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CHM anAnnotation andComponent basedHypervideo Model for
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low level bit stream and the high level human interpretation of video. semantics and to video temporality which adds another dimension to. the already multiply dimensioned hypermedia world, With the aim to foster and study such integration the Advene1 team. has been interested since 2002 in the expression of discourses that take. advantage of hypermedia techniques to support points of view upon. video material such as film analysis or linguistic gesture analysis More. precisely we study and design systems that allow to build and share. hypervideos as hypermedia documents created upon videos. Based on this experience we identified that one of the issues in. building hypervideos was the complexity of the design task which. emphasized the need for a dedicated operational hypervideo model Hy. pervideo as a specialization of hypermedia presents certain character. istics that we detail in this article Currently hypervideo design uses. very specific models limited to a single class of documents or very. generic and all purpose hypermedia models that do not take advantage. of hypervideo characteristics and thus do not directly provide features. aimed at hypervideo, To address these issues two main contributions are presented in this. work Our first contribution is the proposal of CHM an annotation. driven and Component based Hypervideo Model that has been de. signed so as to lower the above mentioned usability barrier An earlier. version of the proposed model has been roughly presented in Sadallah. et al 2011 CHM intends to lay out a dedicated hypervideo concep. tual framework built around a component oriented logical structure. organized as a hierarchical tree of components with a focus on exten. sible and high level built in components CHM follows a view based. approach since it explicitly separates the document content from the. potential presentations through the use of annotations By emphasizing. the importance of attaching annotation structures to video streams and. generating variety of renderings CHM offers a new point of view on. video centered hypermedia systems, Our second contribution is the development of WebCHM a practical. implementation of CHM for Web hypervideo creation and rendering. Using standard Web technologies WebCHM development is intended. to validate the applicability of CHM principles to the design of on. line hypervideos Moreover the framework illustrates practically how. the higher level instrumentation of Web technologies can reduce the. accessibility barrier of hypervideo design on the Web. Advene Annotate Digital Video Exchange on the NEt www advene org des. ignates a project a data model as well as an open source multi platform application. for creating hypervideos,chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 2. The article is organized as follows Section 2 introduces hypervideos. presenting classical use cases main characteristics and common com. ponents Existing models for specifying hypervideos are then presented. in section 3 and the importance of annotations based hypervideos is. underlined Section 4 presents the Component based Hypervideo Model. CHM and its principles through structural spatial temporal and. linking aspects In Section 5 a Web based implementation of CHM is. presented along with illustrative examples A preliminary user study is. presented in Section 6 while Section 7 discusses our proposals. 2 Hypervideos,2 1 A Definition, Within hypermedia documents videos are commonly embedded as.
atomic sequential static and not easily navigable clips mainly used. as support to give a better idea of a concept Navarrete and Blat. 2002 Such integration of videos in hypermedia systems is not as deep. as it should be an issue that hypervideos address A hypervideo can. be seen as a kind of video centered hypermedia document that brings. additional capabilities to videos allowing more elaborated practices and. improved interactivity Hammoud 2006, Several definitions of hypervideo exist Chambel et al 2004 de. pending on different points of view While some authors emphasize. the hypermedia aspect of adding information to digital video so that. users can activate video hyperlinks and access additional rich con. tent VideoClix tv 2012 InnoTeamS GmbH 2012 others highlight. the storytelling aspects of dynamically creating non linear and user. defined navigation paths into the videos Sawhney et al 1996 In. this article we simply define hypervideo as being an interactive video. centric hypermedia document built upon audiovisual content. 2 2 Some Use Cases for Hypervideos, The large applicability spectrum of hypervideo covers various areas. Interactive movies At the core of many hypervideo projects is the. aim to develop novel ways to navigate within movies For instance. Aspen Movie map Lippman 1980 allowed users to navigate the street. of Aspen Colorado HyperCafe Sawhney et al 1996 targeted new. kinds of cinematic experiences by offering filmmakers the possibility to. define different narrative sequences and viewers the choice of the path. chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 3, Augmented documentaries movies Augmenting video experience is. another privileged use case for hypervideo For instance interactive. television features additional and interactive content synchronized with. a live transmitted program Hoffmann et al 2008 Interactive docu. mentaries Shipman et al 2003a allow the author to recombine video. segments and expose alternate representations of video details with ex. tra content The Mozilla drumbeat Web made movies project Mozilla. 