Chapter 4 Major Connectors-Books Pdf

CHAPTER 4 MAJOR CONNECTORS
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Major connectors are shaped as bars the tooth surfaces Fig 4 5 This is. and straps or plates A BAR SHAPED sometimes called an APRON. major connector is long narrow and thick, In cross section bars are round oval or. pear in shape Fig 4 3 The thickness of, a bar should be at least 6 gauge 4 11 mm at. its greatest dimension The minimum width, of a bar is 4 mm but they must usually be. wider than this for adequate rigidity, Fig 4 5 A strap or plate added to a bar to. extend the major connector onto a a tooth, c The location width thickness and.
a shape of a major connector should be, determined by the dentist and RPD. laboratory technician based on their, knowledge of the physical properties of the. alloy to be used for the framework and the, anatomy of the partially edentulous arch. The more rigid the alloy the smaller and, thinner the framework may be The bigger. b b the arch the thicker and wider the major, connector must be to provide the necessary.
Fig 4 3 Shapes of bars a pear b rigidity, oval c round. MANDIBULAR MAJOR, A STRAP or PLATE SHAPED CONNECTORS. major connector is long wide and thin Fig, 4 4 The width of a strap or plate varies There are six mandibular major. from 6 8 mm to the entire length of the connectors described in the literature. palate The thickest portion of straps or lingual bar lingual plate lingual bar with a. plates is 22 24 gauge 0 64 0 51 mm continuous bar indirect retainer labial bar. or plate cingulum bar and sublingual bar, Of these the lingual bar and lingual plate. are used very frequently 3 4 The other, mandibular major connectors are seldom.
indicated or are advocated by few, practitioners, In this section the indications. Fig 4 4 A strap or plate contraindications advantages and. disadvantages of each mandibular major, Frequently a strap or plate is added connector is listed and the design of each. to a bar extending the major connector onto major connector and location of its borders. illustrated in the accompanying figures, the bar and the mucosa Fig. LINGUAL BAR, SYNONYMS ALVEOLAR BAR, Fig 4 7 An undercut lingual alveolar. ridge contraindicates the use of a lingual bar, because of the excessive space between the.
bar and mucosa, 5 A parallel or sloped anterior, lingual alveolar contour in a. distal extension RPD where, Fig 4 6 LINGUAL BAR the bar may rotate into the. tissues as the denture base, Indications moves toward the residual. 1 The lingual bar is the ridge Fig 4 8, mandibular major connector FL. of choice if sufficient bracing, and indirect retention can be.
provided by clasps and, indirect retainers and if, future additions of prosthetic. teeth to the framework to Fig 4 8 A lingual bar is contraindicated. replace extracted natural if the shape of the lingual alveolar ridge will. teeth are not anticipated result in the bar rotating into the tissue as the. 2 Diastemas or open cervical base moves toward the tissue around the. embrasures of anterior teeth fulcrum line FL, 3 Overlapped anterior teeth. Advantages, Contraindications 1 Covers a minimum of surface. 1 Less than 8 mm between the area of teeth and tissues. marginal gingiva and the therefore the potential for. activated lingual frenum and caries periodontal problems. floor of the mouth and mucositis caused by, 2 Only a few remaining plaque being held in contact. anterior teeth which must be with teeth and tissues is. contacted to provide a minimal, reference for fitting the 2 Patients prefer lingual bar to.
framework and indirect lingual plate probably, retention because it is relatively small. 3 Lingually inclined teeth inconspicuously located and. 4 An undercut lingual alveolar minimally interferes with. ridge which would result in function 5 6, an excessive space between. 3 Esthetic 3 Undercut or parallel lingual, alveolar ridge when the. Disadvantages superior edge of a lingual bar, 1 Not as rigid as the lingual can not be located in close. plate sublingual bar or contact with the mucosa and. lingual bar with continuous still be at least 3 mm inferior. bar indirect retainer to the marginal gingiva, 2 Difficult to add additional 4 Distal extension RPDs with.
prosthetic teeth to parallel or sloped lingual, framework alveolar ridges where a. 3 Framework goes from thick lingual bar would rotate into. at the minor connectors to the ridge when the base area. thin at the bar to thick again rotates tissueward, which is metallurgically and 5 Mandibular tori or exostosis. structurally complicated The which must be covered by the. result may be weak areas in RPD because they can not be. the casting with the potential surgically removed or. to fracture avoided in the RPD design, Relief is provided between. LINGUAL PLATE the torus or exostosis and the, SYNONYMS LINGUOPLATE. LINGUAL APRON CLOSED KENNEDY Contraindications, MAJOR CONNECTOR 1 A lingual bar may be used.
