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Child and Adolescent Development Research and Teacher
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Sponsor Organization Representatives,NICHD Representatives NCATE Representatives. Dr Yvonne T Maddox Dr Arthur E Wise,Deputy Director President. Dr Daniel Berch Dr Emerson Elliott,Associate Chief Consultant. Child Development and Behavior Branch,Dr Shari Francis. Dr Lisa Freund Vice President for State Relations,Program Director.
Child Development and Behavior Branch Dr Donna Gollnick. Senior Vice President,Dr Valerie Maholmes,Program Director Ms Jane Leibbrand. Child Development and Behavior Branch Vice President for Communications. Dr Peggy McCardle Dr Antoinette Mitchell,Chief Vice President for Accreditation. Child Development and Behavior Branch,Dr Boyce C Williams. Vice President,Roundtable Participants, Dr James P Comer Roundtable Chair Dr Kathlene S Shank. Maurice Falk Professor of Child Psychiatry Professor and Department Chair Special. Yale Child Study Center Education,College of Education and Professional Studies.
Dr Robert Bradley Eastern Illinois University,University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Center for Applied Studies in Education Dr Carolyn Snowbarger. Office of Elementary and Secondary Education,Dr Deb Jensen U S Department of Education. Chair of Teacher Education and Human,Performance Dr Jon D Snyder. College of Education Dean, Minot State University Bank Street College of Education. Dr Elizabeth Birr Moje Dr Margaret Beale Spencer, Arthur F Thurnau Professor Graduate School of Education.
University of Michigan Board of Overseers,University of Pennsylvania. Dr Robert Pianta,Department of Human Services Dr Jerry D Weast. University of Virginia Superintendent,Montgomery County Public Schools. Dr Sharon Ramey,Director Respondent, School of Nursing and Health Sciences Dr Linda Darling Hammond. Georgetown University Professor of Education,School of Education.
Consultants Stanford University,Dr Elizabeth Albro. Institute of Education Sciences,U S Department of Education. Dr Jerry Robbins,Professor former Dean,College of Education. Eastern Michigan University,NICHD Research Consultants. Dr Gene Brody Dr Fred Morrison,Professor Professor.
Center for Family Research University Of Michigan,University of Georgia. Dr Philip Rodkin,Dr Jude Cassidy Professor,Professor University Of Illinois Urbana Champagne. University Of Maryland,Dr Barbara Rogoff,Dr Nancy Hill Professor. Professor University Of California Santa Cruz,Duke University. Dr Ann Meier,Dr Carroll Izard Professor,Professor University Of Minnesota.
University Of Delaware,Dr Deborah Waber,Dr Debra Mekos Boston Children s Hospital. Research Scientist Department of Psychiatry,Urban Institute. Reflections from the Roundtable Chair, The opportunity to participate in the deliberations of this task force was a dream that came true for me. The experience gave me hope, Shortly after our Yale Child Study Center School Development Program SDP began work in schools in. 1969 I had an occasion to mention that a frightened 8 year old transfer who kicked his newly introduced. teacher in the leg and ran out was displaying fright fight or flight behavior The staff looked at me as if. I was speaking a foreign language The concept was basic knowledge to child development social and. behavioral science professionals It struck me as unfair to teachers that through no fault of their own they. had not received the pre service or in service preparation that would enable them to understand why. children do what they do and how to manage it in a way that would aid their development and learning. Over the years the number of teachers I encountered who had taken child and adolescent development. courses in their pre service training increased to almost all But even now few have had applied child. development courses or experiences The most powerful moment of our roundtable time together for me. occurred when the teachers of teachers identified this major continuing problem We teach them the. theory but not enough about how to apply it It was this kind of insight that I had long hoped that. discussions between child development scientists and educators would bring about. Our SDP work was designed to apply child and adolescent development knowledge and skills to practice. through a collaborative effort that reduces the vulnerability of the students and the adult stakeholders. through guidelines such as no fault problem solving and consensus decision making The resultant. positive building and classroom culture facilitates the achievement of a desirable level of development. teaching and learning I was delighted by the agreement among panelists that a good school culture or. context is essential This suggests that an important part of teacher and administrator preparation should. be learning how to work with colleagues parents and the community to create a good school culture. The reality however is that human beings and human systems resist change even when the benefits are. clear Thus the concern for me has been how w can create strong motivation and powerful incentives to. prepare pre service educators so that they can support child and adolescent development in practice and. how to support similar change among existing practitioners where necessary Knowledge and sanctions. can promote change Our NICHD NCATE sponsored roundtable was an important step in the right. direction It provided theory and knowledge evidence from practice and considered the possible benefits. of child and adolescent development accreditation standards and sanctions. This report is a sure footed beginning toward moving child and adolescent development from the. periphery of education thinking to the center as one participant suggested as the tree trunk rather than the. limbs Standards advocacy accreditation work and the translation of knowledge and skills through. demonstration and practice and more will be needed But the excitement generated among our roundtable. participants make me hopeful that this goal can be accomplished in a reasonable period of time. James P Comer M D M P H, Founder Yale Child Study Center School Development Program.
