Chapter 2 Chemical Principles 1642598126 Rsc Cdn77 Org-Books Pdf

CHAPTER 2 Chemical Principles 1642598126 rsc cdn77 org
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2 11 Identify the building blocks How do DNA and RNA differ. of nucleic acids, 2 12 Describe the role of ATP in Which can provide more energy for a cell and why ATP or. cellular activities ADP, New in This Edition, The section on activation energy has been revised. Chapter Summary, Introduction p 24, ASM 3 2 The interactions of microorganisms among themselves and. with their environment are determined by their metabolic abilities e g. quorum sensing oxygen consumption nitrogen transformations. ASM 6 2 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fun. damental knowledge about life processes, 1 The science of the interaction between atoms and molecules is called chemistry. 2 The metabolic activities of microorganisms involve complex chemical reactions. 3 Microbes break down nutrients to obtain energy and to make new cells. The Structure of Atoms pp 25 26, 1 An atom is the smallest unit of a chemical element that exhibits the properties of that el.
2 Atoms consist of a nucleus which contains protons and neutrons and electrons which. move around the nucleus, 3 The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus the total number of protons. and neutrons is the atomic weight, Chemical Elements pp 25 26. 4 Atoms with the same number of protons and the same chemical behavior are classified as. the same chemical element, 5 Chemical elements are designated by abbreviations called chemical symbols. 6 About 26 elements are commonly found in living cells. 7 Atoms that have the same atomic number are of the same element but different atomic. weights are called isotopes, Electronic Configurations p 26. 8 In an atom electrons are arranged around the nucleus in electron shells. 12 INSTRUCTOR S GUIDE FOR MICROBIOLOGY AN INTRODUCTION 12e Copyright 2016 Pearson Education Inc. 9 Each shell can hold a characteristic maximum number of electrons. 10 The chemical properties of an atom are due largely to the number of electrons in its. outermost shell, How Atoms Form Molecules Chemical Bonds pp 27 30.
1 Molecules are made up of two or more atoms molecules consisting of at least two. different kinds of atoms are called compounds, 2 Atoms form molecules in order to fill their outermost electron shells. 3 Attractive forces that bind two atoms together are called chemical bonds. 4 The combining capacity of an atom the number of chemical bonds the atom can form. with other atoms is its valence, Ionic Bonds p 27, 5 A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms is called an ion. 6 A chemical attraction between ions of opposite charge is called an ionic bond. 7 To form an ionic bond one ion is an electron donor and the other ion is an electron. Covalent Bonds p 27 28, 8 In a covalent bond atoms share pairs of electrons. 9 Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds and are far more common in organic. Hydrogen Bonds pp 28 29, 10 A hydrogen bond exists when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one oxygen or. nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom. 11 Hydrogen bonds form weak links between different molecules or between parts of the. same large molecule, Molecular Weight and Moles pp 29 30.
12 The molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule. 13 A mole of an atom ion or molecule is equal to its atomic or molecular weight expressed. Chemical Reactions pp 30 31, 1 Chemical reactions are the making or breaking of chemical bonds between atoms. 2 A change of energy occurs during chemical reactions. 3 Endergonic reactions require more energy than they release exergonic reactions release. more energy, 4 In a synthesis reaction atoms ions or molecules are combined to form a larger. Copyright 2016 Pearson Education Inc CHAPTER 2 Chemical Principles 13. 5 In a decomposition reaction a larger molecule is broken down into its component. molecules ions or atoms, 6 In an exchange reaction two molecules are decomposed and their subunits are used to. synthesize two new molecules, 7 The products of reversible reactions can readily revert to form the original reactants. Important Biological Molecules pp 31 46, Inorganic Compounds pp 32 34.
1 Inorganic compounds are usually small ionically bonded molecules. Water p 32, 2 Water is the most abundant substance in cells. 3 Because water is a polar molecule it is an excellent solvent. 4 Water is a reactant in many of the decomposition reactions of digestion. 5 Water is an excellent temperature buffer, Acids Bases and Salts pp 32 33. 6 An acid dissociates into H and anions, 7 A base dissociates into OH and cations. 8 A salt dissociates into negative and positive ions neither of which is H or OH. Acid Base Balance The Concept of pH pp 33 34, 9 The term pH refers to the concentration of H in a solution. 10 A solution of pH 7 is neutral a pH value below 7 indicates acidity pH above 7 indicates. alkalinity, 11 The pH inside a cell and in culture media is stabilized with pH buffers.
