Chapter 7 An Introduction To Chemical Reactions-Books Pdf

Chapter 7 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions
07 Aug 2020 | 3 views | 0 downloads | 16 Pages | 259.89 KB

Share Pdf : Chapter 7 An Introduction To Chemical Reactions

Download and Preview : Chapter 7 An Introduction To Chemical Reactions

Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Chapter 7 An Introduction To Chemical Reactions



Transcription

110 Study Guide for An Introduction to Chemistry, Section Goals and Introductions. Now that you know about atoms elements chemical bonds and chemical compounds you are. ready to be introduced to chemical changes and the ways that we describe them. Section 7 1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations. To describe the nature of chemical reactions, To show how chemical reactions can be described with chemical equations. To show how to balance chemical equations, This section starts with a brief description of chemical reactions The introduction to chemical. reactions is followed by a description of how chemical changes are described with chemical. equations You will see many chemical equations in this text so it is very important that you. be able to interpret them Sample Study Sheet 7 1 Balancing Chemical Equations describes. the important skill of balancing equations so that they reflect the fact that the number of atoms. of each element for the products of chemical changes always equals the number of atoms of. each element in the initial reactants Our Web site provides a tutorial that will allow you to. practice balancing chemical equations, Internet Balancing Equations Tutorial. Section 7 2 Liquid Water and Water Solutions, To describe the structure of liquid water.
To describe the process by which ionic compounds dissolve in water. Many chemical reactions take place between reactants that are dissolved in water so to. visualize the processes for these reactions it is important that you have a clear mental image. of the particle nature of water This section and an animation on our Web site will help you. develop this image, Internet Structure of Water, This section also describes solutions in general and solutions of ionic compounds in. particular and most important describes the process by which ionic compounds dissolve in. water If you develop the ability to see this process in your mind s eye it will help you. understand the process of chemical changes between substances in solution An animation on. our Web site will help you to visualize the process of dissolving sodium chloride in water. Internet Dissolving NaCl, Chapter 7 111, Section 7 3 Solubility of Ionic Compounds and Precipitation Reactions. To describe the changes that take place on the molecular level during precipitation. To provide guidelines for predicting water solubility of ionic compounds. To describe the process for predicting precipitation reactions and writing chemical. equations for them, The description of the nature of solutions in Section 7 2 leads to the description of a simple. chemical change that takes place when two solutions of ionic compounds are mixed leading. to the formation of an ionic compound that is insoluble in water and therefore comes out of. solution as a solid You will learn how to visualize the changes that take place in this type of. reaction called a precipitation reaction how to predict whether mixtures of two solutions of. ionic compounds will lead to a precipitation reaction and how to write chemical equations for. those reactions that do take place Our Web site provides 1 an animation that will help you. to visualize precipitation reactions 2 a tutorial that will allow you to practice predicting. whether ionic compounds are soluble in water or not and 3 a description of the process for. writing complete ionic and net ionic equations, Internet Precipitation Reactions. Internet Predicting Water Solubility, Internet Writing Precipitation Equations.
You might want to look closely at the Having Trouble section at the end of this section It. describes all of the skills from previous chapters that are necessary for writing chemical. equations for precipitation reactions Students often have trouble with writing these equations. not because of the new components to the process found in Chapter 7 but because they are. still having trouble with skills from earlier chapters. Section 7 4 Chemical Changes and Energy, To describe the relationship between energy and chemical reactions. To explain why some chemical changes release energy as they proceed and why others. need to absorb energy to take place, This section explains why some chemical reactions absorb heat energy from their. surroundings and why others release heat energy to their surroundings. 112 Study Guide for An Introduction to Chemistry, Chapter 7 Map. Chapter Checklist, Read the Review Skills section If there is any skill mentioned that you have not yet. mastered review the material on that topic before reading this chapter. Read the chapter quickly before the lecture that describes it. Attend class meetings take notes and participate in class discussions. Work the Chapter Exercises perhaps using the Chapter Examples as guides. Study the Chapter Glossary and test yourself at our Web site. Internet Glossary Quiz, Study all of the Chapter Objectives You might want to write a description of how you.
