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45 2 Orga n i z ation a n d ma nag e m e n t,s u mm a r y. Appropriate medicine use in the hospital setting is a Patient medication profiles maintained in the phar. multi disciplinary responsibility that includes macy department. Medication administration records maintained by,Selection and formulary management by a multi. disciplinary committee,Periodic inspection of medicine storage areas. Prescribing by the physician, Procedures for strict control of dangerous drugs and. Procurement storage medication order review and,controlled substances.
preparation and dispensing by the pharmacy depart,Responsible disposal of pharmaceutical waste. Procedures for after hours pharmacy service, Medication administration by nurses or other health. care professionals Small scale pharmaceutical production often is not cost. Monitoring the effect of medicines on the patient by effective and should be evaluated by the DTC. all members of the health care team, The control of narcotics is of particular concern in the. The drug and therapeutics committee DTC is respon hospital setting and requires a systematic approach for. sible for developing policies and procedures to promote the prevention and detection of abuse. rational medicine use Its functions include, A hospital exists to provide diagnostic and curative ser. Management of the approved medicine list or hospi vices to patients Pharmaceuticals are an integral part of. tal formulary patient care Appropriate use of medicines in the hospital. Ongoing drug use review is a multidisciplinary responsibility shared by physicians. Adverse drug event reporting and implementation nurses pharmacists administrators support personnel. of safe medication practices and patients A medical committee sometimes called. the drug and therapeutics committee pharmacy and,Members of the DTC should include representatives.
therapeutics committee or the medicine and therapeu. from the medical pharmacy and nursing staffs hospital. tics committee is responsible for approving policies and. administrators and the quality assurance coordinator. procedures and monitoring practices to promote safe and. Subcommittees are often formed for in depth analysis of. effective medicine use The pharmacy department under. particular issues, the direction of a qualified pharmacist should be respon. The pharmacy department under the direction of a sible for controlling the distribution of medicines and. qualified pharmacist is responsible for the procurement promoting their safe use This task is challenging because. storage and distribution of medications throughout the medicines are prescribed by physicians administered by. hospital In larger hospitals satellite pharmacies may nurses and stored throughout the hospital. bring the pharmacist closer to patient care areas facili. This chapter covers hospital specific pharmaceutical. tating interactions between pharmacists and patients. management issues such as pharmacy department orga. In some settings the pharmacist is used as a resource. nization and alternative pharmaceutical distribution sys. for medicine information and specialized medication. tems Several functions of the DTC are discussed with an. therapy management,emphasis on formulary management Other important. Medications may be distributed in bulk in courses of issues relevant to hospital pharmaceutical management. therapy or in unit doses Unit dose distribution is opti are treated in Chapter 17 on treatment guidelines and. mal for patient care but requires initial capital outlay for formulary manuals and Chapters 28 and 29 on investi. repackaging equipment and medication cabinets Recent gating medicine use and on promoting rational pre. technological advances such as computerized dispensing scribing respectively Chapter 35 Pharmacovigilance. machines and bar coding are now available to further discusses adverse drug reaction monitoring and medica. promote safe medication practices tion error management. Additional mechanisms for inpatient medicine manage. ment include,45 Hospital pharmacy management 45 3, 45 1 Responsibilities of hospital staff hospital customarily fall within the purview of the. medical staff committees usually including the DTC. The hospital pharmacist should be an expert on medicines The DTC may establish protocols or procedures that. who advises on prescribing administering and monitoring allow pharmacists or nurses to prescribe within spe. as well as a supply manager who ensures that medicines are cific guidelines. available through procurement storage distribution inven 2 Preparation and dispensing The pharmacy depart. tory control and quality assurance The balance between ment under the direction of a registered pharmacist is. these two roles varies depending on the individual s back responsible for preparing and dispensing medications. ground and the work setting A pharmacist may assume a Policies and procedures for these functions should be. prominent clinical role in settings where his or her knowl approved by the DTC The chief pharmacist reports to. edge of clinical pharmacology and capacity to provide hospital administration. expert advice have earned the acceptance of hospital medi 3 Medication administration Administering medica. cal and nursing staff tions is generally the responsibility of the nursing. The responsibility for establishing policies and procedures staff The chief nursing officer oversees all nursing. related to medication selection procurement distribution functions In some cases physicians may administer. and use often lies with the DTC Because the medicine use medicines such as anesthetic agents Other health. process is multidisciplinary the committee should include care professionals may administer medicines within. representation from all functional areas involved medical the scope of their practice for example midwives. staff nursing pharmacy quality assurance and hospital attending deliveries. administration 4 Monitoring the effect of medications on the patient and. ordering appropriate changes in therapy Monitoring. Purchasing and stock management activities are primarily the responsibility of the physi. cian However observation and reporting are required. In some hospitals a separate department manages all hos from the person who administered the medication. pital purchasing pharmaceuticals medical supplies equip usually the nurse and from other members of the. ment and so forth this department may be called medical health care team involved in the patient s therapy In. stores or materiel management In such cases the chief some settings a clinical pharmacist or pharmacolo. pharmacist prepares an annual budget request for pharma gist monitors medication therapy in the hospital and. ceutical purchases and places orders for medicines through consults on medication therapies that require special. the medical stores expertise to ensure safety and efficacy for example. In other settings the pharmacy department manages total parenteral nutrition anticoagulation or treat. pharmaceutical purchasing directly No single individual ment with aminoglycoside antibiotics. should have total control of pharmaceutical procurement. A designated committee should review and approve all pur Government agencies and licensing boards regulate medi. chases either a special purchasing committee or the DTC cations through laws and professional practice standards. see below may manage this function The laws and regulations usually specify that the chief phar. Procedures for procurement and inventory management macist be the person responsible for the control of medica. should be written in a manual that has been approved by tions within a hospital including procurement storage and. hospital administration and the appropriate committees distribution throughout the facility. the procedures for purchasing should follow guidelines Although the chief pharmacist is responsible for the phar. provided in Chapters 18 and 23 Stock management pro maceutical budget and the control of medications he or she. cedures are determined by the facility s size and whether a does not supervise those who prescribe or administer the. warehouse is attached to the hospital see Chapters 44 and medications In addition in some hospitals purchasing. 46 receiving and storing of medications are handled by a medi. cal stores department that is not under the supervision of. Medication use the pharmacist, These varying responsibilities illustrate the complex. The medication use process can be divided into four com ity of pharmaceutical procurement storage and use in the. ponents hospital Efforts to improve the system should respect this. complexity and include multidisciplinary representation. 1 Prescribing The physician has overall responsibility and involvement Coordination is required at the policy. for the care of the patient prescribing or ordering level through the DTC at the management level beginning. medications as part of the treatment plan The mecha with hospital administration and through the different. nisms to ensure appropriate prescribing within the branches of the organizational tree. 45 4 Orga n i z ation a n d ma nag e m e n t, 45 2 Organization of hospital pharmacy Inpatient dispensing is sometimes done from satellite.
