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CHOCOLATE S DARK SECRET Mighty Earth
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Acknowledgments, This report was made possible thanks to the. generous support of the Arcus Foundation We, extend our thanks to MapHubs and Planet for. their mapping support and to all the experts, who reviewed and helped improve this report. Wild Chimpanzee Foundation, Thanks also to Professor W Scott McGraw. from the Ohio State University and to the Wild, Chimpanzee Foundation Design by Shannon.
Ryan of Burness, C H O CO L ATE S DARK SECRET, C hocolate is everywhere It is the. afternoon pick me up the sensual indulgence the, accoutrement to seduction Lovers gift truffles. Mighty Earth conducted an in depth global, investigation into the cocoa that provides the raw. material for chocolate These companies purchase, skiers sip on rich hot chocolate and connoisseurs the cocoa for their chocolate bars from large. savor the tiniest richest bite of single origin agribusiness companies like Olam Cargill and. dark chocolate The ancient Aztecs believed that Barry Callebaut who together control around half. chocolate was an aphrodisiac and the emperor of global cocoa trade. Montezuma was reported to gorge himself on, chocolate in advance of his trysts Most strikingly the investigation found that for.
years the world s major chocolate companies, But chocolate is truly a guilty pleasure Thousands have been buying cocoa grown through the. of miles away from the American and European illegal deforestation of national parks and other. homes where the majority of the world s chocolate protected forests in addition to driving extensive. is devoured lies the denuded landscape of West deforestation outside of protected areas In the. Africa s Ivory Coast The nation is the world s largest world s two largest cocoa producing countries. producer of cocoa the raw material for chocolate Ivory Coast and Ghana the market created by the. As its name suggests elephants once abundantly chocolate industry has been the primary driver. roamed the rainforests of Ivory Coast Today s reality behind the destruction of forests. is much different many of the country s national, parks and conservation lands have been cleared of Many of Ivory Coast s national parks and protected. their forest to make way for cocoa operations to feed areas have been entirely or almost entirely. demand from large chocolate companies like Nestl cleared of forest and replaced with cocoa growing. Cadbury and Mars operations In neighboring Ghana the situation is. Far from its origins in, West Africa chocolate, is seen as a luxury. good in North America, and Europe and is, often advertised as a. sensual treat, Mighty Earth s, Investigation, Mighty Earth s team visited.
multiple protected areas, inside Ivory Coast and found. illegal cocoa production had, completely overtaken areas. that had previously been, covered by forests, Ivory Coast. Source UNEP WCMC 2017, Protected Area Profile for C te. Mt Tia Classified, D Ivoire from the World Database of Mt.
Protected Areas July 2017 Available Mt P ko Classified Marahou National Park. at www protectedplanet net National Park Forest, Scio Classified Forest. Goin D b Classified Forest, Ta National Park, similar according to our analysis 291 254 acres Fortunately the world s largest chocolate. of protected areas were cleared between 2001 and companies have begun to publicly acknowledge. 2014 In that same time Ghana lost 7 000 square their responsibility to address deforestation. kilometers of forest or about 10 percent of its In early 2017 34 leading chocolate companies. entire tree cover approximately one quarter of joined Prince Charles to pledge that they would. that deforestation was connected to the chocolate announce a plan in November 2017 to end. industry Without action Ghana stands to lose all deforestation in the industry However they. remaining forests outside its national parks in the provided no details about their plan It may be. next decade Chimpanzees elephants and other premature to be optimistic as previous cocoa. wildlife populations have been decimated by the sustainability initiatives have been too weak to. conversion of forests in both countries to cocoa in produce significant industry wide results This. Ivory Coast only 200 400 elephants remain from report shows that the chocolate industry must. an original population of hundreds of thousands immediately end its illegal and destructive. practices remediate past damage and take, Now the chocolate industry is bringing its concrete action to ensure that its mistakes in. unsustainable model of production to new forest Ivory Coast are not repeated. frontiers in other parts of Africa Latin America, and Southeast Asia. C H O CO L ATE S DARK SECRET, 1990 Forest Cover in Ivory Coast.