A Dean s Perspective, First of all I just want to say what a privilege and a pleasure it was to participate in this roundtable. Clearly the groups represented on the roundtable have significant overlapping interests conceptual. programmatic ulterior and altruistic Yet it is an all too rare occurrence for us to have opportunities to. sit together to analyze and explore those interests Just on a personal level it was the best professional. development I have had in decades, Secondly I want to emphasize the huge potential for this report in the debate about whether teachers need. subject matter knowledge or knowledge of children their families and communities or knowledge. of pedagogy Clearly they need all of the above It is not an either or situation despite the way the. debate too often gets framed but rather a both and situation This report lays out eloquently and. powerfully what teachers need to know about kids their families and their communities and why they. need to know this, The report helps us make the both and argument from an authoritative respected and powerful voice. We need all of us to find multiple avenues to use the authority respect and power behind this really. quite remarkable set of principles For instance I have already used this report with our Board of. Directors and I am asking that it be shared as background reading for a New York State Teacher. Education Round Table sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation of New York and I will then use these. principles as a frame for what we do and why in our programs at Bank Street. I urge you to read and use the report, I want to share two take aways that I had from my participation in the roundtable and mention just a. couple of possible implications of those take aways The two take aways are closely related The first. came from a comment that Bob Pianta made as we were making a list of everything we wanted teachers. to know about human development theories research and practices We were rapidly generating the. kind of massive list that always gets generated in such activities because teachers have to know. everything He said that ultimately what he wanted teachers to know is that children do things for a. reason and to understand that a teacher s job is to figure out those reasons and to use that knowledge to. create contexts that support the growth and development of their students That is a simply stated but. difficult to do definition of one of the core functions of teacher education. The second take away came from Margaret Beale Spencer s description of her research She said all. human beings are vulnerable and bring with them both risk and protective factors The teacher s job is to. create contexts that alleviate the risks and enrich the protective factors to support the growth and. development of their students Again a simply stated but difficult to do definition of one of the core. functions of teacher education, I want to highlight the incredible basic and inviolable respect for the child that underlies both these.
comments Children do things for a reason All human beings are vulnerable Secondly I want to. highlight the earlier point that knowledge of children and the multiple ways in which they develop is. necessary but not sufficient The next and absolutely essential goal is help teachers learn how to use their. knowledge of the reasons children do what they do and their knowledge of the vulnerabilities and risk. and protective factors that all children bring with them. Let me just briefly give two implications in this regard A programmatic implication is that one cannot. learn how to use something without practicing it This creates an important lens through which to view. field experiences Field experiences and the support provided within them need to consciously support. both the growth of knowledge about children their families and communities and a strengthened. capacity to use that knowledge This is difficult and complex work and it simply is not going to be. achieved in a class or even multiple classes alone Equally important to note this is not going to be. achieved with a simplistic translation of research into a prescribed set of behaviors The notion that to. every complex problem there is always one usually wrong simple answer is antithetical to the. principles laid out in this report and the respect for children that underlies those principles. A conceptual implication can be seen from the serendipitous approach to Bank Street from a publishing. company to write an introductory textbook for prospective early childhood educators that just happened. to coincide with the work of this roundtable We are writing a textbook that will more or less be. organized around my take away core function of teacher education What does one need to know about. kids their families and communities in order to understand why they do what they do and what one as an. educator can do when growing a classroom environment to alleviate the risk factors and enrich the. protective factors that support the growth and development of the children and families in one s care. Jon Snyder,School of Education,Bank Street College of Education. Remarks presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education Meeting. February 26 2007,Table of Contents,EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 4,Stating the Problem Examining the State of. Practice in Teacher Preparation Programs 6,SECTION II. Making the Case Examining Principles from,Child and Adolescent Development Research 13.
SECTION III, Issues and Challenges for Integrating Child and Adolescent. Development Research into Teacher Preparation Programs 27. SECTION IV, Bringing It All Together Applications and Action Steps for. Linking Child Development Research with Teacher Preparation 30. CONCLUSION 33,CITATIONS 36,REFERENCES AND BACKGROUND MATERIAL 39. APPENDIX A, The Integration of Child Adolescent Development in Teacher Preparation. Programs at NCATE Accredited Institutions Survey Results Appendix A 42. APPENDIX B, Child and Adolescent Development Research and Teacher Education.