will meet each objective Although it is best to master all of the objectives the following. objectives are especially important because they pertain to skills that you will need while. studying other chapters of this text 4 7 12 13 and 14. Chapter 7 113, Reread the Study Sheets in this chapter and decide whether you will use them or some. variation on them to complete the tasks they describe. Sample Study Sheet 7 1 Balancing Chemical Equations. Sample Study Sheet 7 2 Predicting Precipitation Reactions and Writing Precipitation. Memorize the following solubility guidelines Be sure to check with your instructor to. determine how much you are expected to know of the following guidelines. Category Ions Except with these ions Examples, Soluble cations Group 1 metallic ions No exceptions Na2CO3 LiOH and NH4 2S. and ammonium NH4 are soluble, Soluble anions NO3 and C2H3O2 No exceptions Bi NO3 3 and Co C2H3O2 2 are. Soluble with some CuCl2 is water soluble, Usually soluble Cl Br and I but AgCl is insoluble. exceptions including with, Ag and Pb2, anions Soluble with some FeSO4 is water soluble.
SO42 exceptions including with but BaSO4 is insoluble. Ba2 and Pb2, Insoluble with some CaCO3 Ca3 PO4 2 and. usually CO32 PO43 and OH Mn OH 2 are insoluble in, exceptions including with. insoluble anions group 1 elements and NH4 water but NH4 2CO3 Li3PO4. and CsOH are soluble, To get a review of the most important topics in the chapter fill in the blanks in the Key. Ideas section, Work all of the selected problems at the end of the chapter and check your answers with. the solutions provided in this chapter of the study guide. Ask for help if you need it, Web Resources, Internet Balancing Equations.
Internet Structure of Water, Internet Dissolving NaCl. Internet Precipitation Reaction, Internet Predicting Water Solubility. Internet Writing Precipitation Equations, Internet Glossary Quiz. 114 Study Guide for An Introduction to Chemistry, Exercises Key. Exercise 7 1 Balancing Equations Balance the following chemical equations Obj 4. a P4 s 6Cl2 g 4PCl3 l, b 3PbO s 2NH3 g 3Pb s N2 g 3H2O l.
c P4O10 s 6H2O l 4H3PO4 aq, d 3Mn s 2CrCl3 aq 3MnCl2 aq 2Cr s. e C2H2 g 5 2O2 g 2CO2 g H2O l, or 2C2H2 g 5O2 g 4CO2 g 2H2O l. f 3Co NO3 2 aq 2Na3PO4 aq Co3 PO4 2 s 6NaNO3 aq, g 2CH3NH2 g 9 2O2 g 2CO2 g 5H2O l N2 g. or 4CH3NH2 g 9O2 g 4CO2 g 10H2O l 2N2 g, h 2FeS s 9 2O2 g 2H2O l Fe2O3 s 2H2SO4 aq. or 4FeS s 9O2 g 4H2O l 2Fe2O3 s 4H2SO4 aq, Exercise 7 2 Predicting Water Solubility Predict whether each of the following is.
soluble or insoluble in water Obj 11, a Hg NO3 2 used to manufacture felt soluble. b BaCO3 used to make radiation resistant glass for color TV tubes insoluble. c K3PO4 used to make liquid soaps soluble, d PbCl2 used to make other lead salts insoluble. e Cd OH 2 storage battery electrodes insoluble, Exercise 7 3 Precipitation Reactions Predict whether a precipitate will form when. each of the following pairs of water solutions is mixed If there is a precipitation reaction write. the complete equation that describes the reaction Obj 12. a 3CaCl2 aq 2Na3PO4 aq Ca3 PO4 2 s 6NaCl aq, b 3KOH aq Fe NO3 3 aq 3KNO3 aq Fe OH 3 s. c NaC2H3O2 aq CaSO4 aq No Reaction, d K2SO4 aq Pb NO3 2 aq 2KNO3 aq PbSO4 s.
Review Questions Key, 1 Write the formulas for all of the diatomic elements H2 N2 O2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2. 2 Write the definitions of energy kinetic energy and potential energy. Energy The capacity to do work, Kinetic energy The capacity to do work due to the motion of an object. Potential energy A retrievable stored form of energy an object possesses by virtue of its. position or state, Chapter 7 115, 3 Describe the relationship between stability capacity to do work and potential energy. Less stable means more likely to change When things change they can do work This. greater capacity to do work is reflected in higher potential energy so a less stable system. has a greater capacity to do work and a higher potential energy. 