Chapter 7 Network Concepts And Communications-Books Pdf

Chapter 7 Network Concepts and Communications
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Introduction, Communication is the desire of man When human voice became. inadequate ancient civilizations devised drum codes and smoke. signals to send information to far off distances . These primitive methods have given way to sending messages. through electronic pulses A stand alone computer communicates. very efficiently by connecting it with other computers Data in a. computer is transmitted to another computer located across. continents almost instantaneously using telephone microwaves or. radio links , The long distance communication link between a computer and a. remote terminal was set up around 1965 Now networking has. become a very important part of computing activity . Networking Concepts Ch 1 2, Network, A large number of computers are interconnected by. copper wire fiber optic cable microwave and infrared or. through satellite , A system consisting of connected nodes made to share. data hardware and software is called a Computer, Network .
Networking Concepts Ch 1 3, Introduction Everything is. Connected to Everything , Going online Connecting to a collection of. interconnected computers on a network , Do banking . Pay bills , Buy groceries , Book vacation travel . Send messages , Participate in discussions , Do research .
Play games , Network A collection of computers display terminals printers . and other devices linked either by physical or wireless means . Networking Concepts Ch 1 4, Introduction Everything is. Connected to Everything , Seeds of Networking, 1966 ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency State. Defense Department s research organization , Focused major development effort on computer. networking , ARPA s Goal To promote research in advanced future.
technologies by funding university and industry research. proposals , Result Thousands of databases became available to the. public , Networking Concepts Ch 1 5, Introduction Everything is. Connected to Everything , Computer Networking, Internet A world wide network connecting millions of computer. networks for the purpose of exchanging data and communications using. special rules of communication , internet lower case i The convention was generally to capitalize. Internet because it is a proper noun The word has become common. and some may no longer treat it as a proper noun and thus not capitalize. it Conventions vary Originally internet was more commonly used as. a general term for interconnected networks of networks . Networking Concepts Ch 1 6, Introduction Everything is.
Connected to Everything , Computer Networking, The human need to communicate has motivated mankind s. creativity , Cave dwellers drew pictures on walls . Smoke signals drum rhythms passed messages , American pioneers Pony express Wells Fargo . Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone , Networking Concepts Ch 1 7. Some Important Reasons, for Networking, Sharing of resources Primary goal of a computer network is.
to share resources For example several PCs can be connected. to a single expensive line printer , Sharing information Information on a single computer can. be accessed by other computers in the network Duplication of. data file on separate PCs can be avoided , Communication When several PCs are connected to each. other messages can be sent and received From a remote. location a mobile salesman can relay important messages to. the central office regarding orders Relevant databases are. updated and the business commitments are fulfilled . Networking Concepts Ch 1 , Benefits of Network, Effective handling of personal. communications, Allowing several users to access. simultaneously Important programs and data , Making it easy for the users to keep all critical.
data on shared storage shdevice and safeguard, the data . Allowing people to are costly equipment, Networking Concepts Ch 1 9. The computer, communication, The computer communication should ensure safe . secure and reliable data transfer , Safe The data received is the same as the data sent. Secure The data being transferred cannot be damaged. either will fully or accidentally , Reliable Both the sender and the receiver knows the.
status of the data sent Thus the sender knows whether. the receiver got the correct data or not , Networking Concepts Ch 1 10. Networks Terminology, Network A network is a collection of computers and other. devices that can send data to and receive data from each other . A network is often connected by wires However wireless. networks transmit data through infrared light and microwaves . Node Each machine on a network is called a node Most. nodes are computers but printers routers bridges gateways . dumb terminals and Coca Cola machines can also be nodes . Nodes that are fully functional computers are also called hosts . Address Every network node has an address a series of bytes. that uniquely identify it The more bytes there are in each. address the more addresses there are available and the more. devices that can be connected to the network simultaneously . Networks Terminology, Packet All modern computer networks are packet switched. networks data traveling on the network is broken into chunks. called packets and each packet is handled separately Each. packet contains information about who sent it and where it s. going , Protocol A protocol is a precise set of rules defining how. computers communicate the format of addresses how data is. split into packets and so on There are many different. protocols defining different aspects of network communication . Communication Basics, of Networks, Types of connections of computers into networks .
Physical versus Wireless connections, The first type The Physical Connection . Physically connect computers together , Use of wires or optical cables . The connections are called network links , Three most common physical links . Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, Fiber optic cable, Networking Concepts Ch 1 13. Communication Basics, of Networks, Twisted pair.
Two wires twisted together , Makes them less susceptible to acting like an antenna. and picking up radio frequency information or appliance. noise , Telephone company uses twisted pair copper wires to link. telephones , Networking Concepts Ch 1 14, Coaxial cable. Also two wires , One of the wires is woven of, fine strands of copper. forming a tube , The wire mesh surrounds a, solid copper wire that runs.
down the center , Space between has a non, conducting material . Makes them more, impervious to outside noise , Networking Concepts Ch 1 15. Networking Concepts Ch 1 10 The computer communication The computer communication should ensure safe secure and reliable data transfer Safe The data received is the same as the data sent Secure The data being transferred cannot be damaged either will fully or accidentally

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