services pharmacies throughout the hospital In larger hospitals. satellite pharmacies are beneficial because they enable a. In organizing hospital pharmacy services both the way in shorter turnaround time for individual medication orders. which the staff is organized and the physical layout of the especially in distribution systems that dispense medications. building must be considered packaged for individual patients Satellites also increase the. pharmacist s presence in the patient care area facilitating. Personnel interactions with medical staff nursing staff and patients. and thus ultimately improving patient care, Hospital pharmacy personnel can be divided into three With satellite pharmacies there is reduced need for ward. major categories stocks However each satellite requires a certain minimum. inventory level of pharmaceuticals A system with multiple. 1 Management Management includes the chief pharma satellites most likely has a higher total inventory level than. cist and sometimes deputy chief pharmacists who are that of a central pharmacy system The higher inventory and. responsible for procurement distribution and control additional personnel costs needed to staff satellite pharma. of all pharmaceuticals used within the institution and cies may be justified by reductions in pharmaceutical supply. for management of personnel within the pharmacy costs because there is less wastage and improvements in. department patient care Whether or not multiple satellite pharmacies. 2 Professional staff These professionals are qualified serve inpatients separate pharmacies often serve inpatients. pharmacists who procure distribute and control and outpatients Figure 45 1 illustrates how a hospital phar. medi cations and supervise support staff for these macy with separate inpatient and outpatient departments is. activities In some facilities pharmacists provide clini organized in one African country. cal consulting services and medicine information, 3 Support staff The support staff category often includes. a combination of trained pharmacy technicians cleri 45 3 Hospital drug and therapeutics. cal personnel and messengers committee, The smallest hospitals may have only two or three phar Most commonly the committee designated to ensure the. macy staff members with the chief pharmacist as the only safe and effective use of medications in the hospital is the. pharmacist Larger teaching hospitals that provide extensive DTC The American Society of Health System Pharmacists. pharmaceutical distribution and clinical services may have guidelines on DTCs state that medication use is an inher. more than 100 staff members ently complex and dangerous process that requires constant. The cornerstone for a well functioning medication sys evaluation Organizations need to implement tools and. tem is an up to date manual of policies and procedures processes necessary to meet the goals of using medications. Staff members should be familiar with the manual and effectively and safely ASHP 2008. adhere to it,Purpose and functions,Physical organization. The DTC promotes the rational use of medication through. The extent of the pharmacy s physical facility is determined the development of relevant policies and procedures for. by the size of the hospital and the services provided A large medication selection procurement distribution and use. pharmacy department might have the following sections and through the education of patients and staff Country. within one physical space or in separate locations through Study 45 1 lists the functions of the DTC in an Afghan hos. out the hospital pital, In some hospitals the DTC becomes overwhelmed with.
Administrative offices the difficulty of obtaining an adequate supply of medica. Bulk storage tions Members are caught up in routine decisions about. Narcotic or dangerous drug locker which medicines to buy how much and from whom. Manufacturing and repackaging rather than focusing on long term planning policies and. Intravenous solution compounding programs for improving the safe and cost effective use of. Inpatient and outpatient dispensing medications As discussed in most settings daily purchas. Medicine information resource center ing decisions can be handled by the chief pharmacist with. After hours pharmacy supervision by the DTC or another committee responsible. Emergency medicine storage for procurement,45 Hospital pharmacy management 45 5. Figure 45 1 Multiple department pharmacy system,Medical Supplies. Coordinating Unit,Issue and Receipt Voucher S12,Hospital Bulk. Pharmacy Store,Bin Card S3, Counter Requisition and Pharmacist Counter Requisition and. Issue Voucher S11 Issue Voucher S11,Outpatient Pharmacy.
