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Chapter 12 Network Management
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1 Introduction, Network management in general is a service that employs a variety of protocols tools applications. and devices to assist human network managers in monitoring and controlling of the proper network. resources both hardware and software to address service needs and the network objectives. When transmission control protocol internet protocol TCP IP was developed little thought. was given to network management Prior to the 1980s the practice of network management was. largely proprietary because of the high development cost The rapid development in the 1980s. towards larger and more complex networks caused a significant diffusion of network management. technologies The starting point in providing specific network management tools was in Novem. ber 1987 when Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol SGMP was issued In early 1988 the. Internet Architecture Board IAB approved Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP as a. short term solution for network management Standards like SNMP and Common Management In. formation Protocol CMIP paved the way for standardized network management and development. of innovative network management tools and applications. A network management system NMS refers to a collection of applications that enable network. components to be monitored and controlled In general network management systems have the. same basic architecture as shown in Figure 12 1 The architecture consists of two key elements. a managing device called a management station or a manager and the managed devices called. management agents or simply an agent A management station serves as the interface between the. human network manager and the network management system It is also the platform for man. agement applications to perform management functions through interactions with the management. agents The management agent responds to the requests from the management station and also. provides the management station with unsolicited information. Given the diversity of managed elements such as routers bridges switches hubs and so on. and the wide variety of operating systems and programming interfaces a management protocol. is critical for the management station to communicate with the management agents effectively. SNMP and CMIP are two well known network management protocols A network management. system is generally described using the Open System Interconnection OSI network management. model As an OSI network management protocol CMIP was proposed as a replacement for the. Network Management Application,Network Network Management Protocol. Agent Agent Agent,Managed Device Managed Device Managed Device. Figure 12 1 Typical Network Management Architecture 1. simple but less sophisticated SNMP however it has not been widely adopted For this reason we. will focus on SNMP in this chapter,1 1 OSI Network Management Model. The OSI network management comprises four major models 2. Organization Model defines the manager agent and managed object It describes the. components of a network management system the components functions and infrastructure. Information Model is concerned with the information structure and storage It specifies. the information base used to describe the managed objects and their relationships The. Structure of Management Information SMI defines the syntax and semantics of management. information stored in the Management Information Base MIB The MIB is used by both the. agent process and the manager process for management information exchange and storage. Communication Model deals with the way that information is exchanged between the. agent and the manager and between the managers There are three key elements in the. communication model transport protocol application protocol and the actual message to be. communicated,OSI Model TCP IP Model,Layer 7 Application Application.
Layer 6 Presentation Not presented,Layer 5 Session in this model. Layer 4 Transport TCP UDP,Layer 3 Network Internetwork. Layer 2 Data Link Network Interface and,Layer 1 Physical Hardware. Figure 12 2 The OSI and TCP IP Reference Models, Functional Model comprises five functional areas of network management which are dis. cussed in more detail in the next section,1 2 Network Management Layers.
Two protocol architectures have served as the basis for the development of interoperable communi. cations standards the International Organization for Standardization ISO OSI reference model. and the TCP IP reference model which are compared in Figure 12 2 3 The OSI reference model. was developed based on the promise that different layers of the protocol provide different services. and functions It provides a conceptual framework for communications among different network. elements The OSI model has seven layers Network communication occurs at different layers. from the application layer to the physical layer however each layer can only communicate with its. adjacent layers The primary functions and services of the OSI layers are described in Table 12 1. The OSI and TCP IP reference models have much in common Both are based on the concept. of a stack of independent protocols Also the functionality of the corresponding layers is roughly. However the difference does exist between the two reference models The concepts that are. central to the OSI model include service interface and protocol The OSI reference model makes. the distinction among these three concepts explicit The TCP IP model however does not clearly. distinguish among these three concepts As a consequence the protocols in the OSI model are. better hidden than in the TCP IP model and can be replaced relatively easily as the technology. changes The OSI model was devised before the corresponding protocols were invented Therefore. Table 12 1 OSI Layers and Functions,Layer Functions. Application Provides the user application process with access to OSI facilities. Responsible for data representation data compression data encryption and. decryption,Presentation, Ensures communication between systems with different data representation. Allows the application layer to access the session layer services. Allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. Session Establishes and maintains connections between processes and data transfer. Establishes maintains and terminates connections between end systems. Provides reliable transparent data transfer between end systems or hosts. Provides end to end error recovery and flow control. Multiplexes and de multiplexes messages from applications. Builds end to end route through the network, Network Datagram encapsulation fragmentation and reassembly. Error handling and diagnostics, Composed of two sublayers logical link control LLC and and media access. control MAC, Data Link Provides a well defined service interface to the network layer.