Organic Compounds pp 34 46, 1 Organic compounds always contain carbon and hydrogen. 2 Carbon atoms form up to four bonds with other atoms. 3 Organic compounds are mostly or entirely covalently bonded and many of them are. large molecules, Structure and Chemistry pp 34 35, 4 A chain of carbon atoms forms a carbon skeleton. 5 Functional groups of atoms are responsible for most of the properties of organic. 6 The letter R may be used to denote the remainder of an organic molecule. 7 Frequently encountered classes of molecules are R OH alcohols and R COOH. organic acids, 8 Small organic molecules may combine into very large molecules called macromolecules. 14 INSTRUCTOR S GUIDE FOR MICROBIOLOGY AN INTRODUCTION 12e Copyright 2016 Pearson Education Inc. 9 Monomers usually bond together by dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions. that form water and a polymer, 10 Organic molecules may be broken down by hydrolysis a reaction involving the splitting. of water molecules, Carbohydrates pp 36 37, 11 Carbohydrates are compounds consisting of atoms of carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
with hydrogen and oxygen in a 2 1 ratio, 12 Monosaccharides contain from three to seven carbon atoms. 13 Isomers are two molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures and. properties for example glucose C6H12O6 and fructose C6H12O6. 14 Monosaccharides may form disaccharides and polysaccharides by dehydration synthesis. Lipids pp 37 39, 15 Lipids are a diverse group of compounds distinguished by their insolubility in water. 16 Simple lipids fats consist of a molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids. 17 A saturated lipid has no double bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acids an. unsaturated lipid has one or more double bonds Saturated lipids have higher melting. points than unsaturated lipids, 18 Phospholipids are complex lipids consisting of glycerol two fatty acids and a phosphate. 19 Steroids have carbon ring structures sterols have a functional hydroxyl group. Proteins pp 39 45, 20 Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. 21 Amino acids consist of carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and sometimes sulfur. 22 Twenty amino acids occur naturally in proteins, 23 By linking amino acids peptide bonds formed by dehydration synthesis allow the.
formation of polypeptide chains, 24 Proteins have four levels of structure primary sequence of amino acids secondary. helices or pleats tertiary overall three dimensional structure of a polypeptide and. quaternary two or more polypeptide chains, 25 Conjugated proteins consist of amino acids combined with inorganic or other organic. Nucleic Acids pp 44 46, 26 Nucleic acids DNA and RNA are macromolecules consisting of repeating. nucleotides, 27 A nucleotide is composed of a pentose a phosphate group and a nitrogen containing. base A nucleoside is composed of a pentose and a nitrogen containing base. 28 A DNA nucleotide consists of deoxyribose a pentose and one of the following. nitrogen containing bases thymine or cytosine pyrimidines or adenine or guanine. Copyright 2016 Pearson Education Inc CHAPTER 2 Chemical Principles 15. 29 DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides wound in a double helix The strands are held. together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine nucleotides AT and GC. 30 Genes consist of sequences of nucleotides, 31 An RNA nucleotide consists of ribose a pentose and one of the following.
nitrogen containing bases cytosine guanine adenine or uracil. Adenosine Triphosphate ATP p 46, 32 ATP stores chemical energy for various cellular activities. 33 When the bond to ATP s terminal phosphate group is hydrolyzed energy is released. 34 The energy from oxidation reactions is used to regenerate ATP from ADP and inorganic. 1 Have students study Chapter 2 and use the Study Questions as a self test. 2 Have students study Chapter 2 and take a pretest for Chapter 5 Pretests can be adminis. tered individually during office hours open laboratories or study sessions Students who. score at least 9 points out of 15 questions from the Chapter 2 Test Bank show mastery. A student who does not achieve mastery can study and take a second chapter test. 3 Students with some chemistry but less than one year of college chemistry may find it. useful to have the last half of this chapter Important Biological Molecules which. begins on page 31 used as an introduction to Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism. Figure Questions, Figure Question Answer, 2 1 What is the atomic number of this atom Six It is carbon. 2 2 What is an ionic bond An ionic bond is an attraction between. atoms that have lost or gained electrons, 2 3 What is a covalent bond A covalent bond is formed by the sharing. of electrons between atoms, 2 4 Which chemical elements are usually Hydrogen and oxygen or nitrogen A. involved in hydrogen bonding hydrogen bond is an attraction between a. hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded, to one oxygen or nitrogen atom and.