Inpatient Pharmacy,Medicines and Revenue Register, Hospital Pharmacy Bin Card Hospital Pharmacy Bin Card. DDA Register for Pharmacy DDA Register for Pharmacy. Oral Antibiotics Sulfonamides Register,Counter Requisition and. Issue Voucher S11,Medications,Operating Special Service OPD Injection Flow of. Wards Requests,Room Areas e g X ray Room, Source Ministry of Health Government of Kenya 1994. DDA Dangerous Drugs Act, Note Forms and registers for wards operating room special areas and outpatient department OPD injection room are the same as for the central pharmacy system.
Membership ciently a membership of eight to fifteen members often ful. fills these criteria The committee may occasionally invite. An effective DTC requires that members participate in meet a specialist to make a presentation or provide advice on a. ings and assist with other committee activities Membership particular issue For example a cardiologist may attend. should include representation from a committee meeting to advise members regarding a for. mulary decision on a new cardiac medication DTCs often. Medical staff including representation from each have subcommittees to address particular issues such as. department antibiotic use drug use evaluations or medication errors. Pharmacy the chief pharmacist often serves as the Subcommittees can manage specific tasks without consum. secretary ing a large portion of the DTC s meeting time. Hospital administration Hospital formulary management. Quality assurance staff, The hospital formulary is the cornerstone of medication. The committee should have broad representation but be management in the hospital and it should be the princi. sufficiently small and manageable to conduct business effi pal concern of the DTC The issues related to medication. 45 6 Orga n i z ation a n d ma nag e m e n t,Country Study 45 1. Functions of a hospital drug and therapeutics committee in Afghanistan. Facility based DTCs will be set up by the steering Providing education to local health care providers. bodies of the individual health facilities in association on the appropriate use of medicines. with the National Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic, The members will be appointed according to their posi. tions and responsibilities within the health facility The. The DTCs basic functions include DTC member numbers will be defined based on the. health facility level In the majority of heath facilities the. Establishing local policies and procedures on the use DTCs will include the following members. of medicines, Ensuring that the national essential medicines list One representative from each specialized medical. and local formularies are used appropriately in the service of health facility senior physician. facility One representative from the nursing department. Disseminating national standard treatment guide One representative from the pharmacy department. lines STGs and developing local STGs for common One representative from the administration and. diseases and medical conditions finance department. Conducting medicine use evaluations in the facility Other members appointed according to their per. Conducting facility based pharmacovigilance sonal expertise specialists in pharmaceutical infor. activities mation or quality assurance, Monitoring medicine use at the health facility Source Ministry of Public Health Government of Afghanistan 2009.
selecttion for formularies are treated in detail in Chapter Ensure that the hospital formulary corresponds with. 17 the following list provides general guidelines for the any national or regional standard treatment guide. hospital setting lines that have been formally approved by the health. Limit the formulary list to conserve resources stock. ing all medicines on the national formulary is usually In addition to the basic formulary process many hospitals. not necessary add two more features therapeutic substitution and use. Eliminate generic duplication only one brand or restrictions for certain medications in the formulary. label of each generic medicine should be routinely. stocked Therapeutic substitution sometimes called therapeutic. Minimize the number of strengths stocked for the interchange is based on the hospital formulary The. same medication multiples of lower strengths can be DTC provides guidelines for substituting specific formu. used for infrequently needed higher strengths lary medicines for specific nonformulary medicines or a. Select medications for the formulary based on diseases specific category of medications usually for specific dis. and conditions treated at the facility ease conditions Whenever a prescription is written for a. Specify formulary medicines of choice for common nonformulary medicine that is covered by the therapeu. therapeutic indications Medicines of choice should tic substitution policy the designated formulary product. be selected by comparing efficacy safety toxicity is automatically substituted by the pharmacy department. pharmacokinetic properties bioequivalence and or nurse Note that this substitution is not generic the. pharmaceutical and therapeutic equivalence Cost two products are chemically different. effectiveness and availability should be primary The DTC should develop formal written policies. considerations evaluating alternatives as described specifying which medicines or categories of medica. in Chapters 10 and 17 After medicines of choice are tions are suitable for automatic therapeutic substi. selected they form the basis for standard treatment tution These programs usually start with relatively. guidelines and for therapeutic substitution programs noncontroversial medication categories such as antac. see below ids and vitamins and progress over time to other thera. Include second line alternatives to medicines of peutic groups such as antibiotics and certain cardiac. choice as needed but minimize therapeutic duplica medications as physicians become comfortable with. tion therapeutic exchange Two main arguments are used to. 45 Hospital pharmacy management 45 7, justify therapeutic substitution programs One is that Establish procedures and approved product lists for. such programs ensure that only the most cost effective therapeutic substitution. products are routinely used a policy that has obvious Provide easy access to the formulary list copies at. benefits in terms of controlling both actual purchase each medication ordering location and in pocket. costs and inventory holding costs see Chapter 23 In manuals. settings where funds are limited the more limited the Involve medical staff in all impending formulary deci. list of medications that are routinely stocked the more sions. likely that all those medications will always be available Advertise and promote formulary changes. The other justification is that the DTC has presumably. spent considerable effort selecting medications that Requests to use nonformulary medicines should be moni. offer the best therapeutic value for the conditions cov tored by the DTC If many nonformulary medicine requests. ered by therapeutic substitution An ancillary benefit is come from a particular physician or if requests are frequent. that hospital staff will be more familiar with the proper for a particular nonformulary medicine the committee. methods for handling reconstituting and administering should take action Actions may include adding the medi. the