Chapter 5 Rotorcraft Flight Manual-Books Pdf

Chapter 5 Rotorcraft Flight Manual
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However if Pilot s Operating Handbook is used as the main General Information Section 1. title instead of Rotorcraft Flight Manual a statement must. The general information section provides the basic descriptive. be included on the title page indicating that the document. information on the rotorcraft and the powerplant In some. is the Federal Aviation Administration FAA approved. manuals there is a three view drawing of the rotorcraft that. Rotorcraft Flight Manual RFM Figure 5 1, provides the dimensions of various components including. the overall length and width and the diameter of the rotor. Not including the preliminary pages an FAA approved. systems This is a good place for pilots to quickly familiarize. RFM may contain as many as ten sections These sections. themselves with the aircraft Pilots need to be aware of the. are General Information Operating Limitations Emergency. dimensions of the helicopter since they often must decide. Procedures Normal Procedures Performance Weight, the suitability of an operations area for themselves as well. and Balance Aircraft and Systems Description Handling. as hanger space landing pad and ground handling needs. Servicing and Maintenance Supplements and Safety, and Operational Tips Manufacturers have the option of. Pilots can find definitions abbreviations explanations of. including a tenth section on safety and operational tips and. symbology and some of the terminology used in the manual. an alphabetical index at the end of the handbook, at the end of this section At the option of the manufacturer. metric and other conversion tables may also be included. Preliminary Pages, While RFMs may appear similar for the same make and Operating Limitations Section 2.
model of aircraft each flight manual is unique since it. The operating limitations section contains only those. contains specific information about a particular aircraft. limitations required by regulation or that are necessary for. such as the equipment installed and weight and balance. the safe operation of the rotorcraft powerplant systems. information Therefore manufacturers are required to include. and equipment It includes operating limitations instrument. the serial number and registration on the title page to identify. markings color coding and basic placards Some of the. the aircraft to which the flight manual belongs If a flight. areas included are airspeed altitude rotor and powerplant. manual does not indicate a specific aircraft registration and. limitations including fuel and oil requirements weight and. serial number it is limited to general study purposes only. loading distribution and flight limitations, Most manufacturers include a table of contents which. Instrument Markings, identifies the order of the entire manual by section number. Instrument markings may include but are not limited to. and title In addition some helicopters may include a log of. green red and yellow ranges for the safe operation of the. changes or a revision page to track changes to the manual. aircraft The green marking indicates a range of continuous. Usually each section also contains its own table of contents. operation The red range indicates the maximum or minimum. Page numbers reflect the section being read 1 1 2 1 3 1 and. operation allowed while the yellow range indicates a caution. so on If the flight manual is published in looseleaf form each. or transition area, section is usually marked with a divider tab indicating the. section number or title or both The emergency procedures. Airspeed Limitations, section may have a red tab for quick identification and. Airspeed limitations are shown on the airspeed indicator. by color coding and on placards or graphs in the aircraft A. red line on the airspeed indicator shows the airspeed limit. beyond which structural damage could occur This is called. the never exceed speed or VNE The normal operating speed. ROBINSON R22 range is depicted by a green arc A blue or a red cross hatched. line is sometimes added to show the maximum autorotation. speed Figure 5 2, R OTORCRAFT, F LIGHT Other airspeed limitations may be included in this section.
