Sport is neither inherently good nor bad the positive. experiences of sport do not result from participation but. from the nature of the experience In the hands of the right . people with the right attitudes sport can be a positive . character building experience , Dr Stuart Robbins Straight talk About Children in Sport 1996 . CONTENTS, Introduction 3 , The 10 Good Practice Principles quick look 5. PRINCIPLE 1 Create a safe social and physical environment 6. PRINCIPLE 2 Treat children and young people with dignity and respect 7. PRINCIPLE 3 Model good behaviour and values 8, PRINCIPLE 4 Be consistent 9. PRINCIPLE 5 Become familiar with developmental ages and stages 10. PRINCIPLE 6 Let children play 11, PRINCIPLE 7 Ensure there is full participation and inclusion 12. PRINCIPLE 8 Modify or adapt activities to suit the ability of participants 13. PRINCIPLE 9 Provide an appropriate amount of activity 14. PRINCIPLE 10 Prepare children and young people to compete successfully 15. The Roles and Influence of Parents 16 , The Roles and Influence of Coaches 17. The Roles and Influence of Teachers 19, The Roles and Influence of Peers 20. The 10 Good Practice Principles Summary Table 21,2. GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES, CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION. INTRODUCTION, This document sets out 10 principles for delivering sport and recreation to children 0 12 years . and young people 13 18 years , These principles should be applied by coaches parents instructors teachers and administrators. involved in leading supporting or managing sport and recreation opportunities for children and. young people , Children and young people view sport and recreation differently from adults It is well . researched that they generally want to , have fun, improve their existing skills and learn new skills. be with friends or make new friends, be challenged. experience success, become physically fit and healthy . Research shows that young people highly value the intrinsic rewards gained from participating. in sport and recreation The rewards that young participants gain from learning a new skill or. simply being involved in activities with their friends often mean more than extrinsic rewards. such as winning trophies or awards , We encourage children and young people to participate in sport and recreation because . it can be a fun and enjoyable way to spend time, movement is important for brain development and physical development. being active contributes to maintaining physical and mental health including. relieving stress and anxiety, participation in sport and recreation can contribute positively to self esteem and self . worth, being involved in sport is often seen as a strong social asset. sport and recreation opportunities provide an environment where children and. young people can learn the values of teamwork goal setting self discipline . following rules respect for others respect for the environment coping with winning. and losing and success and failure ,Participant centred approach. Children and young people vary widely in terms of their physical social emotional and cognitive. development and in their motivation for participating in sport and recreation . Sport NZ advocates for a participant centred approach to providing sport and recreation. opportunities for children and young people This is because we understand the immense value. that children and young people can receive from participating in quality sport and recreation . why they participate and also understand that they are not all the same . This approach requires sport and recreation providers to listen to and consider the needs wants. and perspectives of children and young people when planning and implementing programmes . It means recognising and catering for individual differences in terms of development ability and. other factors that may impact on participation , 3. Creating a safe and supportive environment, Children and young people need an environment that is safe and supportive where they are. encouraged to be the best they can be and can enjoy what they are doing Again research tells. us that children and young people do not enjoy experiences where . there is an over emphasis on winning from both parents and coaches. only the best players get to play or participate consistently. some participants are favoured over others, they perceive not to be on good terms with the person in charge. they cannot participate with their friends, they fear being hurt. they don t feel safe, they do not have enough fun. they don t feel that they are improving or developing their skills . Parents coaches and instructors have a major influence on the nature and quality of the. environment where children and young people participate They can significantly influence. the decisions children and young people make including the choice to keep participating or to. give up Quality coaching and positive parental involvement are essential for a positive sport. experience , Understanding stages of development, The Sport and Recreation Pathway below provides a generic model of participant and athlete. development Many sports have used this to develop their own specific development model . Providers of sport specific opportunities for children and young people should become familiar. with their own sport s pathway as this will help guide the learning and development of young. participants , Excel, Participate, Lifelong Talented. Perform Athlete, Pathway, Talent Development, Talent. Development, Foundation Pathway, Learn Detection, Selection. KiwiSport Identification, Fundamental movement skills Development. School sport, NSO community sport plans Explore,4. GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES, CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION. THE 10 GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES A QUICK LOOK, The list below identifies 10 good practice principles and identifies the aspects of participation. that are impacted by each principle In general the principles apply to all age groups however. there are two exceptions Principles 6 and 9 these are noted in the table below . Principle Focused On Relevant Stage, and Development. 