2012b that uses the popcorn js framework for implementation explic. itly fosters the development of interactive documentaries. Learning In training and scholar systems hypervideo supports the. creation of rich and realistic learning environments Tiellet et al 2010. by offering dynamic visualizations and facilitating reflective learning. and cognitive flexibility Zahn et al 2004 Hyper Hitchcock Gir. gensohn et al 2004 is a hypervideo environment that enables direct. edition of a particular form of hypervideo called detail on demand. video which allows a single link out of the currently playing video. to provide more details on the content being presented This form. of video can be used for instance as representation for an interactive. multi level video summary Shipman et al 2003b by including mul. tiple video summaries as well as navigational links between summary. levels and the original video Based on guidelines supported by media. and cognition theories HVet Tiellet et al 2010 is an example of a. hypervideo learning environment for veterinary surgery It provides a. rich and flexible environment with the potential to support different. cognitive modes learning styles and phases Greater control and au. tonomy are granted to the learner to explore video data complemented. with external materials and presentation navigation aids like maps and. Marketing Some hypervideo providers like Adivi InnoTeamS GmbH. 2012 or VideoClix VideoClix tv 2012 allow to design online video. clips that link to advertising or e commerce sites or provide more. information about specific products For example HyperSoap Bove. et al 2000 is a short soap opera program in which a viewer can use an. enhanced remote control to select clothing furniture and other items. and get information about them Object identification and tracking. algorithms are used in the hypervideo authoring process. Video active reading In the general case active reading consists in. reading documents and producing objects most commonly annota. tions that will be then used to carry on the reading activity or to. produce some output document This activity is routinely carried on. texts which can be commented with notes and graphics that serve as. guides in the reading activity allowing to quickly identify interesting. parts for further browsing as well as potential content for producing. chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 4, output from the reading activity analyses comments etc Applied to. video documents active reading mainly consists in creating annotations. that comment fragments of the audiovisual documents and using these. annotations both to carry on the document consultation navigation. in a more structured way and to produce new hypervideo documents. combining annotations with the audiovisual document Advene Aubert. and Prie 2005 and Anvil Kipp 2001 are typical annotation based. video active reading systems,2 3 Main Characteristics of Hypervideos.
The existing hypervideo systems described above share a number of. characteristics and feature common display components We describe. in this part some of the common properties of hypervideos 2 and then. describe commonly found components, Interactivity Hypervideos combine the powerful impact of video. with hypermedia facilities into new interactivity forms featuring richer. navigational possibilities Doing so it brings interactivity to video by. integrating it in hypermedia spaces where it can be structured through. hyperlinks defined in space and time Chambel et al 2011 Hypervideo. documents provide navigational possibilities through hyperlinks which. anchors are time based or even spatio temporal and whose destina. tions can be inside the video itself within another video or anything in. the hypermedia space A generic system like Youtube annotations Faga. et al 2010 offers means to define deep video linking through anno. tations HotVideo Finke 2004 is an implementation of hypervideo. that extends the concept of hyperlinks from text and images to any. dynamic video object making it possible to link parts of the digital. video to different types of media, Non linearity A high degree of flexibility is granted by hypervideos. to compose video based documents that foster knowledge perception by. promoting an active reading experience and reflecting the audience dy. namic engagement and influence on the document storyline Hoffmann. et al 2008 Different exploration patterns can be proposed to the user. through the definition of advanced features like video montage and. inter connections and synchronous simultaneous display of different. Common hypermedia concerns might be more pronounced in hypervideo due. to the important risk of overstraining the cognitive capacities of users and putting. them under time pressure during navigation Tiellet et al 2010 The potential of. increased cognitive load might lead to user disorientation Chambel et al 2004. in addition to the common space disorientation generally found in hypermedia the. time based nature of audiovisual documents brings time disorientation as well as. time pressure through time limited interactivity opportunities. chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 5, Enrichments The presentation of the content of a video used within. a hypervideo can be supplemented by many types of enrichments Such. enrichments can be external such as a table of contents or some fur. ther material text images web pages or appear as a synchronous. display of textual subtitles captions links etc or graphical overlays. images figures other videos etc SIVA Suite Meixner et al 2010 is. a Flash based authoring and presentation system for interactive video. that features video enrichment clickable video objects and selection. buttons for following plotlines,2 4 Common Components of Hypervideos. Articulating video content and navigational capabilities or enrichments. leads to designing new kinds of interfaces and related interactions Ship. man et al 2003a Several years of hypervideo design have lead to. the emergence of similar and recurring visualization and interaction. patterns accessible through one or several hypervideo components We. have studied a number of existing systems and identified some of these. common components in the following list and sum up in table I their. use or availability in different hypervideo systems No entry means that. the pattern is not explicitly mentioned in the literature to be supported. by the system, Video player controls A video player is obviously always avail.
