Chomsky S Universal Grammar And Halliday S Systemic-Books Pdf

Chomsky s Universal Grammar and Halliday s Systemic
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Mohammad Bavali and Firooz Sadighi, sequence Grammars then could be viewed as seeing the language as knowledge of. either primarily syntagmatic relations among linguistic constituents or. predominantly paradigmatic relations among linguistic items The former has led to. grammars such as Markov s Finite State grammar structural descriptive. linguistics and Chomsky s generative transformational grammar now UG and the. latter has given rise to Firth s London school of linguistics Jakobson s Prague. school of linguistics and Halliday s systemic functional linguistics see Lyons. 1981 and Sampson 1980, Two theories of those just mentioned have attracted most attention and have. been frequently addressed and employed in literature on both linguistics and applied. linguistics They are Chomsky s Universal Grammar and Halliday s Systemic. Functional Linguistics These two theories have been initiated and developed almost. independently and each has been successful in accounting for aspects of language. from a particular perspective However they seem to stand more in a. complementary position with respect to each other than in a confronting stance. against one another The following lines bear an account of these two theories of. language their merits and inadequacies and the way in which each would. contribute to the completion of the other, 2 Chomsky s Universal Grammar. In Chomskyan tradition grammar of a language is an account of the grammatical. competence rather than performance of the native speakers of that language. Grammatical competence is defined as the native speakers tacit knowledge of the. grammar of their language Chomsky 1965 Native speakers grammatical. competence is determined by eliciting their intuitions about grammaticality of. sentences generated in their own language known as grammaticality judgments. and about the interpretation of sentences e g realizing ambiguous or paraphrase. forms etc ibid A grammar is said to be descriptively adequate if it yields the. same statements about the un grammaticality and interpretations of the sentences. as the native speakers of that language do A Universal Grammar however is not. an account of the grammar of an individual language e g English or French It is. more precisely a theory of grammar it is in Radford s 1997 words a set of. hypotheses about the nature of possible and impossible grammars of natural i e. human languages p 5 It follows that any grammar could be descriptively. adequate if and only if it describes the properties of the intended language in. accordance with and from among those universal properties already predicted and. devised within the theory of Universal Grammar This gives rise to one further. criterion that of universality The second criterion of adequacy for grammars is that. of explanatory adequacy A theory of Universal Grammar henceforth UG is said. to be explanatorily adequate if it could successfully explain why it contains the. properties it does, In addition to all these criteria there are still three more conditions to be. satisfied by a theory of UG one that any theory of UG must be restrictive in nature. that is the descriptive power of the UG must not be so unlimited that its descriptive. Chomsky s UG and Halliday s Systemic Functional Linguistics. devices could describe as well the artificial languages e g computer and. mathematics languages or other human and non human communication systems. One more criterion of adequacy that a theory of language must meet is the. learnability principle which assumes that a linguistic theory is adequate if and only. if the grammar it generates could be easily learned by children in a relatively short. period of time just as they normally do in early childhood In other words the. grammar must be as simple as possible These have led to a new movement within. UG beginning in 1990s by Chomsky himself which aims at minimizing the. theoretical and descriptive devices in devising grammatical properties of natural. languages in favor of maximizing the simplicity and hence learnability of the. grammar This movement is known as Minimalism, Closely associated with a theory of UG is the problem of explicating the.
acquisition of grammar known as the Logical Problem Hawkins 2001 p 1 Foster. Cohen 1999 p 5 It addresses the important question of how children acquire the. grammar of their language the initial stage so rapidly and uniformly in a. remarkably short period of time at around the age of 18 months up to around 30. months A second problem known as the developmental problem concerns the. way s in which children go through other stages transition and final stage of. learning ibid Chomsky s explanation for such phenomena is that children are. genetically predisposed with an innate language faculty which facilitates the. acquisition of language This innate language faculty is what Chomsky conceives of. as UG which comprises a set of implicit abstract principles that govern the. grammatical operations allowed and not allowed in all natural languages Examples. of such principles are structure dependence principle which holds that all. grammatical operations are structure dependent i e they are according to Radford. ibid p 15 sensitive to the grammatical structure of the sentences they apply to. To account for the observed differences across languages in their. grammatical structure UG has incorporated into its structure a number of language. specific variations which children have to learn as part of the task of acquiring. their native language Thus language acquisition involves not only lexical learning. but also some structural learning ibid p 16 These grammatical variations are. referred to as parameters It follows that while some aspects of the grammatical. structure of languages are determined by innate grammatical principles which will. not have to be learned by children some others have to be acquired as parametric. variations across languages In other words structural learning will be limited to. parameterized aspects of structure p 16 Examples of parameters include null. subject parameter according to which some languages Italian Spanish Irish. Chinese etc are null subject i e their finite verbs license either overt or covert. null subjects while others are non null subject languages French English etc. that is finite verbs in such languages license only overt subjects not null subjects. One important point to consider is that there are genetic constraints on the range of. structural parametric variation allowed in different languages so that in principle. all parametric variations appear to oscillate along a binary choice with only two. possible settings and that any language allows for only one uniform possibility. Mohammad Bavali and Firooz Sadighi, and not a combination of both no single language with some forms set to one value. and others set to the other, Word order is an important aspect of grammatical structure which is. parameterized along various constructions One such constructions makes up the. wh parameter which determines whether wh expressions can be fronted or not. Another type of word order variation is called the head position parameter which. states that languages vary in terms of the relative position of heads with respect to. their complements within phrases while English is a head first language Japanese. is a head last language, In light of the above one can generalize that the only structural learning. which children face in acquiring their native language is the task of determining the. appropriate value for each of the relevant structural parameters along which. languages vary p 20, 3 Halliday s Systemic Functional Linguistics. Systemic Functional Grammar or Linguistics first introduced by Michael Halliday. 1985 refers to a new approach to the study of grammar that is radically different. from the traditional view in which language is a set of rules for specifying. grammatical structures In this view language is a resource for making meanings. and hence grammar is a resource for creating meaning by means of wording. Halliday Matthiessen 1999 p 3 clarify their position with respect to SFL as. For the task of constructing such a meaning base we shall use a. systemic grammar A systemic grammar is one of the class of functional. grammars which means among other things that it is semantically. motivated or natural In contradistinction to formal grammars which. are autonomous and therefore semantically arbitrary in a systemic. grammar every category and category is used here in the general. sense of an organizing theoretical concept not in the narrower sense of. calss as in formal grammar is based on meaning it has a semantic as. well as a formal lexico grammatical reactance, To capture the essence of the distinction between grammar and theories of.