1 Create a safe social and physical Quality experiences All. environment, 2 Treat children and young Participant centred approach All. people with dignity and respect Values, 3 Model good behaviour and Role modelling Values All. values Learning and development, Leadership development. 4 Be consistent Quality experiences All, Cooperation between providers. 5 Become familiar with Participant centred All, developmental ages and stages Player development pathways. 6 Let children play Importance of play Explore, Fun and enjoyment Learn. 7 Ensure there is full participation Equity All, and inclusion Fun and enjoyment. Leadership development, 8 Modify or adapt activities to Learning All. suit the ability of participants Fun and enjoyment. 9 Provide an appropriate amount Fun and enjoyment Learn. of activity, Early Participate, 10 Prepare children and young Participant centred All. people to compete successfully Fun and enjoyment, Winning vs success. 5, PRINCIPLE 1 , CREATE A SAFE SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. Children and young people must feel physically and socially safe when they participate in sport. and recreation Sport and recreation providers have responsibility for protecting children and. young people from physical social and emotional harm . Keeping participants safe covers a range of areas including . the physical environment facilities equipment techniques weather conditions. the social environment the different relationships between participants coaches or. instructors and parents, the emotional environment bullying promoting positive feelings about individuals . preventing any forms of abuse , In practice, There must be plans and procedures in place to ensure that potential risks are. minimised removed or managed effectively to protect participants from harm. Suitable facilities should be available and accessible for children and young people s. sport and recreation, Check that facilities and grounds are in good order and safe to use. Avoid repetitive drills these are likely to cause injury and boredom. Ensure that children and young people treat each other with respect and fairness. Ensure the availability of safe and appropriate equipment including protective gear. where necessary, Positively encourage the development of correct technique and appropriate physical. and technical skills ,6, GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES. CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION. PRINCIPLE 2 ,TREAT CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE WITH DIGNITY. AND RESPECT, Children and young people expect to be treated sensitively and respectfully during their sport. and recreation experiences There is no place for words or actions that can damage a child or. young person s self esteem or impact negatively on their enjoyment of sport and recreation . Constant criticism put downs and being set up to fail are not only examples of poor behaviour. but also diminish participants enjoyment of the activity and can often lead to dropping out and. poor self esteem ,In practice, Where possible children and young people should be given a chance to contribute. ideas especially about decisions that affect them. Create an environment where all participants are equal and accepted. Recognise and value the social and cultural perspectives that young participants. bring with them, Show an interest in the child or young person s life and be sensitive to the stresses . demands and challenges of childhood and adolescence. Don t mock or demean young participants and avoid stereotyping . 7, PRINCIPLE 3 , MODEL GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND VALUES, Children and young people have the opportunity to learn and develop positive values and. attitudes associated with sport and recreation through their participation experiences For. example participation in sport and recreation creates opportunities for participants to learn. about the importance of fair play and positive side line behaviour how to cope with winning. and losing and about the rewards that can come with effort This can only happen if these. values and attitudes are encouraged or modelled by coaches teachers instructors and parents . In practice, Set and model expectations of behaviour for children parents coaches supporters. and officials, Encourage parents to positively participate in and contribute to their children s sport. and recreation, Always act with integrity, Understand that children and young people value fairness and that they have. expectations of adults in terms of behaviour and support. Consider the concepts of winning and success from the perspective of children and. young people rather than imposing adult views, Remember that children and young people s sport and recreation is about their. interests and aspirations not those of their parents or coaches . 8, GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES, CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION. PRINCIPLE 4 ,BE CONSISTENT, Children and young people can participate in activities delivered by a range of providers . Coordination between providers means there will be consistency of delivery in terms of rules. applied modifications and competition groupings all of which are beneficial to children and. young people Coordination may also allow providers to share equipment facility hire and. coaching , Developing consistency of messages and provision of complementary opportunities allows for. smooth transitions between providers such between as schools and clubs and supports the. sport and recreation development pathway ,In practice. Develop connections with other providers to ensure consistent messages and. approaches to sport and recreation delivery, Consider the role of regular communication using shared resources joint policy. development and shared facilities, Prepare children and young people to compete successfully as ways to develop. closer links , 9, PRINCIPLE 5 , BECOME FAMILIAR WITH DEVELOPMENTAL AGES. AND STAGES, Developmental age and stage and the concept of readiness play an important part in. determining when a child or young person should start to play or progress in sport and. recreation Often decisions are based on a participant s physical development However . readiness will depend on a child or young person s social emotional and cognitive development . as well as their physical development While the majority of children pass through the same. developmental phases each child develops at their own pace . Chronological age is a poor indicator of development and progress especially in sport There is. no magic age at which a child is ready to play organised sport Evidence suggests that success. in sport does not depend on how early a child gets involved in sport but is associated with a. child participating when they are optimally ready to participate Young brains and bodies are not. equipped for competition or organised team sports Muscles and nerves take time to develop to. a point where a child can learn and perform skills that lend themselves to organised sport . Early sport and recreation activities should focus on skill development and play until an. individual shows signs of readiness for competitive sport Readiness is determined by a variety of. factors including but not limited to , expressing a desire to play and participate. having the ability to receive and understand instruction. being able to work with others, understanding competition. having the physical attributes such as the physical size strength skill level and. coordination required to meet the demands of the activity . There is little evidence to suggest that early specialisation makes an athlete better at sport . Specialising in one sport or activity too early is potentially damaging to young people Research. suggests that children should experience a wide range of activities rather than narrowing down. their choices too soon Children who participate in a wide variety of activities and specialise only. after reaching puberty tend to be more consistent performers have fewer injuries and stay in. sport longer , In practice, Encourage children to be as physically active as possible. Emphasise the development and mastery of skills both individual and team and. help participants develop positive attitudes and values associated with good sport. Become familiar with your sport s player development pathway and the learning. required at each stage of development, Assess the physical technical and cognitive capability of your participants and use. that assessment as the basis for your participant development plan . 10, GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES, CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION. PRINCIPLE 6 ,LET CHILDREN PLAY, Play enhances every aspect of children s development not just for sport and recreation but in. other areas such as developing self esteem learning social skills developing spatial awareness . brain and language development and encouraging the development of imagination However . it is important to understand that children do not play in order to learn but play provides a. significant opportunity for learning , Numerous studies identify that children s free time and opportunities for free play are. declining Increasingly children s play is organised and structured and is becoming increasingly. institutionalised and adult driven Free play is child driven and provides an opportunity for. children to practice decision making develop their creativity leadership and group skills . Ensuring that a child has access to both free and structured play will create balanced learning. and development opportunities , Additionally studies show that outdoor play has a positive impact on a child s physical and. mental wellbeing In particular outdoor play provides opportunities for physical challenges risk . taking and generally more vigorous play Children also like it when adults especially parents and. caregivers join in with their play activities ,In practice. Recognise that play is a worthwhile activity for children it has meaning and value. that is often not understood by adults, Provide children with the opportunity to play on their own with friends and with. parents on a regular basis, Promote and encourage play that facilitates the development of gross and fine. motor skills, Promote and encourage play environments that stimulate creative decision making. and problem solving skills , 11, PRINCIPLE 7 , ENSURE THERE IS FULL PARTICIPATION AND INCLUSION. Every child or young person has the right and should be encouraged to participate in sport. and recreation regardless of their individual ability socio economic situation ethnicity gender. or any other factor This means that those in charge must plan to accommodate individual. differences and abilities by offering a broad range of activities and adapting activities to ensure. that everyone can be included , In order for children and young people to learn and develop they need many opportunities to. try things out to test themselves to experience success and have fun Children who are less. skilled are often the first ones to be eliminated in games and