2 Overlapped anterior teeth, where the undercuts in the. area of the superior edge of, the plate can not be removed. Fig 4 10 Frequently this, criteria can not be met and a. lingual plate which will have, small gaps between the. superior edge of the plate and, the teeth must be used.
Fig 4 9 LINGUAL PLATE, Indications, 1 Less than 8 mm between the. marginal gingiva and the, activated lingual frenum and. of the mouth, 2 Only a few remaining, anterior teeth which must be. contacted to provide a, reference for fitting the, framework and indirect. Advantages, Incisal View, 1 More rigid than a lingual bar.
2 Metallurgically and, structurally simple, Areas 3 Easy to add additional. prosthetic teeth to, 4 May prevent supraerruption, of the teeth it contacts. Fig 4 10 Undercuts in the area of the Disadvantages. superior edge of a lingual plate must be 1 Covers more tooth and tissue. removed to allow contact of the plate with surface than lingual bar. the teeth 2 May be more noticeable to, patient than lingual bar. 3 Lingually inclined teeth 3 May cause flaring of incisors. 4 Diastemas unless the lingual if it contacts their cingula as. plate can have slots in it to the base area rotates. avoid the display of metal tissueward, LINGUAL BAR WITH CONTINUOUS. BAR INDIRECT RETAINER, SYNONYMS KENNEDY BAR SPLIT, LINGUAL BAR DOUBLELINGUAL.
Fig 4 11 Placing slots in a lingual plate, will prevent the metal showing through. 5 Open cervical embrasures, where the plate would be. visible Fig 4 12 A lingual, bar with continuous bar. indirect retainer or a labial Fig 4 13 LINGUAL BAR with. bar should be considered CONTINUOUS BAR INDIRECT, Indications. 1 Situations where the major, connector must contact the.
natural teeth to provide, bracing and indirect retention. Fig 4 12 Open cervical embrasures and there are open cervical. contraindicate the use of a lingual plate embrasures which. contraindicate the use of a, lingual plate There must be. adequate space for the lingual the framework with adequate. bar portion of the major relief, connector 3 A lingual major connector. can not be used because of, Contraindications the slope or undercut of the. 1 Where a lingual bar or lingual alveolus, lingual plate will suffice 4 The patient can not tolerate a.
2 Any contraindication for a lingual major connector. lingual bar 5 Diastemas and open cervical, 3 Any contraindication for a embrasures contraindicating a. lingual plate except open lingual plate, cervical embrasures. 4 Diastemas Contraindications, 1 A lingual major connector. Advantages may be used, 1 More rigid than lingual bar 2 Facial tori or exostoses. 2 Covers less tooth and tissue 3 The facial alveolar ridge is. surface than lingual plate undercut, 4 High facial muscle.
attachments which would, Disadvantages result in less than 3 mm of. 1 Very complex design space between the superior, 2 May be objectionable to edge of the labial bar and the. patient because there are four marginal gingiva of the teeth. edges exposed to the tip of, the tongue Advantages. 1 Can be used where lingual, LABIAL BAR OR PLATE major connector can not. SYNONYMS None Disadvantages, 1 A labial major connector is.
longer than a lingual major, connector and therefore. must be wider and or thicker, or larger to provide the. necessary rigidity, 2 A labial major connector may. be visible when the patient, Fig 4 14 LABIAL BAR smiles and it may distort lip. contour resulting in poor, Indications esthetics, 1 Lingually inclined teeth 3 Difficult to add prosthetic.
preventing the use of a teeth to framework, lingual mandibular major. 2 Lingual tori or exostoses, which can not be removed. surgically avoided in the, RPD design or covered by. CINGULUM BAR Disadvantages, 1 Must be bulky to have. SYNONYMS None sufficient rigidity and thus, may be objectionable to the.