formulary products cine to the formulary educating physicians on the rationale. Therapeutic substitution is often resisted by staff physi for the nonformulary status of the medicine or banning the. cians but almost 90 percent of hospitals in the United medicine from use in the hospital Country Study 45 2 is an. States a stronghold of physician independence have example of a procedure for nonformulary medicine use in a. substitution policies in place Pederson et al 2008 hospital in the United States. Therapeutic substitution is often practiced informally. and unintentionally in hospitals where stockouts are Drug use review. common if the prescribed medicine is out of stock, another must be substituted Physicians who practice in Drug use review DUR is a tool to identify such common. such settings are likely accustomed to the concept problems as inappropriate product selection incorrect dos. Normally the therapeutic substitution policy allows ing avoidable adverse drug reactions and errors in medica. escape clauses for specific patients The physician can tion dispensing and administration DUR may then be used. submit a special form that justifies the use of a specific to implement action plans for change DUR is an ongoing. nonformulary medicine for a specific patient as dis planned systematic process for monitoring evaluating and. cussed below improving medicine use and is an integral part of hospi. Use restrictions are most often applied in larger hospitals tal efforts to ensure quality and cost effectiveness More. where specialist physicians are on staff Restrictions appropriate and more effective use of medicines ultimately. may apply to certain individual formulary medicines or results in improved patient care and more efficient use of. to certain categories of medicines the principle is that resources. restricted medicines can be prescribed only by certain Chapter 28 provides an overview of the concepts and. specialists or can be used only on certain wards Such approaches for investigating medication use Chapter 29. restrictions are generally applied to particularly expen contains the specific methodologies for developing a hospi. sive medications such as anticlotting medications or tal DUR program. particularly toxic medications such as cancer chemo. therapy however some hospitals go further requiring. specialist consultation on many different categories of 45 4 Inpatient medication management. medications Restrictions should be carefully considered. they decrease the use of medicines involved which may In general the issues presented in Chapter 30 for good dis. or may not be desirable increase the demand on spe pensing practices are relevant to the hospital setting Patient. cialists and potentially the cost of services and increase education and medication counseling are described in. administrative burdens for nurses and pharmacists who Chapter 33 and are also applicable in hospitals The purchas. must manage the process ing and inventory strategies described in Chapter 23 should. be applied in the hospital setting, Methods to promote formulary adherence include the fol. lowing Medication distribution systems, Review and take action on all nonformulary medicine Medication distribution has long been the primary function. use of hospital pharmacy services, Prohibit use or distribution of samples of nonformu Four basic types of medication distribution systems.
lary products exist,45 8 Orga n i z ation a n d ma nag e m e n t. 1 Bulk ward stock replenishment use of ward stock medications should be minimized but it is. 2 Individual medication order system appropriate and desirable for certain situations. 3 Unit dose system, 4 Automated medication dispensing In emergency departments and operating rooms. medications are usually required immediately after the. Variations of each exist and all four systems may be in use physician prescribes them Unless a pharmacy satel. in the same facility depending on the strategy developed lite is located in these emergency areas dispensing. For example a facility may use the bulk ward stock system medications according to individual patient orders is. for high volume low cost medicines aspirin paracetamol not possible Unfortunately medicines used in these. and antacids that do not require a high level of control for situations are often expensive and control is always a. preventing theft or medication errors Individual medica challenge for the pharmacy department. tion order systems or unit doses can be used for medicines In life threatening emergency situations medications. requiring a higher level of control see Table 45 1 In addi need to be kept in patient care areas as a time saving. tion automated dispensing systems are now frequently used measure. in developed countries and will become more common in High volume low cost medicines can be dispensed. the future from ward stock if the patient safety risk is low. Bulk ward stock Individual medication order system. In a ward stock system the pharmacy functions as a ware The individual medication order system closely resembles. house and dispenses bulk containers on requisition without dispensing to outpatients a course of therapy is dispensed. reviewing individual patient medication orders for appro according to a written prescription for an individual patient. priateness The main advantage is shorter turnaround time Compared with ward stock distribution the advantages are. between prescribing and administering the medication The that the pharmacist can review the appropriateness of ther. Country Study 45 2, Procedure for the use of nonformulary medicines in a U S hospital. A limited formulary of medicines may not satisfy all Nonformulary Medicine Request Form. individual or unique patient needs A physician may For One Time One Patient Use. request use of a nonformulary medicine on a one time Patient Room Date. one course of therapy one patient basis,Medicine name strength dosage form. The physician requesting the nonformulary medicine. or the pharmacist receiving the medicine order must fill Current formulary alternatives suggested by pharmacist. out the nonformulary medicine request form The phar. macist receiving the request must inform the physician Why is this agent preferable to the formulary alternatives. of alternative medicines that may be used The pharma. cist must also indicate how long it will take before the. medicine will be available The physician and pharmacist Was this medicine request prompted by a manufacturer s. representative yes no, should avoid obtaining the medicine by special delivery.
or borrowing from another hospital if possible Are you requesting permanent addition of the medicine to the. medi ca tion formulary yes no, Nonformulary medicines will be stocked in the nonfor If so will you be present at the next pharmacy and therapeutics. mulary section of the pharmacy only during the individ com mittee meeting to discuss the advantages of this. medicine yes no, ual patient s course of therapy The pharmacy will track. expenses related to nonformulary medicines and report If accepted what formulary medicines do you recommend. for deletion,to the drug and therapeutics committee. Prescribing doctor,45 Hospital pharmacy management 45 9. Table 45 1 Comparison matrix for pharmaceutical distribution system. Individual Automated, Factor Bulk ward stock medication order Unit dose dispensing.