Alex Costa for Mighty Earth 2017, A selection of chocolate from some of the world s largest chocolate companies including Mars Hershey s Nestl Mondelez. Lindt and Ferrero We found these companies connected to cocoa from sources linked to illegal deforestation. Big Business Big Impact, Chocolate is big business in 2015 the global world chocolate is seen as an affordable luxury that. market was approximately 100 billion Each gives ordinary people a taste of sensuous delight at. year the world consumes close to 3 million tons of modest cost But in West Africa chocolate is rare. chocolate and other cocoa products and demand and unaffordable to the majority of the population. goes up by 2 5 Most of the world s chocolate is Most Ivorian cocoa farmers have never even tried. manufactured and consumed in Europe and North chocolate Nonetheless it is in West Africa and. America far from the fields in West Africa where the world s other cocoa producing regions that. the majority of cocoa is grown In the developed chocolate has its biggest impact. The Cocoa Heartland, Much of Ivory Coast was densely covered by the highest rates of biodiversity in Africa with. forests when it achieved independence in 1960 thousands of endemic species However the. making it prime habitat for forest elephants and chocolate industry s sourcing practices have. chimpanzees Ivory Coast once boasted one of eliminated much of this forest According to. C H O CO L ATE S DARK SECRET, Thomas Breuer, Forest elephants. Ivorian government statistics and maps less than The cumulative impact of the chocolate industry s. 11 percent of the country remains forested and deforestation has caused Ivorian wildlife. less than four percent remains densely forested 1 populations to plummet Chimpanzees are now. found in just a few pockets throughout the nation, The cocoa industry in Ivory Coast has not been and are considered an endangered species The.
content with landscapes it was able to clear legally Ohio State study found that 13 of 23 Ivorian. in recent years it has pushed large scale growing protected areas had lost their entire primate. operations into the country s national parks and populations in five areas half the primate species. other protected areas Needless to say clearing forest had disappeared Elephants the country s national. to produce cocoa within protected areas violates symbol plastered on every Ivoire beer bottle. Ivorian law A study conducted by scholars from and Elephants soccer team jersey are on the. Ohio State University and several Ivorian academic verge of total disappearance While poaching is. institutions examined 23 protected areas in Ivory a major part of the threat to elephants cocoa. Coast and found that seven of them had been almost driven deforestation has pushed elephants into tiny. entirely converted to cocoa More than 90 of the corridors of forest making them easier for poachers. land mass of these protected areas was estimated to to track down and slaughter Other animals in. be covered by cocoa Ivory Coast are also threatened as they rapidly lose. their last habitats including pygmy hippos flying, squirrels pangolins leopards and crocodiles. 1 The Ivorian government s official submission to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization includes degraded forests. in its definition of forest and reports that 10 6 of the country remains forested. Mighty Earth 2017, Scott McGraw, officek ki, Clockwise from left Skeleton trees pygmy hippopotamus crocodile Olive Colobus. Tracking Cocoa from its Source, We traveled to Ivory Coast to see first hand the and others And while these three traders were. origins of the chocolate consumed around the world the ones for which we found strong evidence. identify which companies are responsible for the confirming their purchases of cocoa from. industry s invasion of the country s protected areas protected areas it is likely that other traders. and other deforestation and develop solutions that engage in similar practices 2. can ensure that the cocoa industry can grow without. repeating its terrible mistakes Mighty Earth s team The investigation found that illegal deforestation. visited three protected areas Goin De be Forest Scio for cocoa is an open secret throughout the. Forest and Mt Pe ko National Park In addition we entire chocolate supply chain The process of. worked with a team that visited Mt Sassandra Forest deforestation for cocoa starts with settlers who. Tia Forest and Marahoue National Park which invade parks and other forested areas These. shared their findings with us settlers then progressively clear the underbrush. of forests by cutting down or burning existing, Through the investigation we found three of the trees The photos presented here document how. world s largest cocoa traders Olam Cargill and this unsustainable form of cocoa production leaves. Barry Callebaut buying cocoa grown illegally in behind what are known as skeleton forests trunks. protected areas These traders are responsible denuded of their crowns and leaves that remain in. for selling cocoa to the world s largest chocolate the cocoa monocultures as ghostly reminders of the. companies like Mars Hershey Mondelez Ferrero great forests that once reigned. C H O CO L ATE S DARK SECRET, With the forests gone the settlers then plant cocoa is sold to Olam Cargill and Barry Callebaut who.