grammar Halliday and Matthiessen 1997 1999 call the latter grammatics They. further underscore the need for a richer theory of grammar i e SFL claiming that. the traditional grammar as rule type of theory falls far short of the demands that. are now being made on grammatical theories, At this stage in history we need a richer theory of grammar to meet the. challenges of the age of information e g in education and in. computation Halliday and Matthiessen 1997 p 1, Chomsky s UG and Halliday s Systemic Functional Linguistics. Unlike the grammar as rule type of theory SFL takes the resource. perspective rather than the rule perspective and it is designed to display the overall. system of grammar rather than only fragments That s why it has come to be known. as a Systemic Functional Grammar In Halliday s 1985 p xiv terms. The theory behind the present account is known as systemic theory. Systemic theory is a theory of meaning as choice by which a language. or any other semiotic system is interpreted as networks of interlocking. options whatever is chosen in one system becomes the way into a set. of choices in another and go on as far as we need to or as far as we can. in the time available or as far as we know how, In Systemic Functional Linguistics clause rather than sentence is the unit. of analysis In Systemic theory a clause is a unit in which meanings of three. different kinds are combined Three distinct structures each expressing one kind of. semantic organization are mapped onto one another to produce a single wording. These semantic structures are referred to as Meta functions. i The interpersonal meta function is concerned with the interaction. between speaker and addressee the grammatical resources for enacting. social roles in general and speech roles in particular in dialogic. interaction i e for establishing changing and maintaining. interpersonal relations The building blocks of this semantic function. configure as Subject Finite Predicator and Complement. ii The ideational meta function is concerned with ideation grammatical. resources for construing our experience of the world around and inside. us This meta function is analyzed in terms of Transitivity system i e a. choice between the six processes and the participants and circumstances. associated with those processes A clause in its ideational function is a. means of representing patterns of experience i e to build a mental. picture of reality This is what people employ to make sense of their. experience of what goes on around them and inside them these goings. on processes are sorted out in the semantic system of the language and. expressed through the grammar of the clause The system that works out. the types of process and hence participants in the process and. circumstances associated with the process is known as the Transitivity. system In English the processes are of the following types Halliday. 1985 1994 2004, 1 Material Process or the process of doing construes doings. and happenings including actions activities and events A material. clause is characterized by particular structural configurations such as. Process Actor Goal Recipient and Process Range There is. always an Actor which can be realized by a nominal group or even a. non finite clause Further options determine whether the process is. Mohammad Bavali and Firooz Sadighi, directed in which case there is a Goal as well the policeman Actor.
hunted Process the demonstrator goal or not the policeman. Actor ran Process If the process is directed it may be. benefactive and if it is there may be a Recipient the judge Actor. gave Process the demonstrator Recipient a legal document Goal. 2 Mental process construes sensing perception cognition. intention and emotion configurations of a process of consciousness. involves a participant endowed with consciousness and typically a. participant entering into or created by that consciousness configurated. as Process Senser Phenomenon There is always a Senser which is. realized by a nominal group denoting a being endowed with. consciousness e g she in She saw them crossing the road It is much. more constrained than the Actor and in fact the most constrained of all. the participants in any of the process types, 3 Relational process serves to characterize and to identify If. material process is concerned with our experience of the material. world and mental process is concerned with our experience of the. world of our own consciousness both of this outer experience and this. inner experience may be construed by relational processes but they. 3 Halliday s Systemic Functional Linguistics Systemic Functional Grammar or Linguistics first introduced by Michael Halliday 1985 refers to a new approach to the study of grammar that is radically different from the traditional view in which language is a set of rules for specifying grammatical structures In this view language is a resource for making meanings and hence grammar is a

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