Material and supply costs Low Medium low High Very high. Pharmacy labor costs Low Medium High High,Nursing labor costs Medium low Low Low Low. Pilferage risk High Medium Low Very low,Medication error risk High Medium low Low Low. apy a patient specific medication profile can be maintained Patient medication profiles. pharmacy charges to patients are facilitated and closer con. trol of inventory is possible This system can limit the time Patient medication profiles are necessary if hospital phar. intervals for dispensing for example an individual supply macists are to monitor inpatient medication therapy Each. for three days of therapy is sent initially if therapy is contin profile contains data on the patient s current and recent. ued beyond three days the empty container is returned to pharmaceutical therapy allergies diagnosis height weight. the pharmacy to be refilled age and sex Profiles work best in conjunction with unit. dose medicine distribution or automated dispensing sys. Unit dose medicine distribution tems but can be used with the individual medication order. A preferred system from a patient care perspective is the A pharmacy profile allows the pharmacist to review all. unit dose system which has a lower possibility for error the medications that a patient is taking before dispens. Medications are dispensed in unit dose packages each dose ing the first dose and with each new medication order. is separately packaged in separate bins or drawers for each Problems with pharmaceutical therapy such as allergies. patient Commonly a twenty four hour supply is provided duplicate therapy medicine medicine interactions medi. Medications returned to the pharmacy can be put back in cine disease interactions inappropriate length of therapy. stock without concern for identity or contamination This and inappropriate dosing can be detected and avoided or. system is efficient but requires a large initial capital outlay corrected. for the purchase of repackaging machines and medica Computerized pharmacy systems display the patient s. tion cabinets with individual patient drawers The cost per medication profile on the screen and the pharmacist edits. delivered dose is higher than with bulk packaging but this the screen with each new order Medication interactions. increased expense may be offset by reduced wastage and dosage ranges and other monitoring functions can be. easier detection of leakage Hospitals in some countries have programmed into the computer In developed countries. found innovative ways of adapting local technologies to information technology advances now provide linkages to. construct their own fixtures and equipment patient specific information from laboratory and clinical. monitoring,Automated medication dispensing,Medication treatment record. Technology based interventions have been investigated as a. mechanism to improve medication distribution and reduce Also known as the medication administration record. medication errors that lead to adverse drug reactions The MAR the medication treatment record helps the nurse. use of automated dispensing machines has become com schedule treatments for each patient and provides a per. monplace in many hospitals but cost remains a big deter manent record of the medications administered It also. rent for implementation in resource limited settings The allows nurses to review the patient s pharmaceutical regi. mechanism is founded on a computer interface between the men and provides a way to compare quantities of medi. hospital pharmacy computer terminals and the dispensing cations dispensed from and returned to the pharmacy. machines at the clinical ward This system electronically with quantities administered to the patient Physicians. controls and tracks the dispensing of unit doses for each review MARs to verify current therapy and as part of. patient based on individual medication profile The dispens their routine rounds The trend is toward computerizing. ing machines allow medicines to be stored on the ward and MARs in the United States over two thirds of hospital. to be more conveniently accessed by the clinical staff See pharmacies surveyed in 2005 used computer generated or. chapter 11 in AHRQ 2001 for an overview electronic records Pedersen et al 2006 Country Study. 45 10 Orga n i z ation a n d ma nag e m e n t, 45 3 describes the procedure for completing a medication Procedures specific to the procurement reception stor. treatment record used in Kenya age dispensing and administration of controlled drugs. should establish a readily retrievable trail of accountability. Ward and department inspections for each individual drug unit The records should docu. ment ordering receiving dispensing administration and. The pharmacy department should undertake periodic wastage Perpetual inventory records should be used at all. inspections of medication storage areas throughout the storage sites and controlled drug stocks should be counted. hospital to ensure appropriate levels of properly stored med and reconciled against the records daily with unexplained. ications to monitor expiration dates and to remove unnec losses reported to the pharmacy Controlled substances. essary stock Figure 45 2 is a sample ward inspection record stored throughout the hospital should be securely double. When problems are detected in inspections pharmacy and locked within a well constructed storage area with the. nursing staff must develop methods to correct the situation pharmacy department in control of the distribution and. duplication of keys, Dangerous drugs and controlled substances Methadone maintenance therapy MMT programs.
which some countries are endorsing as a way to prevent. Controlled substances require greater attention in the hospi the spread of HIV AIDS can significantly impact a hospi. tal setting than other medications just as they do outside the tal s ability to manage controlled drugs In general terms. hospital The various definitions and categories of controlled hospitals are already familiar with handling largely inject. drugs all relate to abuse and addiction potential able narcotics typically in 2 to 5 mL vials along with other. Country Study 45 3,Kenya medication treatment record. Purpose tor or clinical officer The order should include the. date and time the order was written the medication. Each inpatient has a medication treatment sheet see. name strength dose route of administration fre,opposite on which all medications prescribed are. quency and duration a legible official name and the. recorded by the consultant medical officer or clinical. signature of the prescriber, officer and on which all medications administered are. recorded by the nursing staff In addition individual pre 4 In addition for DDA medicines and specific other. scriptions are required for Dangerous Drugs Act DDA medicines designated by the hospital drug and. drugs and specific other medicines designated by the therapeutics committee individual prescriptions are. hospital drug and therapeutics committee required entries for DDA medicines must be in red. 5 When a medication is administered to a patient the. 1 At the time of admission a medication treatment sheet. nurse or clinician administering the medicine writes. is completed by the clinician with the following infor. the date and time of administration and signs in the. appropriate place on the medication treatment sheet. Patient s complete name all names must be,6 When an ordered medicine cannot be administered. included to ensure proper identification, for any reason the nurse writes in the patient s nursing.