Evidence Based Pedagogy Policy and Practice Research Questionnaire Appendix 49. Executive Summary, The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD and the National. Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education NCATE collaborated to produce a summary of. two roundtable discussions on the critical relevance of child and adolescent development. research to teacher preparation practices The participants in the roundtable discussions were not. formal advisors charged with making policy recommendations but rather a group of experts in. teacher training and child and adolescent development research Their discussions provided. important guidance to the NICHD NCATE collaborative effort. This summary report discusses major issues faced by teachers and schools the resources needed. to address them such as translating child and adolescent development literature into a user. friendly format for delivery in courses and links to the accreditation process The underlying. premise guiding the roundtable discussions If educators are to empower all individuals to learn. they must know and be able to apply information from human development and cognitive science. within their own professional practice, NCATE a coalition of 33 national professional and discipline specific organizations including. teacher unions and professional societies of different levels of school personnel must know the. state of the art and science in teacher education practices NCATE also understands that. research is important for teacher preparation and must identify critical gaps in the knowledge and. experience base of its constituents Similarly if teacher preparation programs are to effectively. incorporate cutting edge research and transmit this knowledge to pre service teachers agencies. such as the NICHD must identify the state of the science and translate relevant findings into. terms readily accessible to lay users, Thus this collaborative effort linking NCATE an accreditation agency that can bring about. structural change with the NICHD an Institute that focuses on research and the translation of. research holds particular promise for opening the channels of communication between. researchers and practitioners and as a result bridging the gap between these disciplines. This report captures only a portion of the discussions and presentations during the two. roundtable meetings and reflects merely a starting point for this collaboration The following are. highlighted in this summary, The state of practice in teacher education highlighting the ways in which child and adolescent. development research is currently integrated into teacher preparation curricula. Ongoing investigations of child and adolescent development from selected research studies. and how aspects of these studies may be applicable to teacher preparation. Issues and challenges in translating research to practice and. Applications and action steps for linking child development research with teacher preparation. These statements reflect eight essential areas that participants felt mattered most in integrating. child and adolescent development research into teacher preparation and practice. Application Matters Application of the research and knowledge base about child and. adolescent development is the missing element in most teacher preparation programs It. cannot be assumed that teacher candidates will automatically be able to transfer information. to classroom practice they must be shown how Teacher preparation programs need. additional modules on child and adolescent development that are embedded longitudinally in. the course of a teacher development program including emphasis on diversity in learners and. risks to positive development, Experience Matters Knowledge about child and adolescent development must be presented.
according to the developmental stage of the adult learner While all teacher candidates need a. deep understanding of child and adolescent development research novice teachers in. particular need basic information connected to case studies first and practicum experiences. later with concrete examples of how real children and adolescents actually respond to. various instructional strategies, Time Resources and Support Matter The carrying capacity of institutions is the most. critical barrier to supporting and sustaining the integration of child and adolescent. development research into preparation programs State and institutional policies need to be. modified to give teacher candidates additional time with actual students through both an. internship and a period of residency, Access Matters The field of child and adolescent development lacks mechanisms for. disseminating research findings and information to sources readily available to teachers. administrators and other school personnel Educators as well as policy makers parents and. other lay stakeholders need objective and informative overviews of current research in child. and adolescent development and appropriate application in classrooms with clear rationales. for those applications, Relationships Matter Classrooms are active social systems and children with positive. relationships demonstrate positive behaviors The teacher student relationship is central in. this system Teacher education programs that draw upon the data showing that emotional. support and attention to the student teacher relationship in fact enhance children s. capacities to learn could prove quite significant, Context Matters Development resides in the interaction between context and the individual. Classroom processes and overall school context can serve a protective stabilizing function. particularly when parenting processes in the home environment are compromised Moreover. well organized classrooms and responsive adults in the school promote self regulatory skills. that facilitate academic performance Thus achievement and school context go hand in hand. Affect Matters In children especially affect drives cognition Children of all ages function. better when they have confidence in a secure base to which they can turn for support if. needed When children have the support they need they explore more competently are less. fearful and are able to give more focused attention to cognitive tasks. The Child Matters It is important for teachers to focus on the child not just the skill. Research in developmental neuroscience has demonstrated that children grow cognitively at. different rates and may not achieve the same stage at the same time Because children s. capabilities develop over time a teacher needs to understand what is developing and tailor. the instruction to the learner This approach grows naturally from an understanding of human. development, Participants expect that these statements will be translated into action steps which will help.