trees which take years before they are ready for ship the cocoa to chocolate companies in Europe. harvest Each cocoa tree bears two harvests of and North America. cocoa pods per year When cocoa is ready to be, harvested farmers hack off the ripe cocoa pods Throughout this path the illegal origin of the. from the trees with machetes They split open the cocoa is apparent We visited entire illegal towns. pods to remove the cocoa beans which they then and villages called campements that have. sort through and place into piles The beans are sprung up inside Ivory Coast s national parks and. left in the sun to ferment and dry this is when the protected forests Even though these settlements. beans turn brown are within protected areas some boast tens of. thousands of residents along with public schools, It is at this point that a first level of middlemen official health centers mosques churches stores. called pisteurs buy the cocoa beans from the and occasionally cell phone towers in plain. settlers transport it to villages and towns across sight of government authorities Pisteurs openly. the cocoa growing region and sell them onto admitted to us that they bought cocoa from inside. another set of middlemen known as cooperatives national parks and protected forests Owners of. The cooperatives then either directly or through cooperatives within the illegal towns spoke openly. a third set of middlemen bring the cocoa to the about sourcing cocoa from protected areas as well. coastal ports of San Pedro and Abidjan where it Cocoa traders and chocolate companies alike told. Growers sort through cocoa pods in Mt P ko National Park. Mighty Earth 2017, 2 During the course of our investigation an armed rebellion broke out that shut down roads and prevented our field. team from reaching some of the key cocoa growing areas where additional traders operate so their activities. were not fully analyzed by this investigation, Mighty Earth 2017. Mighty Earth 2017, Left One of the cocoa growing villages in Scio Classified Forest Right Receipt for cocoa linked to deforestation in Scio.
us they were aware that significant amounts of the warehouse inside the park that documented a sale of. cocoa they purchase from Ivory Coast was likely cocoa to the SAFSO cooperative. illegally grown in protected areas The director, of the government s Forest Reserve protection In the larger trading town of Du kou we visited. agency Sodefor estimates that 40 of Ivorian the Porgo warehouse and spoke to the owner the. cocoa comes from protected areas 3 eponymous Porgo He brought us past a throng of. men sifting cocoa and moving heavy bags into trucks. Inside the Scio Classified Forest for instance we to his back office and recounted his experiences. visited a trading village called Sada which boasts as a grower and buyer During the conversation he. approximately 22 cocoa stores and warehouses reported buying cocoa from the Northeast corner. thousands of inhabitants mosques dozens of shops of Scio and then selling it to the cocoa giant Barry. and even a school and health center Here we met a Callebaut through their operations in San Pedro and. pisteur named Jean Fran ois 4 who described how Abidjan Employees of other large cocoa warehouses. he would purchase cocoa from within Scio Hours in Du kou also described how their cocoa is. But chocolate is truly a guilty pleasure Thousands of miles away from the American and European homes where the majority of the world s chocolate is devoured lies the denuded landscape of West Africa s Ivory Coast The nation is the world s largest producer of cocoa the raw material for chocolate As its name suggests elephants once abundantly roamed the rainforests of Ivory Coast

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