Chapter I Scope Of Engineering Geology-Books Pdf

CHAPTER I Scope of Engineering Geology
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Soil, Mechanics, Mining Rock, Engineering Mechanics. In v e ig a, t, te pl es o, io, in, Si, f, n. Pr, Basic Knowledge, Foundation, Engineering Engineering Geology Concrete. Expert Knowledge, Ci, g, in, vi, En g, in ee r. l, Pr a c t ic e, Hydro Geotech , geology Processes.
Seism , ology, Figure 1 1 The scope of Engineering Geology. A much greater knowledge is required of site investigation. practice such as , Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 2. boring, engineering geophysics, sampling, photogeology. lab in situ testing, engineering geological mapping. This knowledge is printed on background of geology with. emphasis on structural geology geomorphology and, sedimentology .
1 2 Functions of Engineering Geologist, The engineering geologist can contribute on the followings . Interpretation of the ground conditions, Exploration and assessment. Identification of hazards, More details are shown in Figure 1 2 . 1 3 Geotechnical Approached to a Typical Problem, The role of engineering geologist at different stages of. work involve , Boundary conditions , Material , Prediction of behavior and.
Assessment of behavior , His level of understanding of each stage as compared to. the engineer is shown in Figure 1 3, Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 3. Functions of Engineering Geologist, Interpretation of Identification. Ground Conditions of Hazards, Excavation, Soil Type Slope stability. Soil Thickness, water level Exploration and Assessment Sabkha.
Water floctuation Settlement, Corrosion, Construction. Settlement, Sand dunes, Movement, Groundwater Construction low strength. Resources Material, Aggregate Mountain roads, Availability Slope stability. quality, Quality quantity, Quantity, Cement, Sand. Figure 1 2, Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 4.
Aspects of Work, Engineer Engineering, Geologist. Boundary Condition, Nature of the Problem 30 70, Geologic Setting 90 10. Material, Foundation materials 50 50, Construction materials 75 25. Prediction of behaviour 30 70, Assessment of behaviour 10 90. Figure 1 2 Relative Level of Understanding, 2 2 1 Boundary conditions .
a Nature of problem, The size and position of the loaded area . The magnitude and direction of loading Figure, 1 4 . Normal loading, Lateral loading, Circular loading. Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 5, A Normal Load. B Lateral Load, C Circular Load, Figure 1 4 Size magnitude and direction of loads.
Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 6, b Geotechnical setting. Thickness and extent of the various lithological units. affecting the structure Figure 1 5 , Sand 18 m, Granite 14 m. Sand 10 m A, Silt 3m, Coral Limestone 17 m, B Sand 2m. Clay 18 m, Figure 1 5 Soil units and thicknesses. that affect structures, Coral Limestone 15 m, C.
Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 7, Nature and orientation of structure discontinuities. affecting execution of works or safety of structure. Figure 1 6 a b , Water, Pressure, A, i, Figure 1 6 Affect of joints. on stability, B, Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 8. Hazardous geological processes posing threat to the. safety of site or structure , Flood, Weathering of slopes. Sand movement, Earthquakes , 2 2 2 Materials , a Foundation materials Identification and evaluation of those.
material properties which are relevant to the problem . Site investigation, Lab tests soil rock mech , b Construction materials Accessibility and assessment of. quality as well as quantity of geological materials required. for construction , Distance to the source, Flat areas vs rugged one. Quantity and quality, 2 2 3 Prediction of behavior. Understanding of the mechanical behavior of the structure in a. given geological setting , Tunnel roof sides collapse . Water fluctuation swelling shrinkage of clays , Heavy Structure settlement tilting .
Landslides, Liquafaction, Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 9. 2 2 4 Assessment of behavior , Assessment of predicted behavior with regard to the specific. project requirement , Comparison between the ground behavior and. the significant of the project , 1 3 Employment Opportunities. Employment for engineering geologists may be found within a wide. range of opportunities Their likely employers will be mainly within the. field of civil engineering either as contractors or consultant In either. cases their work will lie mostly in the field of site investigation . Engineering geologists will also find jobs in applied research. organizations teaching in institutions and ministries of public works . water etc , Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 10.