able It is interesting to distinguish its controls since they can. sometimes be limited or completely disabled, Timeline A timeline component is defined in our context as a. spatial representation of temporally situated metadata where the. temporal dimension is projected onto one of the spatial dimensions. One of its most conventional forms is a horizontal timeline where. time is represented on the x axis and metadata can be categorized. along the y axis Note that a basic video slider does not stand in. this category since it does not feature any metadata. Textual overlay A textual overlay presents additional information. such as captions or other textual information placed over a video. Graphical overlay A graphical overlay displays graphics over the. video which can be used to designate specific parts of the image. Hotspot A hotspot is a graphical overlay with hyperlinking fea. ToC A table of contents is a textual representation of the basic. documentary structure of the video document,chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 6. Maps A map acts like a graphical table of contents displaying. graphical representation of metadata Image maps for instance can. be composed of the most relevant video frames and may act like. visual summaries of the video Chambel and Guimaraes 2002. Transcript A transcript is a text generated from a textual tran. scription of the audiovisual document that allows to navigate from. the transcription to the corresponding time in the video and pos. sibly highlights in some way the text that corresponds to the video. fragment being played,3 Specifying Hypervideos, Specifying a hypervideo means describing it in a digital language so. that the machine can compute it and present it interactively to the user. In this section we consider ad hoc multimedia based and annotation. based specifications,3 1 Ad hoc specifications, Most of hypervideo authoring and reading tools Sawhney et al 1996. Girgensohn et al 2004 Chambel et al 2004 rely on ad hoc specifi. cations that are fitted to particular needs and lack genericity These. systems use specific approaches for abstracting the produced docu. ments with generally implementation based representations resulting. in informal models to describe hypervideos As a consequence fea. tures such as semantic description enrichment video fragmentation. and composition robust addressing conventions linkage and fragment. accessing are not widely granted Moreover since the implied repre. sentations are mainly technically driven they are not adapted to the. evolution of the hypervideo documents model any evolution entails. software re engineering hence limiting the fostering of the emergence. of useful hypervideo practices and applications,3 2 Multimedia based specifications.
We consider two kinds of multimedia based specifications of hyper. videos those that rely on general multimedia models and those that. take advantage of generic multimedia programming languages. General multimedia models Following the Ted Nelson hyperme. dia model extension to include branching movies Nelson 1987. chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 7, Table I Recurring components in existing hypervideo systems. Transcript,Video Player,Adivi InnoTeamS GmbH 2012 Y Y Y Y Y. Advene Aubert and Prie 2005 Y Y Y Y Y Y,Anvil Kipp 2001 Y Y Y Y. HotVideo Finke 2004 Y Y,HVet Tiellet et al 2010 Y Y Y Y Y Ya. HyperCafe Sawhney et al 1996 Yb Y Y Yc,HyperFilm Pollone et al 2002 Y Yd.