4 Explain why energy must be absorbed to break a chemical bond. Separate atoms are less stable more likely to change and therefore higher potential. energy than the same atoms in a chemical bond so when chemical bonds are broken. energy must be added to supply the extra potential energy of the separate atoms. 5 Explain why energy is released when a chemical bond is formed. Atoms in a chemical bond are more stable less likely to change and therefore lower. potential energy than the separate atoms so when chemical bonds are made the. potential energy difference between separate atoms and the atoms in a bond is released. 6 Describe the changes that take place during heat transfer between objects at different. temperatures, The particles in a higher temperature object collide with other particles with greater. average force than the particles of a lower temperature object Thus collisions between. the particles of two objects at different temperatures cause the particles of the. lower temperature object to speed up increasing the object s kinetic energy and cause. the particles of the higher temperature object to slow down decreasing this object s. kinetic energy In this way energy is transferred from the higher temperature object to. the lower temperature object We call energy that is transferred in this way heat The. energy that is transferred through an object as from the bottom of a cooking pan to its. handle is also called heat Heat is the energy that is transferred from a region of higher. temperature to a region of lower temperature as a consequence of the collisions of. 7 Predict whether atoms of each of the following pairs of elements would be expected to form. ionic or covalent bonds, a Mg and F ionic c Fe and O ionic.
b O and H covalent d N and Cl covalent, 8 Write formulas that correspond to the following names. a ammonia NH3, b methane CH4, c propane C3H8, d water H2O. 9 Write formulas that correspond to the following names. a nitrogen dioxide NO2, b carbon tetrabromide CBr4. c dibromine monoxide Br2O, d nitrogen monoxide NO, 116 Study Guide for An Introduction to Chemistry. 10 Write formulas that correspond to the following names. a lithium fluoride LiF, b lead II hydroxide Pb OH 2.
c potassium oxide K2O, d sodium carbonate Na2CO3, e chromium III chloride CrCl3. f sodium hydrogen phosphate Na2HPO4, Key Ideas Answers. 11 A chemical change or chemical reaction is a process in which one or more pure substances. are converted into one or more different pure substances. 13 A chemical equation is a shorthand description of a chemical reaction. 15 To indicate that a chemical reaction requires the continuous addition of heat in order to. proceed we place an upper case Greek delta above the arrow in the reaction s chemical. 17 When balancing chemical equations we do not change the subscripts in the formulas. 19 As in other liquids the attractions between water molecules are strong enough to keep them. the same average distance apart but weak enough to allow each molecule to be constantly. breaking the attractions that momentarily connect it to some molecules and forming new. attractions to other molecules, 21 Every part of a water solution of an ionic compound has the same proportions of water. molecules and ions as every other part, 23 In solutions of solids dissolved in liquids we call the solid the solute and the liquid the. 25 In solutions of two liquids we call the minor component the solute and the major. component the solvent, 27 Crystals are solid particles whose component atoms ions or molecules are arranged in an.
organized repeating pattern, 29 Because spectator ions are not involved in the reaction they are often left out of the. chemical equation, 31 If in a chemical reaction more energy is released in the formation of new bonds than was. necessary to break old bonds energy is released overall and the reaction is exergonic. 33 If less energy is released in the formation of the new bonds than is necessary to break the old. bonds energy must be absorbed from the surroundings for the reaction to proceed. Chapter 7 117, Problems Key, Section 7 1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations. 35 Describe the information given in the following chemical equation Objs 2 3. 2CuHCO3 s Cu2CO3 s H2O l CO2 g, For each two particles of solid copper I hydrogen carbonate that are heated strongly. one particle of solid copper I carbonate one molecule of liquid water and one molecule. ionic compounds will lead to a precipitation reaction and how to write chemical equations for those reactions that do take place Our Web site provides 1 an animation that will help you to visualize precipitation reactions 2 a tutorial that will allow you to practice predicting whether ionic compounds are soluble in water or not and 3 a description of the process for writing complete