of the RFM Examples include reduced VNE when doors are. removed maximum airspeed for level flight with maximum. continuous power VH or restrictions when carrying an. external load Pilots need to understand and adhere to all. Figure 5 1 The RFM is a regulatory document in terms of the airspeed limitations appropriate to the make model and. maneuvers procedures and operating limitations described therein configuration of the helicopter being flown. 150 0 20 20, AIRSPEED 10 2 4 30, 0 ROTOR 40, Airspeed knots. 0 to 130 Knots 0 to 150 MPH continuous operation, 130 Knots 150 MPH maximum. 100 Knots 115 MPH maximum for autorotation Figure 5 3 Markings on a typical dual needle tachometer in a. reciprocating engine helicopter The outer band shows the limits. Figure 5 2 Typical airspeed indicator limitations and markings of the superimposed needles when the engine is turning the rotor. The inner band indicates the power off limits, Altitude Limitations. If the rotorcraft has a maximum operating density altitude maximum continuous power rating The maximum power. see page 7 2 it is indicated in this section of the flight rating is the maximum power the engine can generate and. manual Sometimes the maximum altitude varies based on is usually limited by time The maximum power range is. different gross weights depicted by a yellow arc on the engine power instruments. with a red line indicating the maximum power that must not. Rotor Limitations be exceeded Maximum continuous power is the maximum. Low rpm does not produce sufficient lift and high rpm may power the engine can generate continually and is depicted. cause structural damage therefore rotor rpm limitations have by a green arc Figure 5 4. minimum and maximum values A green arc depicts the. normal operating range with red lines showing the minimum Manifold pressure is a measure of vacuum at the intake. and maximum limits Figure 5 3 manifold It is the difference between the air pressure. or vacuum inside the intake manifold and the relative. There are two different rotor rpm limitations power on and atmospheric pressure of the air around the engine The. power off Power on limitations apply anytime the engine red line on a manifold pressure gauge indicates the. is turning the rotor and is depicted by a fairly narrow green maximum amount of power A yellow arc on the gauge. band A yellow arc may be included to show a transition warns of pressures approaching the limit of rated power. range which means that operation within this range is limited. due to the possibility of increased vibrations or harmonics. This range may be associated with tailboom dynamic modes. Power off limitations apply anytime the engine is not turning 50 80. the rotor such as when in an autorotation In this case the 40. TORQUE 90 2 OUT, green arc is wider than the power on arc indicating a larger 30. operating range 20, PERCENT 110 TEMP, 10 C x 100 8.
Powerplant Limitations, The powerplant limitations area describes operating. limitations on the helicopter s engine including such items. as rpm range power limitations operating temperatures Figure 5 4 Torque and turbine outlet temperature TOT gauges. and fuel and oil requirements Most turbine engines and are commonly used with turbine powered aircraft. some reciprocating engines have a maximum power and a. Figure 5 5 A placard near the gauge lists the maximum Press Alt. VNE MPH IAS Gross, readings for specific conditions 1 000 ft Weight. F OAT 2 4 6 8 10 12 14, Weight and Loading Distribution 0 109 109 105 84 61. 20 109 109 94 72 49 More, The weight and loading distribution section of the than. 40 109 103 81 59, manufacturer s RFM contains the maximum certificated 60 109 91 70 48 1 700 lb.
weights as well as the center of gravity CG range The 80 109 80 59. location of the reference datum used in balance computations 100 109 70 48. 0 109 109 109 109 98 77 58, should also be included in this section Weight and balance. 20 109 109 109 109 85 67 48, computations are not provided here but rather in the weight 1 700 lb. 40 109 109 109 96 75 57, and balance section of the RFM 60 109 109 108 84 66 48. 80 109 109 95 74 57, 100 109 108 84 66 48, Flight Limitations. Maximum VNE Doors off 102 MPH IAS, This area lists any maneuvers which are prohibited such.