HyperHitchcock Shipman et al 2003a Y Ye Yf,HyperSoap Bove et al 2000 Yg Y Y Yh. Popcorn Mozilla 2012a Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y,SIVA Suite Meixner et al 2010 Y Y Y Y Y Y. VideoClix VideoClix tv 2012 Y Y Y Y Y Y,VisualSHOCK Movie America 2000 Y Y. Youtube YouTube 2009 Y Y Y Y Y Y,Not explicitly and not interactive. No video control The video sequences play continuously and at no point can the user s actions stop them. At the beginning overview shot of the entire scene. Link table,With shots as tracks,Workspace View,Remote control.
chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 8,Internal references only. many researches have addressed the field of interactive video Usual. approaches to theorize such documents have considered them from a. very general hypermedia multimedia perspective enhanced with spe. cific features like video hyperlinks Models and systems for continuous. media integration in hypermedia were discussed since the Amsterdam. Hypermedia Model AHM Hardman et al 1994 proposal providing. mechanisms for structuring linking and synchronizing dynamic multi. media content AHM based on the Dexter reference model Halasz. and Schwartz 1994 has been designed to cover all relevant theo. retical concepts of hypertext and hypermedia systems regardless of. technical limitations no modeling methodology supports all their fea. tures Zoller 2001 NCM Nested Context Model Casanova et al. 1991 Soares and Rodrigues 2005 is a hypermedia conceptual model. that provides support for temporal and spatial relationship definition. among media objects It targets content and presentation adaptation. and also distributed exhibition of an application on multiple devices. Generic multimedia languages and tools Another type of multimedia. based specification consists in using general multimedia oriented pro. gramming languages to implement hypervideo We present several of. these languages, The Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language SMIL Bul. terman 2008 inspired from the AHM model is the W3C recom. mendation for building time based multimedia documents designed. to allow great complexity and sophistication in time based schedul. ing and interaction of multimedia components and documents SMIL. enables authoring of interactive rich media and multimedia presen. tations integrating audio and video with images text or any other. media type Although new and interesting features have been added. along the versions specific hypervideo support has not received much. attention Tiellet et al 2010, The Nested Context Language NCL Silva et al 2004 is a declara. tive language based on the NCM conceptual model for hypermedia doc. ument specification with temporal and spatial synchronization among. its media objects It treats hypermedia relations as first class entities. through the definition of hypermedia connectors and it can specify. arbitrary semantics for a hypermedia composition using the concept. of composite templates NCL modules can be combined to other lan. guages such as SMIL to provide new facilities While SMIL provides. high level constructs defining a restricted set of temporal relationships. NCL allows the creation of custom relationships from a toolkit of. language primitives as objects Jansen et al 2010,chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 9. Traditionally on the Web content providers have also relied on third. party pieces of software known as browser plugins mainly Adobe Flash. to embed multimedia content These technologies raise many issues con. cerning security reliability integration and performance For instance. their binary nature prevents the content from being accessible from. screen readers handled by assistive technologies indexed by search. engines or deep linked and syndicated Jansen and Bulterman 2009. Finally HTML5 Hickson 2011 targets native browsers support for. audiovisual content and provides rich structured constructs for declar. ative Web documents description Most media items are referenced by. a URL and not embedded in the presentation While the flow based. layout can be enhanced with CSS HTML5 does not provide declara. tive mechanisms for temporal composition Jansen et al 2010 Using. the new HTML5 features Popcorn js Mozilla 2012a is a framework. backed by the Mozilla Foundation for connecting video to the rest of. the Web linking it into the hypertext world by pulling data from the. Web and synchronizing it with video documents It features various. components that can display information from various sources Google. Maps Twitter Wikipedia etc and can be customized through a. JavaScript API,3 3 Annotation based Specifications.