Medication allergies, notes the name of the medicine the date and time the. Inpatient number, medicine was to be administered and the reason that. Ward and bed number, the medicine could not be administered patient not. Age and sex,on ward unavailability any other reason. 2 For easy access during hospitalization the treatment. 7 The nursing officer should regularly review medica. sheet is kept at the foot or head of the patient s bed. tion treatment sheets to ensure that they are being. with the observation sheet Because of this accessibil. used properly on all wards and that all required infor. ity the diagnosis should not be written on the treat. mation is being recorded,ment sheet, 3 All medication orders must be written on the medica.
tion treatment sheet by an authorized prescriber doc. 45 Hospital pharmacy management 45 11,Ministry of Health. Medication Treatment Sheet,Patient Allergies,Inpatient Ward Age. Bed No Sex,Name of Institution, Note Use RED pen for DDA Enter your own signature for every medicine given. TO BE COMPLETED BY CLINICIAN TO BE COMPLETED BY NURSING STAFF. DATES AND SIGNATURE,DATE MEDICATIONS TIME,STAT PRN AND PRE OP MEDICATIONS. TO BE COMPLETED BY CLINICIAN TO BE COMPLETED BY NURSING STAFF. DATE MEDICATIONS DATES TIMES AND SIGNATURE, Source Ministry of Health Government of Kenya 1994.
45 12 Orga n i z ation a n d ma nag e m e n t, Figure 45 2 Sample ward inspection record can come in or a nursing supervisor can dispense medica. tions Medication dispensing by nonpharmacists should. Nursing ward Inspection date be limited however to preserve the system of checks and. balances and to prevent medication errors To minimize the. Check each item that complies with standards risk of incorrect dispensing the following measures can be. Medication storage area orderly and clean taken, Internal use injectable medications separated from. disinfectants and toxic medications Establish procedures for after hours pharmacy service. Medications properly secured from theft Require training or in house certification of nurses. No unlabeled or mislabeled medicines present before they undertake dispensing responsibility. No unauthorized floor stock Prohibit after hours access to most of the pharmacy. No excessive floor stock quantities A limited formulary of prepackaged and labeled. No expired products in stock medicines can be provided in a separate locked night. Medication refrigerator temperature maintained within. limits see temperature log Require completion of dispensing records by the nurse. Narcotics properly secured and records complete and subsequent review by the pharmacist. Approved emergency medicines in stock,Concentration date and time mixed written on. reconstituted injectables 45 5 Small scale hospital pharmaceutical. Medication formulary list available production, Pharmacist s comments on areas of nonadherence to standards The several types of pharmaceutical production that exist. have varying levels of complexity see Chapter 7 The type. of small scale production of pharmaceuticals in a hospital. pharmacy could include secondary production from exist. ing raw materials that are usually imported and the packag. Action recommended, ing or repackaging of finished goods into smaller dispensing.
packs and course of therapy COT packages tertiary pro. duction Small scale production can be further divided into. nonsterile and sterile production or compounding Most. Pharmacist, hospitals repackage medications in smaller unit dose con. tainers and may compound specialty items such as creams. Nurse in charge, with special formulations however hospitals should evalu. ate the feasibility of producing any pharmaceutical products. based on the availability of qualified staff adequate facilities. sufficient equipment and all the other necessary resources. small volume preparations but because of the dilute nature see Country Study 45 5. of the products used in methadone maintenance therapy The following sections examine some of the management. for oral administration typically 1 to 10 mg mL and daily issues for each type of production in order of increasing. treatment regimens typically 70 mL per day large physical complexity. volumes of products can be required Even a small MMT. program can dramatically increase the need for narcotic Repackaging and course of therapy packaging. product secure storage space and handling of bulk products. in facilities that are designed to handle much lower volumes Repackaging and COT packaging are relatively simple forms. see Country Study 45 4 Methadone programs can also of local pharmaceutical production They require the ability. force the facilities pharmacy service departments to take on to provide adequate packaging labeling and control of the. unwanted small scale production responsibilities final product. Repackaging is usually considered when the product can. After hours pharmacy be purchased in bulk quantities at a favorable price and then. repackaged locally where labor costs are lower and when. Although the need for medications is continuous many local language labeling may be important In addition to the. hospitals cannot justify staffing a pharmacy department cost savings a more convenient package size can be made. twenty four hours a day If medications must be obtained available to small health centers and individuals as Table. while the pharmacy is closed either an on call pharmacist 45 2 illustrates. 45 Hospital pharmacy management 45 13,Country Study 45 4. Scaling up methadone maintenance therapy in Vietnam. In an attempt to curtail the spread of HIV among inject tenance program which distributes 1 g vials of metha. ing drug users in Vietnam the government piloted the done powder to dispensing sites for a total of only 2 5 1 g. country s first community based methadone program in vials per patient year These 1 g powder vials fit more eas. seven clinics in Hai Phong Ho Chi Minh City and Ha ily into existing narcotics storage cabinets and a single. Noi City in 2008 HIV prevalence is higher in injecting vial is simply dissolved into commercially available 1 liter. drug users 30 percent than any other subpopulation in bottles of simple syrup at the dispensing site to produce. Vietnam By 2010 about 1 800 clients had received free the appropriate 1 mg mL dose to dispense to patients. MMT along with basic health care services and HIV care. As a result of positive pilot program results the Ministry. and treatment including antiretroviral therapy, of Health in Vietnam plans to expand methadone main. In planning for the program the national Pharmacy tenance therapy to cover 80 000 clients in thirty prov. and Therapeutics Committee chose a base of 10 mg inces This will require moving 204 000 liters of narcotic. mL of methadone solution for the therapy This decision product per year and assuring the capacity for its secure. made it necessary to transport large volumes of narcot storage. ics around the country typically 2 5 liters per patient. year and to squeeze large secure storage cabinets into While many factors go into choosing the most appropri. already overcrowded hospital pharmacies Then the ate preparations to use physical storage and distribu. pharmacies had to dilute the solution to 1 mg mL to tion sizes should not be neglected The Pharmacy and. dispense to patients a procedure which because of the Therapeutics Committee may need to reconsider its. regulations on handling narcotics is fairly onerous choice of methadone formulation in order to facilitate. large scale program expansion, This system of providing methadone therapy product can.