as acrobatic flight or flight into known icing conditions If. NEVER EXCEED SPEED, the rotorcraft can only be flown in visual flight rules VFR 110. conditions it is noted in this area Also included are the 100. minimum crew requirements and the pilot seat location if VNE. applicable from which solo flights must be conducted C. Placards KIAS, All rotorcraft generally have one or more placards displayed. that have a direct and important bearing on the safe operation MAX ALT. of the rotorcraft These placards are located in a conspicuous 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14. place within the cabin and normally appear in the limitations Pressure Al ti tude 1 000 feet. section Since VNE varies with altitude this placard can be. found in all helicopters Figure 5 6 Figure 5 6 Various VNE placards. Emergency Procedures Section 3, Concise checklists describing the recommended procedures. and airspeeds for coping with various types of emergencies. 20 or critical situations can be found in this section Some of. 25 the emergencies covered include engine failure in a hover. 15 and at altitude tail rotor failures fires and systems failures. MANIFOLD The procedures for restarting an engine and for ditching in. the water might also be included, Manufacturers may first show the emergencies checklists in. I NCHES an abbreviated form with the order of items reflecting the. 5 OF MERCURY 35 sequence of action This is followed by amplified checklists. providing additional information to clarify the procedure To. 0 be prepared for an abnormal or emergency situation learn. the first steps of each checklist if not all the steps If time. permits refer to the checklist to make sure all items have. been covered For more information on emergencies refer. to Chapter 11 Helicopter Emergencies and Hazards, Figure 5 5 The manifold pressure gauge is an engine instrument Manufacturers are encouraged to include an optional area.
typically used in piston aircraft engines to measure the pressure titled Abnormal Procedures which describes recommended. inside the induction system of an engine Manifold pressure is a procedures for handling malfunctions that are not considered. measurement of vacuum and the measurement is taken at the intake to be emergencies This information would most likely be. manifold found in larger helicopters, Normal Procedures Section 4. The normal procedures section is the section most frequently. used It usually begins with a listing of airspeeds that 8 000 FT DENSITY ALTITUDE. MIXTURE FULL RICH, may enhance the safety of normal operations It is a good. idea to learn the airspeeds that are used for normal flight 10 000. operations The next part of the section includes several. checklists which cover the preflight inspection before tsi. starting procedure how to start the engine rotor engagement 8 000 tem. ground checks takeoff approach landing and shutdown tsi. Pressure Altitude ft, Some manufacturers also include the procedures for practice tem. autorotations To avoid skipping an important step always tsi rat. 6 000 air e2, use a checklist when one is available More information Ou tem 0 F. on maneuvers can be found in Chapter 9 Basic Flight de. Maneuvers and Chapter 10 Advanced Flight Maneuvers Ou tem 0 F. 4 000 tem e6, Performance Section 5 Ou, The performance section contains all the information required tem e8.
by the regulations and any additional performance information de rat. 2 000 tem e1, the manufacturer determines may enhance a pilot s ability to pe 00. operate the helicopter safely Although the performance section ur. is not in the limitation section and is therefore not a limitation F. operation outside or beyond the flight tested and documented 0. 1 400 1 500 1 600 1 700 1 800, performance section can be expensive slightly hazardous or. outright dangerous to life and property If the helicopter is Gross Weight lb. certificated under 14 CFR part 29 then the performance section. may very well be a restrictive limitation In any event a pilot Figure 5 7 One of the performance charts in the performance. should determine the performance available and plan to stay section is the In Ground Effect Hover Ceiling versus Gross Weight. within those parameters chart This chart can be used to determine how much weight can. be carried and still operate at a specific pressure altitude or if. These charts graphs and tables vary in style but all contain carrying a specific weight detrmine that specific altitude limitation. the same basic information Some examples of the performance. information that can be found in most flight manuals include helicopters the manufacturer may assume a higher degree of. a calibrated versus indicated airspeed conversion graph knowledge For more information on helicopter systems refer. hovering ceiling versus gross weight charts and a height to Chapter 4 Helicopter Components Sections and Systems. velocity diagram Figure 5 7 For information on how to use. often used in place of Rotorcraft Flight Manual RFM Rotorcraft Flight Manual Chapter 5 5 2 ROBINSON R22 ROTORCRAFT FLIGHT MANAL Figure 5 1 The RFM is a regulatory document in terms of the maneuvers procedures and operating limitations described therein However if Pilot s Operating Handbook is used as the main title instead of Rotorcraft Flight Manual a statement

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