Annotation based specifications of hypervideo take advantage of the. notion of video annotation as metadata associated to video fragments. that can be further used as means to integrate video contents into. hypervideos,3 3 1 Video Annotations, The nature of video data makes it not directly suitable for traditional. forms of data access indexing search and retrieval Li et al 2010. Moreover digital video documents have long raised concerns about. how to link and navigate from and to precise parts enrich and explain. the contents re arrange or reveal story structures etc This motivated. efforts towards the use of video annotations to index and retrieve video. fragments on the one side and to disclose explain or augment the. knowledge carried by the video on the other side, In this article we define an annotation as a piece of data associ. ated to a video fragment Aubert and Prie 2005 which is a logical. video segment defined by start and end timecodes Annotations can be. generated through various means from completely human made anno. tations precise and focused but tedious to produce to automatically. extracted annotations cheaper to produce but less precise Kokkoras. chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 10, et al 2002 Vendrig and Worring 2003 Intermediate approaches. such as computer assisted manual annotation methods can also be. used Davis et al 2004 Annotation based modeling of audiovisual. documents adds a supplementary temporalized content layer on top. of video documents Aubert and Prie 2005 Faga et al 2010 thus. defining an infrastructure for augmenting video with meaningful data. Such data can be further used to manage and manipulate videos for. analyzing indexing searching and generating hypervideos. 3 3 2 Hypervideo as Annotation based Video centric Hypermedia. Once a video is annotated it is possible to take advantage of the an. notations to build hypermedia visualizations that break the linearity. of the video and create a non linear information space hence hyper. videos Miller et al 2011 Designing hypervideos in this way empha. sizes the importance of metadata and annotations in the process of. creating video centric hypermedia documents, Most hypervideo editors use the concept of annotation and pro. vide means to add such data to video Systems like HyperCafe Hy. perSoap VisualShock MOVIE America 2000 and HyperFilm Pol. lone et al 2002 were among the earliest research projects to inte. grate video annotation as a core concept Miller et al 2011 Hyper. Hitchcock allowed viewers not only to interact with annotated videos. but also to create one s own annotations and share them with others. over the Internet in real time Tools such as Adivi InnoTeamS GmbH. 2012 Advene Aubert and Prie 2005 Anvil Kipp 2001 and Me. diaDiver Miller et al 2011 provide the functionality to annotate. videos with text links or any rich content and to generate video centric. presentations from these annotations, While many works target the use of annotations for audiovisual.
document description and enrichment the annotation structure is often. tightly linked to the video when it is not completely embedded in the. stream or in the player This is the case for systems like Youtube that. use annotations mainly as captions branching anchors and graphical. overlays over the video with no clear separation between metadata. content and its representation Moreover while systems like Hyper. Hitchcock Girgensohn et al 2004 use annotation as a key concept for. hypervideo document design their approach for annotation definition. does not make use of any standard format or explicit data model Alisi. et al 2009 and the implied uses and representations are mainly tech. nically driven Therefore as these systems only provide a few of the. necessary support for defining annotation based hypervideo models the. current use of annotations prevents the emergence of fully annotation. based techniques for hypervideo design Our Advene project Aubert. chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 11, and Prie 2005 is an effort to develop such a model and to propose. solutions for annotating videos and generating hypervideos. 3 3 3 The Advene annotation based hypervideo conceptual model. We have previously Aubert and Prie 2005 proposed a conceptual. hypervideo model focused on annotations It is implemented in the. Advene application and constitutes a conceptual framework for the. Component based Hypervideo Model we will present in this article. We thus briefly expose this approach, We first define see figure 1 an Annotated Audiovisual Documents. Base as a set of video documents associated with an annotation struc. ture Some elements actual annotations of the annotation structure. feature spatio temporal links within the AV document. A view of an AV Document Base is then defined as a way of present. ing it combining information extracted from the video documents and. information from the annotation structure Two main characteristics. can be associated to views 1 the balance of information obtained. through either source video documents and annotation structure a. view can be built exclusively from the AV document its plain visu. alization exclusively from the annotation structure a plain table of. contents of the video generated from specific annotations or using a. mix from both sources 2 the possibility to access the AV document. temporality i e the ability to visualize the AV document and control. its playing, Figure 1 Annotation based hypervideo in Advene a set of views that 1 use infor. mation from both the video documents and the annotation structure and 2 give. access to the audiovisual document temporality, We can then define an annotation based hypervideo as a set of views. of the annotated audiovisual document base that on the one hand uses. information from both the video documents and the annotation struc. ture and not exclusively from one source and on the other hand gives. access to the temporality of the video documents,chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 12.