another oxygen or nitrogen atom, 2 5 What happens during ionization An atom or molecule gains or loses. charged particles such as electrons, 2 6 How do acids and bases differ Acids dissociate into an anion and a. hydrogen ion H Bases dissociate into, 16 INSTRUCTOR S GUIDE FOR MICROBIOLOGY AN INTRODUCTION 12e Copyright 2016 Pearson Education Inc. a cation and a hydroxide ion OH, 2 7 At what pH are the concentrations of H 7. and OH equal, 2 8 What is the difference between a A polymer consists of smaller molecules.
polymer and a monomer called monomers, 2 9 How do saturated and unsaturated Unsaturated lipids have one or more. fatty acids differ double bonds between carbon atoms. 2 10 Where are phospholipids found in cells Membranes. 2 11 Where are sterols found in cells Membranes, 2 12 What distinguishes one amino acid from Side groups called R groups. 2 13 Which isomer is always found in L isomers, 2 14 How are amino acids related to proteins Proteins are composed of amino acids. 2 15 What property of a protein enables it to The three dimensional shape. carry out specific functions, 2 17 How are DNA and RNA similar in Both are polymers of nucleotides. 2 18 How is ATP similar to a nucleotide in Ribose is the sugar in the adenosine. RNA In DNA nucleotides in ATP and RNA, Deoxyribose is the sugar in the.
adenosine in DNA, 1 Atoms with the same atomic number and chemical behavior are classified as chemical el. b Single covalent bond, c Double covalent bonds, d Hydrogen bond. 4 a Synthesis reaction condensation or dehydration. b Decomposition reaction digestion or hydrolysis, c Exchange reaction. d Reversible reaction, Copyright 2016 Pearson Education Inc CHAPTER 2 Chemical Principles 17. 5 The enzyme lowers the activation energy required for the reaction and therefore speeds. up this decomposition reaction, c Carbohydrate, d Nucleic acid.
7 a Amino acids, b Right to left, c Left to right, 18 INSTRUCTOR S GUIDE FOR MICROBIOLOGY AN INTRODUCTION 12e Copyright 2016 Pearson Education Inc. Multiple Choice, 1 a Synthesis reaction, b H2CO3 is an acid. 2 ATP and DNA have 5 carbon sugars ATP has ribose and DNA has deoxyribose ATP. and DNA contain the purine adenine, 3 To maintain the proper fluidity the percentage of unsaturated lipids decreases at the. higher temperature, 4 These animals have cellulose degrading bacteria in specialized structures in their. digestive tracts, Clinical Applications and Evaluation.
1 PHB is a fatty acid used as an energy storage molecule by Ralstonia. 2 T ferrooxidans can oxidize sulfur thio as well as iron ferro The oxidation of. sulfide in pyrite produces sulfuric acid which dissolves the limestone Gypsum forms in. a subsequent exchange reaction, 2S2 3O2 2H 2 O 2SO4 2 4H. 2CaCO3 4H 2SO4 2 2CaSO4 2H 2HCO3, 3 a Amino acid, b Phenylalanine is not present in the baby s blood. c The phenylalanine from the aspartame see Review question 7 will accumulate in. their bodies, 4 Amphotericin B would not work against most bacteria because they lack sterols Fungi. have sterols and are generally susceptible to amphotericin B Human cells have sterols. 5 Methionine and cysteine, Case Study Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge. Background, Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge California In the San Joaquin Valley irrigation water.
wasn t draining properly and crops were dying in the waterlogged soil In 1981 a drainage. Have students study Chapter 2 and take a pretest for Chapter 5 Pretests can be adminis tered individually during office hours open laboratories or study sessions Students who score at least 9 points out of 15 questions from the Chapter 2 Test Bank show mastery A student who does not achieve mastery can study and take a second chapter test 3

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