Related Books

Example Instructional Files Code Artifacts

Example Instructional Files Code Artifacts

Example Instructional Files Code Artifacts from SAP Data Services The Comprehensive Guide This supplement contains three documents that each provide a set of code arti facts to enable examples that were introd uced in the book to work in your own environment Each document contains a readme instructional file to guide you through the example s purpose configuration and execution steps

Javakursf r Fortgeschrittene uni muenchen de

Javakursf r Fortgeschrittene uni muenchen de

Iterator Mit einem Iteratork nnen wir sequentiell durch die Daten einer Collection wandern IfaceIteratorbzw Enumeration Mit Aufruf iterator erhalten wir den entspr Iterator Mit der statischen Methode enumeration Collection lt T gt c aus dem Paket java util Collectionserhalten wir den Enumeration lt T gt Mit Aufruf von hasNext bzw hasMoreElements k nnen wir pr fen ob es ein

Removal of Redundancy Contents Index The Author

 Removal of Redundancy Contents Index The Author

3 Removal of Redundancy 82 3 1 Benefits of a Redundancy Free System Data redundancy occurs if data is repeated in more than one location for exam ple in two separate database tables or can be comp uted from other data already

The Parfait Bug Checker

The Parfait Bug Checker

The Parfait Bug Checker Cristina Cifuentes Nathan Keynes Lian Li Sun Microsystems Laboratories Brisbane Australia 2 October 2009 Thursday 1 October 2009

Programmieren in C Rechenzentrum der CAU

Programmieren in C Rechenzentrum der CAU

Rechenzentrum Programmieren in C Simone Knief Rechenzentrum der CAU knief rz uni kiel de 09 09 11 09 2019 1

Assembler Programmierungf r x86 Prozessoren

Assembler Programmierungf r x86 Prozessoren

31 August2014 Onthe28thofApril2012thecontentsoftheEnglishaswellasGermanWikibooksandWikipedia projectswerelicensedunderCreativeCommonsAttribution ShareAlike3

HTML5 und CSS3 Das umfassende Handbuch

HTML5 und CSS3 Das umfassende Handbuch

5 Tabellen und Hyperlinks 182 Es spricht brigens nichts dagegen Spalten in mehr als zwei Zellen zusammenzufassen Hierbei m ssen Sie auf die Anzahl der tats c hlich vorhandenen Spal ten achten

GIMP 2 8 Das umfassende Handbuch

GIMP 2 8 Das umfassende Handbuch

J rgen Wolf GIMP 2 8 Das umfassende Handbuch 947 Seiten gebunden in Farbe mit DVD 39 90 Euro ISBN 978 3 8362 1721 7 www rheinwerk verlag de 2548

Windows Server 2019 Das umfassende Handbuch

Windows Server 2019 Das umfassende Handbuch

59 2 Kapitel 2 Rollen und Features Dieses Kapitel widmet sich den Rollen und Features von Windows Server 2019 Sie verleihen dem Betriebssystem Ger st das den Rahmen vorgibt erst Herz

Diagnostic Trouble Code DTC Descriptions

Diagnostic Trouble Code DTC Descriptions

Diagnostic Trouble Code DTC Descriptions P0118 Engine Coolant Temperature ECT Circuit High Input Indicates the sensor signal is greater than Self Test maximum The ECT sensor maximum is 4 6 volts or 50 C 46 F Note on some vehicles that are not equipped with an ECT sensor CHT can be used and can set this DTC Open circuit in

DESCRIPTION static nhtsa gov

DESCRIPTION static nhtsa gov

1288 3464 0 WEL ITV ITVH OCC self test failed 1292 7318 2 MIL ITV ITVP in range fault 1293 7318 3 MIL ITV ITVP signal out of range HIGH 1294 7318 4 MIL ITV ITVP signal out of range LOW 1295 51 4 WEL ITV ITV H bridge electrical check 1296 51 5 WEL ITV ITV H bridge electrical check 1297 51 3 WEL ITV ITV H bridge electrical check 1298 51 2 MIL ITV ITV operation fault under V over amp over