Deals with transmission errors,Regulates data flow. Handles the interface to the communication medium,Deals with various medium characteristics. it is not biased toward one particular set of protocols which makes it quite general With TCP IP. the reverse is true the protocols came first and the model was really just a description of the. existing protocols Consequently this model does not fit any other protocol stacks 3. The rest of the chapter is organized as follows In the section on ISO Network Management. Functions ISO network management functions are briefly described Network management proto. cols are discussed in the Section on Network Management Protocols In the next section network. management tools are briefly described Wireless network management is discussed next Policy. based network management is introduced in the following section The final section draws general. conclusions,2 ISO Network Management Functions, The fundamental goal of network management is to ensure that the network resources are available. to the designated users To ensure rapid and consistent progress on network management func. tions ISO has grouped the management functions into five areas i configuration management. ii fault management iii accounting management iv security management and v perfor. mance management The ISO classification has gained broad acceptance for both standardized and. proprietary network management systems A description of each management function is provided. in the following subsections,2 1 Configuration Management. Configuration management is concerned with initializing a network provisioning the network re. sources and services and monitoring and controlling the network More specifically the responsi. bilities of configuration management include setting maintaining adding and updating the rela. tionship among components and the status of the components during network operation. Configuration management consists of both device configuration and network configuration. Device configuration can be performed either locally or remotely Automated network configuration. such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DHCP and Domain Name Services DNS plays. a key role in network management,2 2 Fault Management.
Fault management involves detection isolation and correction of abnormal operations that may. cause the failure of the OSI network The major goal of fault management is to ensure that the. network is always available and when a fault occurs it can be fixed as rapidly as possible. Faults should be distinct from errors An error is generally a single event whereas a fault. is an abnormal condition that requires management attention to fix For example the physical. communication line cut is a fault while a single bit error on a communication line is an error. 2 3 Security Management, Security management protects the networks and systems from unauthorized access and security. attacks The mechanisms for security management include authentication encryption and au. thorization Security management is also concerned with generation distribution and storage of. encryption keys as well as other security related information Security management may include. security systems such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems that provide real time event. monitoring and event logs,2 4 Accounting Management. Accounting management enables charge for the use of managed objects to be measured and the. cost for such use to be determined The measure may include the resources consumed the facilities. used to collect accounting data and set billing parameters for the services used by customers the. maintenance of the databases used for billing purposes and the preparation of resource usage and. billing reports,2 5 Performance Management, Performance management is concerned with evaluating and reporting the behavior and the effec. tiveness of the managed network objects A network monitoring system can measure and display. the status of the network such as gathering the statistical information on traffic volume network. availability response times and throughput,3 Network Management Protocols. In this section different versions of SNMP and RMON will be introduced SNMP is the most. widely used data network management protocol Most of the network components used in enterprise. network systems have built in network agents that can respond to an SNMP network management. system This enables new components to be automatically monitored Remote network monitoring. RMON is on the other hand the most important addition to the basic set of SNMP standards. It defines a remote network monitoring MIB that supplements MIB 2 and provides the network. manager with vital information about the internetwork. 3 1 SNMP SNMPv1, The objective of network management is to build a single protocol that manages both OSI and.
TCP IP networks Based on this goal SNMP or SNMPv1 4 6 was first recommended as an. interim set of specifications for use as the basis of common network management throughout the. system whereas the ISO CMIP over TCP IP CMOT was recommended as the long term solution. SNMP consists of three specifications the SMI which describes how managed objects contained. in the MIB are defined the MIB which describes the managed objects contained in the MIB and. the SNMP itself which defines the protocol used to manage these objects. 3 1 1 SNMP Architecture, The model of network management that is used for TCP IP network management includes the. following key elements, Management station hosts the network management applications. Management agent provides information contained in the MIB to management applica. tions and accepts control information from the management station. Management information base defines the information that can be collected and con. trolled by the management application, Network management protocol defines the protocol used to link the management station. and the management agents, The architecture of SNMP shown in Figure 12 3 demonstrates the key elements of a network. management environment SNMP is designed to be a simple message based application layer pro. tocol The manager process achieves network management using SNMP which is implemented. over the User Datagram Protocol UDP 9 10 SNMP agent must also implement SNMP and. UDP protocols SNMP is a connectionless protocol which means that each exchange between a. management station and an agent is a separate transaction This design minimizes the complexity. of the management agents,Figure 12 3 also shows that SNMP supports .
administrators It has become impossible to carry out network management functions without the support of automated tools and applications In this chapter the major network management issues including network management requirements functions techniques security some well known network management protocols and tools will be discussed

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