activities or spend the most time. on the bench yet they are the ones who would benefit from more time participating . Organising activities that allow lots of involvement by everyone will help participants develop. competence and confidence Fundamental movement skills become ingrained when children. have the opportunity to rehearse and use them repetitively They master skills by doing rather. than watching or listening More complex movement patterns can be learnt as fundamental. movement skills become ingrained , For some children and young people such as those with a disability more planning and. thought is required to ensure they have the same opportunities to develop learn and participate. alongside others , In practice, Accommodate individual differences and abilities by offering a broad range of. activities and competition structures, Give children and young people a chance to contribute to planning and decision . making in their activities, Foster participant centred protocols . 12, GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES, CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION. PRINCIPLE 8 ,MODIFY OR ADAPT ACTIVITIES TO SUIT THE ABILITY OF. PARTICIPANTS, Some sport and recreation activities are more difficult for beginners or less skilled players . Others use complex equipment or rules Games and activities should be modified where. necessary to allow all participants an opportunity to participate fully in order to learn and. develop , Many sport providers have recognised that the needs and abilities of children are different from. those of adults As a result they have developed modified versions of their sport and fun games. as a better way to meet the needs of younger participants Modification should not only relate. to skill development but can also be applied to game formats and competition structures . Modifying activities is not just for younger children There are many situations where young. people may not have the required skills for an activity and where some modification would help. their learning ,In practice, Modify the activity to match the developmental stages and skills of the participants . Modified versions of sports should , resemble the sport from which they are derived. be safe to play and yet still challenging for participants. provide players with skills that are a relevant base for progressing to the parent. sport, reduce excessive physical demand placed on children from adult equipment. and field sizes, emphasise fun participation and skill development over competition. reduce the likelihood of domination by physically stronger or early maturing. players , 13, PRINCIPLE 9 , PROVIDE AN APPROPRIATE AMOUNT OF ACTIVITY. Sport and recreation providers should consider the needs wants and perspectives of the. children and young people they are working with as a central element of programme planning . This should include , the frequency and duration of sports practices. when to emphasise physical conditioning training and its intensity. the nature of competition or level of challenge, general skill development versus specialised skill development. the provision of social opportunities, consideration of developmental stage over chronological age . In practice, Children get the greatest benefit from short action packed sessions They do not. need to practice formally more than once per week. Encourage children to try a range of sports and activities to discover what they. enjoy and to develop a wide range of skills, Early specialisation can lead to burn out and stress and result in a young person. dropping out of sport Children and young people should play a variety of sports for. as long as possible, When making decisions or planning children and young people s sport activities use. developmental stage size coordination and maturity rather than a child s age as a. primary guide ,14, GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES, CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPORT AND RECREATION. PRINCIPLE 10 ,PREPARE CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE TO COMPETE. SUCCESSFULLY, Children and young people cannot compete effectively when they do not have the required. skills This is not just technical movement skills but also the attitudes and values that allow. good sport to happen , Organised sport is a competitive activity but it is important that winning is kept in perspective. as children and young people are learning how to play Children and young people tell us that. too much emphasis on winning turns them off sport They want proper preparation to enable. them to compete successfully in sport Programmes that emphasise skill development and. success through effort provide more fun and enjoyment and increase the likelihood of retaining. children and young people in sport over time , Being physically active is beneficial to growth However when children are asked to participate. in activities that do not allow for the uneven spread of growth and maturation there is potential. for lessening the enjoyment and increasing the risk of injury . In practice, Focus on developing a wide range of basic sports skills that lead to increased. mastery self confidence and competence, Praise effort hard work improvement and fair play. Do not label children as good or bad at their sport they will flourish if they are. praised for their effort, Implement the New Zealand Coach Approach philosophy through coaching and. development programmes The NZ Coach Approach emphasises the philosophy. of participants as learners and coaches as facilitators of participant learning and. development For more information visit the Sport NZ Coach Approach webpage1 . 1, www sportnz org nz communities and clubs Coaching NZ CoachApproach .
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