CHAPTER II Engineering Geological Maps, 2 1 General Considerations . 2 1 1 Definition Engineering geological maps provide information about. those aspects of geological materials and processes. which are significant in land use planning as well as. the planning design and construction of civil and. mining engineering work The task is to develop the. country in the best possible harmony with, geological environment . The engineering geological map should be based on a good. geological map The geological maps cannot be used directly. in engineering work for the following reasons , a Insufficient attention may have been paid to the. superficial deposits and rocks of markedly different. engineering properties Part of the problem is that. they may be bracketed together as a single unit, because they are of the same age or origin . b They lack quantitative information such as , i physical properties of rocks and soils .
ii the amount and type of discontinuities faults . joints shear zones present, iii the extent of weathering. iv the groundwater conditions depth fluctuation , chemical composition . 2 1 2 Scope, Engineering geological maps are developed due to the cooperation. between geologists and engineers in the building of larger. engineering works such as tunnel dams and railways . Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 11, The features components that could be represented on. engineering geological maps are , a The character of rocks and soils such as.
distribution, stratigraphical and structural arrangement. age and lithology, physical and mechanical properties . b Hydrological conditions The aim is to predict, hydro regime and how to avoid any changes . distribution of water bearing soils and rocks, depth to water table and its range of fluctuation. regions of confined water and piezometric levels, storage coefficients and direction of flow.
infiltration , c Geomorphological conditions including surface. topography and important elements of the landscape . d Geodynamic phenomena , erosion and deposition, eolian phenomena. slope movement and subsidence, volume changes in soil swelling shrinkage . active faults , 2 2 Classification, Engineering geological maps can be classified according to i . scale ii purpose or iii content , 2 2 1 Scale, a Large scale 1 10 000.
b Medium scale 1 10 000 1 100 000, Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 12. c Small scale 1 100 000, 2 2 2 Purpose, a Multipurpose Its information can be used for many purposes. either for one or many component of geological environment. ie Strength map , b Special purpose maps The information can be used for. special purpose only ie Map for tunnels , 2 2 3 Content. a Analytical maps Evaluating and giving details of some. parameters ie Weathering grade joint map seismic, hazard .
b Comprehensive maps Maps depicting all principal. components of engineering geology environment , 2 3 Description of Soils and Rocks. The Classification of rocks and soils in an engineering geological. mapping is according to a certain degree of homogeneity in basic. engineering geology properties , 2 3 1 Soil Sample Classification . The sequence of describing a soil sample is as follows . a Compactness or consistency, b Color, c Descriptive term. d Soil identification Major constituents , e Soil identification Minor constituents . f Water content descriptive term , a Consistency stiffness or density .
b Color The soil color provide information of soil minerals. and environment , Red Indicates iron oxide, Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 13. Pale Yellow Hydrated iron oxide, Black Organic soils. Dark brown or due to dark minerals, Gray manganese magnetite . Green Glauconite, White Silica gypsum kaoline clay . In general use only basic colors Describe soils with different. shades of basic colors by using two basic colors e g gray brown . Mottled means marked with spots of color while streaked means. having color patterns which cannot be considered spotted . c Descriptive term , A Coarse grained soils, i Use angular subangular rounded shape .
rounded etc to indicate the shape of the, grains Figure 2 . ii Use coarse medium fine coarse to fine , or medium to fine to indicate grain size. distribution of the sample , B Fine grained soils. Use brittle friable spongy sticky , fissured slickensided fibrous etc if. applicable , C Other descriptive terms applicable to both.
fine grained and coarse grained soils are , with occasional with frequent pockets of . layers of seams of lenses of partings of , etc These will follow the soils identification . d Soil identification Major constituents , Identify the major matrix of the soil sample and write this in. CAPITAL LETTERS e g GRAVEL SAND SILTY CLAY or, PEAT Table 2 1 . Eng Geol EEG 341 Dr Abdullah Sabtan 14, Examples .
Sand Dense brown subangular medium grained trace, silt with pockets of clay . Gravel Very dense gary angular fine grained some, sand and trace silt w seems of clay . Silty Sand Medium dense gray brown subrounded medium. grained with trace gravel and lenses of clay , Clay Stiff dark gray sticky with some silt . Table 2 1 Grain Size of Soils, Term Particle Size Retained on Sieve Equivalent. No Approx Soil Grade, Equivalent , Very coarse 60mm 2 in Boulders.
grained and Cobbles, Coarse grained 2 60 mm 8 Gravel. Medium grained 60 mocrons 200 Sand, 2mm, Fined grained 2 60 microns Silt. Very fine grained 2 microns Clay, Note Grains 60 microns diameter are available to the naked eye . e Soil identification Minor constituents , For both fine grained and coarse grained use . Term Minor constituent, , Y 30 50, Some 12 30, Trace 1 12.
CHAPTER I Scope of Engineering Geology 1 1 Definition and Content Engineering geology forms the bridge between geology and engineering It is mainly concerned with the application of geology to civil and mining engineering practice The purpose is to ensure that geological factors affecting the planning design

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