SUBLINGUAL BAR, SYNONYMS None, Fig 4 15 CINGULUM BAR. Indications, 1 Height of activated lingual, frenum and floor of the. mouth at the same level as, marginal gingiva, 2 Inoperable tori or exostoses Sagittal. at the same level as the view of, marginal gingiva Bar. 3 Severely undercut lingual, 4 Concern that a major Fig 4 16 SUBLINGUAL BAR.
connector traversing the, gingival sulcus will cause a Indications. periodontal problem 1 Bracing and indirect retention. 5 Considerable gingival can be provided by clasps, recession and indirect retainers and. future additions of prosthetic, Contraindications teeth to the framework are. 1 When a simpler major not anticipated, connector may be used 2 Severely undercut lingual. 2 Diastemas and open cervical alveolar ridges, embrasures where the metal 3 Distal extension RPD.
will show situations with sloped or, parallel lingual alveolar. Advantages ridges where a lingual bar, 1 Can be used where lingual would rotate into the lingual. bar and lingual plate can not alveolus as the base area. 2 Does not traverse the rotates tissueward, marginal gingiva or overlay 4 Diastemas and open cervical. the lingual alveolus embrasures of anterior teeth, 3 Easy to add prosthetic teeth 5 Overlapped anterior teeth. to framework 6 Intolerance to other lingual, major connectors.
Contraindications In this section the indications, 1 Where a lingual bar or contraindications advantages and. lingual plate will suffice disadvantages of each maxillary major. 2 Situations where bracing connector is listed and the design of each. and or indirect retention must major connector and the location of its. be provided by contact of the borders illustrated in the accompanying. major connect with the teeth figures, 3 Situations where future. additions of prosthetic teeth PALATAL STRAP, to the framework are. anticipated SYNONYMS PALATAL PLATE, MIDDLE PALATAL STRAP OR. Advantages PLATE, 1 Sublingual bar does not, contact anterior teeth or.
lingual alveolus, 2 More esthetic than other, lingual major connectors. because of its location, 3 More rigid than lingual bar. because bulk of metal is, horizontal rather than, Fig 4 17 PALATAL STRAP. Disadvantages Indications, 1 Requires border molded 1 A Class III or Class III mod. impression of floor of mouth 1 P partially edentulous arch. for accurate placement of, major connector Contraindications.
2 Difficult to add prosthetic 1 Tooth tissue supported RPD. teeth to framework 2 Palatial torus, 3 Most patients prefer a lingual 3 Extremely long tooth. plate to a sublingual bar 5 supported edentulous space. A P major connector would, be better because it would. MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTORS cover less palatal tissue. The terminology for and design of Advantages, maxillary major connectors is less 1 Very simple design. standardized than for mandibular major 2 Posterior border is well. connectors There are six maxillary major anterior to the hamular notch. connector designs in the literature palatal vibrating line. strap palatal plate complete palatal 3 Anterior border is posterior to. coverage anteroposterior type U shaped rugae playground of the. and palatal bar The palatal plate and tongue, complete palatal coverage major connectors 4 Very few metal tissue edges. have two distinct designs, Disadvantages a The hamular notch.
1 Covers a considerable portion vibrating line area. of the palate must be located on, the master cast, PALATAL PLATE b Difficult to adjust. the metal tissue, SYNONYMS BROAD PALATIAL, STRAP OR PLATE POSTERIOR contact. PALATAL STRAP OR PLATE c Difficult to reline, BROAD PALATAL MAJOR the metal portion of. CONNECTOR the palatal contact, DESIGN II presents the. following difficulty, 6 mm a Difficult to blend, the thickness of the.
metal 1 mm, plastic 3 mm, Fig 4 18 PALATAL PLATE a 3 The anterior border is. Design I all metal b Design II metal frequently located in the. plastic rugae, Indications COMPLETE PALATAL, 1 A Class I or Class II COVERAGE. partially edentulous arch, SYNONYMS FULL PALATIAL, Contraindications COVERAGE COMPLETE FULL. 1 A tooth supported PALATAL PLATE OR STRAP, edentulous space. 2 A palatal torus, Advantages, 1 Support is provided by 6 mm.
contact of the major, connector with the denture, bearing foundation of the. 2 Fairly simple design Fig 4 19 COMPLETE PALATAL, COVERAGE a D. major connector can not Disadvantages 1 A labial major connector is longer than a lingual major connector and therefore must be wider and or thicker or larger to provide the necessary rigidity 2 A labial major connector may be visible when the patient smiles and it may distort lip contour resulting in poor esthetics 3 Difficult to add

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