be contrasted to the United Kingdom s methadone main Sources Thanh Nien News 2010 Family Health International 2010. Many types of glass and plastic are used with the choice packaging labeling and other control procedures Figure. often depending on what is being packaged For instance 45 3 shows a sample pharmacy production and control. acids solvents and corrosive materials must be packaged worksheet. in glass with lids that can be firmly closed Fortunately The chief pharmacist of the facility is usually responsible. the majority of simple liquids solids and tablets can be for developing the master production formulas and instruc. packaged in rigid plastic bottles or resealable polyethylene tions as well as for training production staff The staff. bags of various sizes and thicknesses usually with a write should always work from copies of the master production. on panel for labeling or handwritten instructions to the and control worksheet with a unique control number pre. patient assigned by the pharmacist in charge Any changes to that. formula such as scaling down quantities to make a smaller. Nonsterile production batch should be made only by a qualified pharmacist. A pharmacy preparation no matter how simple should. Nonsterile production of topical ointments and oral or topi never be made from memory The working copy of the phar. cal liquids is more difficult and complex than repackaging macy production control worksheet should be readily avail. but less demanding than sterile production If the facil able or posted in the production area for easy reference and. ity plans to carry out only nonsterile production resource initialing of each production step and control procedure. requirements can be simplified However standard written. instructions for batch preparation and packaging must be Sterile production. followed and quality control must be closely monitored for. each aspect of the process Sterile production is the most demanding type and it. Every product requires a well designed production con must be carried out in strict compliance with current good. trol worksheet also called a batch documentation sheet manufacturing practices GMPs Depending on need and. It clearly specifies the production formula the detailed capacity sterile products that can be manufactured include. recipe that the pharmacist must follow precisely and the eyedrops small volume injections and large volume injec. instructions for preparation It includes spaces to verify tions or parenteral products. 45 14 Orga n i z ation a n d ma nag e m e n t,Country Study 45 5. Assessing the feasibility of small scale pharmaceutical production in the Catholic Diocesan. Hospital Pharmacies of Ghana, The Diocesan Hospital Pharmacies DHPs were origi requirements for sterile operations are not ade. nally established in 1976 to provide pharmaceuticals and quately met. medical supplies to National Catholic Health Service Could continue to produce non terminally sterile. facilities in Ghana The DHP produced their own prod products such as ophthalmic items as long as they. ucts such as infusions injections ointments and drops made several facility upgrades. to supply their clients more economically Beginning in Have a role in the compounding of non sterile. 1976 however both the economy and the pharmaceuti products such as oral syrups for their clients The. cal market in Ghana expanded and many competing assessment recommended several production modi. pharmaceutical products became available from local fications to assure uniformity and efficiency. and international sources Furthermore little additional Should develop pharmacovigilance systems to iden. funding was available to make capital improvements tify and report adverse drug reactions and medicine. which limited the DHPs ability to accommodate increas product quality problems. ing demands for improved quality assurance In 2004. Overall the assessment recommended that the DHPs, an assessment investigated the utility of the DHP to con. focus their production on non sterile products for which. tinue small scale pharmaceutical production for thirty. there was an increasing demand Moreover they should. three hospitals and sixty six clinics in the context of the. stop the production of other products that require more. changing pharmaceutical market, technical expertise and oversight due to quality and. The assessment concluded that the DHPs safety concerns To ensure the supply of these sensitive. products the DHPs could consider developing a partner. Should stop producing terminally sterilized prod, ship with a local manufacturer or buy from international.
