane perature and concentrations of the salts in. ously There are many instances where deposits creases When feedwater is elevated to boiler. cause corrosion and corrosion causes deposits It water temperature the solubility of the scale. is important to avoid both problems forming salts is decreased and solid scale begins. to form on the boiler systems See Table 2 1, Removing calcium and magnesium or other. Deposit Related Problems deposit forming materials from the feedwater be. fore they enter the boiler system is the best way to. Boiler Scale prevent scaling Small amounts of hardness cal. cium plus magnesium can be effectively treated in, One of the most common deposit problems is the boiler and related system components by using.
boiler scale This happens when calcium magne boiler water treatment products such as chelates. sium and silica common in most water supplies polymers and or phosphates Scale formation also. react with tube metal found in boilers to form a occurs in economizers feedwater pumps and re. hard scale on the interior of the boiler tubes re lated service lines It also forms in low pressure boil. ducing heat transfer and lowering the boiler s ef ers where no pre treatment or poorly maintained. ficiency If allowed to accumulate boiler scale treatment chemicals boiler water treatment prod. can eventually cause the tubes to overheat and ucts or pretreatment chemicals such as sodium zeo. rupture Scaling is one of the leading causes of lite are used It is not normally found in boiler. boiler tube failures Scale is equivalent to having systems where demineralization is used or in high. a thin film of insulation between the furnace pressure high purity systems. Energy Efficiency Handbook 3, Silica control can be done through pretreat. ment and proper boiler blowdown and in low, pressure boilers by maintaining at least a 3 1 ra. tio of hydrate alkalinity to silica in the boiler wa. Effects of Boiler Scale, The chemical structure of the scale it s porosity. and the design and operational method of the, boiler all influence the amount of heat lost For. example 1 8 inch 3mm of scale can cause a, 2 0 3 0 loss in fire tube boilers and water tube.
A second but more serious effect from scale is, the overheating of boiler tube metal causing. eventual tube failure In modern boilers with, Figure 2 1 Effects of boiler scale on tube metal tempera high heat transfer rates even extremely thin lay. ture ers of scale will cause a serious elevation in the. temperature of tube material This is dramati, cally shown in Figure 2 1. Large amounts of hardness that cannot be A third serious effect of scale formation is lo. successfully treated using boiler water treatment calized corrosion Boilers with high heat transfer. products must be treated by some other process rates above 75 000 Btu sqft hr Effective Projected. Radiant Surface EPRS are subject to localized, Silica Scale corrosion a situation where the deposits are ac. tually causing the corrosion This is a good ex, Silica scale is another kind of scale that affects ample of the interaction between deposit related.
boilers much in the same manner as calcium and and corrosion related boiler water problems Sec. magnesium scale Silica is found in most water ondary corrosion is particularly present in sys. This Energy Efficiency Handbook has been prepared by the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners CIBO Neither CIBO nor any of its members nor any person acting on behalf of them make any representation or warranty whatsoever whether express or implied or assume any legal liability regarding the completeness or accuracy of the information contained herein with respect to the use of any

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