As an illustrative example let us consider a plain table of contents. featuring links to the visualizations of corresponding fragments Such. a hypermedia document is composed of two views that are not hyper. videos on their own but becomes a hypervideo when combined This. approach that focuses on adding annotation content layers to videos. and defining hypervideos as visualizations combining both metadata. and videos is very generic It is also coherent with the characteristics. of hypervideo we presented earlier, The Advene software provides an implementation of our framework. Advene Cinelab data model3 but as mentioned above its generic. ity and flexibility hamper its usability also limiting hypervideo de. sign to using the standalone Advene software From this assessment. we decided to extend our work by designing a more operational and. visualization oriented model of hypervideos,4 CHM an Annotation driven and Component based. Hypervideo Model, CHM stands for Component based Hypervideo Model It is an annotation. driven and component based model to conceptualize hypervideos and. describe their main features,4 1 Rationale, As we have seen in section 3 annotation driven approaches present. attractive alternatives to ad hoc or multimedia specifications for hy. pervideo design maintenance exchange With data separation from. its possible visualizations maintaining the document structure inde. pendently from the audiovisual stream is easier This enforces security. management by separating concerns between data and metadata and. enhances collaboration options by requiring only the annotation struc. ture to be updated or exchanged Such a data model also sustains. metadata based indexation and allows generation of multiple hyper. video presentations from the same annotation structure CHM further. builds on the annotation based hypervideo conceptual framework of. Moreover our approach is component based meaning that the logical. view of a hypervideo is represented using a specification that tries to be. concise and expressive presented as a hierarchy of components Such. an approach eases the conceptualization and design of hypervideos by. providing common classical components as presented in section 2 4. http liris cnrs fr advene cinelab html,chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 13.
It also allows the model to be extensible since new components can be. created from existing lower level ones, Hypervideo is a specialization of multimedia and thus it can be. analyzed along the four dimensions of multimedia documents Roisin. 1998 logical document organization spatial graphical layout hy. permedia or links relations between documents and document frag. ments and temporal temporal ordering of the document objects. Consequently we provide within CHM representations for these multi. media dimensions, The remainder of this section presents the CHM model in details. while the following section presents WebCHM a Web implementation. of CHM that acts as a proof of concept of CHM assumptions. 4 2 CHM Logical Model,4 2 1 CHM Core Components,Hypervideo. AnnotationReader 1,GlobalTimelineRef,TimedMedia TimelineRef. Component TComponent,Figure 2 CHM Core Components, For the logical hypervideo representation CHM uses the principle.
of nesting hierarchical high level components Following this model as. shown in figure 2 a hypervideo is composed of a set of low and high level. components building blocks that represent formal information and. composition units Each component element is associated with a list of. composition placement synchronization and behavioral attributes sup. plied by the author or retrieved from an annotation structure through. AnnotationReader components, A hypervideo references at least one main audiovisual document. accessed through the TimedMedia element that addresses a temporal. ized stream audio or video A TimedMedia component has an intrinsic. duration when played through a player component it conveys a tim. ing capability to the document expressed by a virtual reference. an abstract clock called TimeLine Reference TLR The TLR is. used to synchronize the display of rendering components following the. chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 14, CHM temporal model that we present in section 4 5 and using timing. metadata provided through AnnotationReader components It can also. be manipulated by some components typically by the player control. component but also by any other component to modify the render. ing of the document While a generic component within a hypervideo. may not relate to any TLR and if so is said to be time independent. components bound to a TLR are specialized TComponent elements with. synchronization capabilities, Many players therefore many TLRs may be present within the. same document defining different hypervideo sub documents possibly. spatially and or temporally related This allows synchronization be. tween numerous hypervideo sub documents and to use one to enrich. another This synchronization is expressed in term of temporal con. straints between the corresponding TLRs and is handled by a global. timeline reference addressed by the GlobalTimelineRef component. 4 2 2 CHM Plain Components,VideoPlayer,AudioPlayer. TextViewer RichTextViewer ImageViewer,VisualComponent Component Interface.
Container TimelineRefControlGUI TComponent,Figure 3 CHM Plain Components. Figure 3 presents the basic components that form a hypervideo. While Component elements are generic for handling data content with. visual manifestation is rendered through VisualComponent elements. Presentation specification attributes are associated to components and. can be used by the rendering engine Specific synchronized display. components offer interactive interfaces for rendering temporalized data. provided as annotations Multiple AnnotationReaders see 4 3 can dis. patch annotation data either user supplied or possibly automatically. extracted from the media elements textual transcription screenshots. videoclip references etc,chm mta2011 tex 16 05 2012 18 31 p 15.


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