ucts for example intravenous solutions due to,the high capital personnel and production costs. in addition to the associated risk to patients if the Source RPM Plus 2004. From a production process perspective intravenous IV purchasing commercial products Chapter 7 includes more. fluids are among the easiest products to make The standard details on assessing the feasibility of small scale pharmaceu. pharmacy production and control worksheet including the tical production. sterility quality control aspects is used see Figure 45 3. From a technical perspective however the production of. IV fluids is very demanding on resources and personnel 45 6 Pharmaceutical disposal. Special often quite expensive equipment facilities tech. niques and quality control procedures need to be in place Hospitals and other health care facilities generate all sorts. along with the means to ensure continuous production of hazardous waste from sharps to materials contaminated. with adequate reserves of ingredients and supplies regular with bodily fluids to expired or damaged pharmaceuticals. maintenance of equipment and refresher training for pro Improper disposal of pharmaceuticals can result in con. duction staff The demands on supervisory personnel who taminated water supplies the resale of poor quality medi. must ensure the high quality of the final product are also cines and polluted air from improper incineration. much greater Contaminated or incorrectly prepared IV flu Often hospitals can return products to the facility from. ids administered to very sick people can just as easily kill where they were obtained However when that option is not. patients as help them available a disposal plan should be in place and should be. Medications produced by the pharmacy must have regularly monitored Depending on the properties of the. adequate process and finished product controls to ensure pharmaceutical waste incineration land disposal and iner. identity strength purity and quality A hospital pharmacy tization where the product is mixed with cement can all. may have difficulty achieving the same cost efficiencies as be appropriate methods for disposal Special care must be. a pharmaceutical manufacturer specializing in a particular taken with certain classes of pharmaceuticals such as nar. product line The DTC needs to evaluate the costs and bene cotics or toxic drugs like anticancer medicines Before a. fits of producing such special preparations as compared to disposal technique is instituted any government laws and. 45 Hospital pharmacy management 45 15,Table 45 2 Pharmaceutical repackaging. Product type Name of product Bulk package size Repackaged size. Liquids Denatured alcohol 20 L 500 mL,Solids Talcum powder 50 kg 1 kg. Tablets Aspirin 300 mg 1 000 100,Aspirin 300 mg 1 000 12. Co trimoxazole 480 mg 1 000 10 bid for 5 days,Mebendazole 100 mg 1 000 6 bid for 3 days.
regulations relevant to health care waste management and References and further readings. environmental protection should be reviewed,H Key readings. H AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2001. 45 7 Controlling leakage and drug abuse Making Health Care Safer A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety. Practices Evidence Report Technology Assessment no 43 AHRQ. Chapter 43 discusses systematic approaches for detecting Publication no 01 E058 Rockville Md AHRQ http www. analyzing and preventing pharmaceutical losses caused by ahcpr gov clinic ptsafety. H Best Practices for Health System Pharmacy 2009 2010. theft bribery and fraud Those approaches are applicable to. Updated annually Bethesda Md ASHP, hospitals and other health facilities Family Health International 2010 USAID FHI supported. The control of narcotics is of particular concern in a hos Methadone Programs Achieve Results A New Era of Drug. pital because it may be the only type of institution regularly Treatment in Vietnam Country Profiles http www fhi360 org. stocking dispensing and administering them Drug addic en CountryProfiles Vietnam res Methadone htm. tion among physicians pharmacists and nurses is quite Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. JCAHO 2009 A Guide to JCAHO s Medication Management. common To avoid drug abuse and prevent leakage Standards 2nd ed Oakbrook Terrace Ill JCAHO. 2010 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. Be alert to changes in performance injuries and mood The Official Handbook CAMH Updated annually Oakbrook. swings in workers Terrace Ill JCAHO, Ensure double witness and double signature proce Ministry of Health Government of Kenya 1994 Good Management. of Hospital Drugs and Medical Supplies Nairobi Ministry of. dures for wastage of narcotics Health, Limit access to narcotic storage areas Ministry of Public Health General Directorate of Pharmacy Affairs. Check patient charts and medication administration Government of Afghanistan 2009 Memorandum on the Creation of. records for patterns of consumption be suspicious if Drug and Therapeutic Commitees Kabul Ministry of Public Health. patients receive noticeably more narcotics during a Mittmann N and S Knowles 2009 A Survey of Pharmacy and. Therapeutic Committees across Canada Scope and Responsibilities. particular shift Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16 1 e171 e177 http. Ask patients if they received the medications www cjcp ca pdf CJCP08027e171 e177 mittmann pdf. Use locked boxes or wire cages to ensure security for Pedersen C A P J Schneider and D J Scheckelhoff 2008 National. medications moved from the pharmacy to the wards Survey of Pharmacy Practice in Hospital Settings Prescribing and. Issue individual narcotics boxes to each anesthesiolo Transcribing 2007 American Journal of Health System Pharmacy. 65 9 827 43, gist daily and make sure that the box is returned to the 2006 ASHP National Survey of Pharmacy Practice in.
pharmacy at the end of the day with a written record of Hospital Settings Dispensing and Administration 2005 American. quantities used for each patient Journal of Health System Pharmacy 63 327 45. Count narcotic stocks daily and reconcile with inven Pr ss A E Giroult and P Rushbrook eds 1999 Safe Management. tory records of Wastes from Health Care Activities Geneva World. Health Organization http whqlibdoc who int publications. 9241545259 pdf, The same procedures followed for narcotics are some Rational Pharmaceutical Management RPM Plus Program 2007. times used for antibiotics and other medicines that are easily Drug and Therapeutics Committees Training Course Arlington Va. resold and commonly lost to theft such as antiretrovirals to Management Sciences for Health http www msh org projects. treat HIV AIDS n rpmplus Resources TrainingInitiatives All DTC Training Guides. 2004 Assessment of Production Cost and Quality Assurance. Processes in the Catholic Diocesan Hospital Pharmacies of Ghana.

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