NCATE chart a course toward new approaches in teacher preparation and practices. The preliminary questions guiding the roundtable discussions were modified as the meetings. progressed to reflect the roundtable participants diverse ideas and perspectives This report does. not review or survey the vast literature in child and adolescent development but highlights. principles and theories derived from ongoing research studies and investigations presented at the. roundtable meetings The focus of the discussions centered largely on the social and emotional. domains of development with the expectation that other domains will be explored at future. meetings The researchers consulting on this project were funded by the NICHD or conducted. studies relevant to the goals of this roundtable, Specific policy recommendations based on of the ideas presented in this report are beyond the. scope of this collaboration however the summaries of research and the corresponding questions. raised in this report may help NCATE frame their standards and set their agenda for improving. practice at the all levels of the education system. Introduction, The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD and the National. Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education NCATE collaborated to examine child and. adolescent development research and its relevance to teacher preparation programs. The NICHD is one of 27 Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health Created by. congress in 1962 the NICHD supports and conducts research on topics related to the health of. children adults families and populations For decades people have turned to the NICHD for. important health research advances and information on such topics as the phases and functions of. human growth and development throughout the lifespan The NICHD also identifies the state of. the knowledge and the existing gaps in research through workshops conferences roundtables. and other forums These processes often culminate in a meeting summary special journal issues. or books describing the state of the knowledge in a particular area and what work remains. NCATE is an alliance of more than 30 national professional organizations of the teaching. profession and education policy community committed to quality teaching It is recognized by. the U S Department of Education and the Council on Higher Education Accreditation as a. professional accrediting body for teacher preparation NCATE currently accredits 625. institutions and is working with approximately 100 institutions pursuing accreditation To date. 48 states and two jurisdictions have chosen to enter partnerships with NCATE to increase the. rigor of their preparation programs, As collaborators the NICHD and NCATE are uniquely positioned to bring together the science. of child and adolescent development with the science of pedagogy and practice to examine the. state of evidence based knowledge of child and adolescent development in teacher education. programs and to identify important applications of this knowledge To this end these. organizations held two roundtable discussions to allow experts in the fields of teacher education. and child adolescent development research to share their knowledge and insights and to discuss. ways in which evidence based knowledge of child adolescent development could shape teacher. preparation and practices, This is an important undertaking Efforts to decrease or eliminate the educational achievement. gap and to promote quality teachers rest upon the availability of scientific knowledge about the. factors that make teaching effective Currently teacher training emphasizes mastery of academic. content as the necessary base of knowledge for providing quality education However the. changing demographics in school communities and the persistent disparities in educational. achievement and attainment call for integrating new knowledge bases in teacher preparation. programs Teachers need a working knowledge of the principles of child and adolescent. development in order to master the techniques that enable students to learn to high standards. Moreover teacher retention is currently in crisis due in part to the expressed need for skills. tools and resources to address the needs of students who are challenged to meet educational. standards Specialized training in the application of child and adolescent development research. might improve teacher skills and thereby increase teacher retention. Historically policy makers have not regarded child development research as an essential. component of teacher preparation pedagogy The policies have largely focused on the extent to. which teachers deliver content through locally prescribed curricula While no one argues the. necessity of enriched curriculum content as a foundation for academic success current research. points to the fact that aspects of development neural cognitive social psychological physical. and ethical have far reaching effects on children s ability to learn Teachers and administrators. need access to the scientifically based knowledge of these aspects to optimize students ability to. engage with and learn from the curriculum Although many of these issues have already been. examined by commissioned panels and reported in the literature Handoff Phillips 2000. Bransford Brown Cocking 2002 a goal of this effort is to discuss relevant principles and. themes that can be applied to teacher preparation programs An additional goal of this. collaboration is to pose the essential questions that need to be explored beyond the scope of the. roundtable discussions The following questions constituted the starting point for roundtable. participants in determining some of the most important areas of knowledge and practice that may. need to be examined in greater depth,1 The State of Practice in Teacher Education.
What are the current best practices in teacher education and preparation and to what extent. are these practices supported by scientific evidence. What new standards regarding child development and adolescent development need to be. developed and incorporated into the current standards of practice for teacher education. 2 The State of the Science in Child and Adolescent Development. What is the state of the science regarding child and adolescent development as related to. teaching and learning,What are the gaps in the research base. Where are the areas of convergence in the research base. 3 Implications for Policy, What are the current policies local state federal that support or hinder the integration of. child and adolescent development research into teacher education curricula and fieldwork. assignments,What new policies need to be developed. These preliminary questions were modified as the meetings progressed to reflect the roundtable. participants diverse ideas and perspectives This report does not review or survey the vast. literature in child and adolescent development but highlights principles and theories derived. from ongoing research studies and investigations presented at the roundtable meetings The focus. of the discussions centered primarily on social and emotional aspects of development with a. view toward addressing other aspects of development at future meetings To the extent possible. the roundtable participants discussed the domains of development in an integrative fashion to. raise new questions and facilitate in depth holistic discussions The researchers consulting on. this project were either funded by the NICHD or have conducted studies relevant to the goals of.


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