Chapter 1 Why Study Research Methods Distribute-Books Pdf

CHAPTER 1 Why Study Research Methods distribute
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there are many research methodologies that can be used when conducting scientific research Data Information. in criminology and criminal justice Research methods offer the tools needed to solve the puz that takes a variety. zle of how to best conduct the research of interest given many acceptable options Learning of forms such as. words observations, about the suitable options available in research methods the logic behind each and the measurements. advantages and disadvantages of each is the purpose of this book descriptions and numbers. With an understanding of what research methods are you can get the most out of the The individual pieces of. material offered in this book Understanding that research methods are simply the process information or evidence. used to conduct social science research places the material that follows in that larger context gathered analyzed. and used to answer the, In doing this research methods should make greater sense Not only that with an under. standing of what research methods are you might find that you enjoy the material in this research question Data. can be numeric and non, course Even better you will learn that you can apply this material to parts of your everyday numeric in nature. life as you become not only an intelligent and critical creator of knowledge but also an intel. ligent and critical consumer of knowledge Importantly these skills are easy to translate in the Research methods. real world to find a job and build a career Methods processes or. steps used to conduct, This chapter begins your journey into research methods by first introducing why meth. social science research, ods are important We then move to a brief description about the typical stages of research.
including developing a research question gathering data and selecting an analytic approach Ethics Norms for behavior. that distinguish between, The chapter then turns to an important discussion of the role of ethics in life and in research. what is and is not, From this point we discuss principles of ethical research We conclude the chapter by intro acceptable Ethics are. ducing you to six researchers and a piece of research each conducted We will discuss their not necessarily what our. research throughout the text to provide real world examples of how they conducted their feelings or laws direct us. research from the beginning to the end to do but what the common. norms of moral behavior in, society dictate, Why Are Research Methods Important. In addition to understanding what research methods are it is equally important to under. stand why research methods are important More bluntly why should you use your valuable. time learning about research methods The answer is that understanding research methods. influences what you know by offering you a systematic way to assess and gain knowledge. Understanding research methods provides you with practical skills that allows you to pro. duce and to consume findings facts and information with the assurance that it was arrived. at systematically These skills are not only useful in college but also in private businesses. nonprofits government agencies and other places you can get a job. Knowledge and Ways of Knowing, How do you know what you know Throughout your life you have been exposed to knowl. edge in a variety of forms such as information available on the Internet research findings. documentaries writings opinions and your own observations and experiences You have. taken some of that knowledge and it has become a part of what you know Some of the infor. mation you were exposed to was scientifically generated and some of it was not Available. knowledge based on well executed scientific processes i e systematic gathering of observ. able and falsifiable data that are carefully analyzed to reach a conclusion comes from sources. such as legitimate peer reviewed research journals academic books and information from. substantive experts to name a few Available knowledge generated in nonscientific ways. includes information you have been told by people you trust things you have personally. observed intuition or information gleaned from social and mass media to name a few. Thinking about all the types of available information you have been exposed to what has. guided you to accept or reject any piece of information How did you assess that information. Chapter 1 Why Study Research Methods 3, Copyright 2020 by SAGE Publications Inc.
This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. before accepting or rejecting it Is what you know based on knowledge that was carefully. assessed and created Or was it accepted for other reasons. One approach to deciding whether to accept knowledge is to carefully assess or evalu. ate it A means of assessing it is to examine the methods used to generate that knowledge. When exposed to knowledge you might ask What evidence was used to generate this. knowledge How was this evidence gathered and Do the conclusions and findings follow. from the evidence presented By using this approach you can make an informed choice. about that knowledge and then offer evidence to support your choice to accept it or reject. it Learning research methods provides you with the tools needed to ask and answer these. questions and in turn to assess and create meaningful knowledge. Another commonly used and not recommended approach in accepting knowledge is to. assess it based on characteristics unrelated to the actual knowledge This type of noncritical. assessment means that knowledge was accepted without considering how the knowledge was. created Perhaps the decision to accept the knowledge was based on where it was obtained. e g local news or blogs from whom it came e g celebrity priest person wearing a white. coat family member or guy in a bar or just a general gut feeling about that information. e g instinct it just sounds good or it agrees with what I already believe Obtaining knowl. edge in this way is fast and easy but this approach can come at the price of accepting errone. ous and at times dangerous knowledge, The focus of this book is to understand how to create and assess knowledge that is sci. entifically sound using social science research methods Some examples of the usefulness of. thinking critically about research methods follow, Information From Everyday Life. Each day we are bombarded with a lot of new information some of it seemingly contradic. tory and yet most people are confident they know about these topics For example most. people especially those who watch local nightly news know that crime is at an all time high. and out of control How did they reach that conclusion What evidence do they have to support. that conclusion Crime is not at an all time high Rather crime rates continue to be relatively. low It is the responsibility of a savvy consumer never to merely accept what you are told read. or observe but instead to critically assess the evidence and steps used to reach that conclusion. The next sections offer actual examples in the popular media that have gained a lot of traction. When reading about them ask whether you believe this information or not and why that is. College Student Victimization, Krebs Lindquist Warner Fisher and Martin 2007 published conclusions from their. research titled The Campus Sexual Assault CSA Study The goal of this investigation was. to estimate how much sexual assault was experienced by university students to develop tar. geted intervention strategies This research sat in relative obscurity from the public until. recently In fact findings from the CSA research are the source for what is perhaps the most. widely cited contemporary statistic regarding sexual violence against college women the. 1 in 5 statistic Headlines and other modes of popular media frequently report that 1 in 5. women are raped on campus or some similarly stated variant In fact you may have seen. this type of information posted around your campus What is your assessment about the 1 in. 5 statistic Do you find it to be accurate Why Why not. The appropriate way to assess this and any information is to access the original research. and learn about the research methodology used to conduct the research By doing so you. might be surprised to learn that Krebs and his collaborators never concluded that 1 in 5 college. women were raped on campus or anywhere Reading their clearly articulated methodology. you would learn about the actual research rather than relying on poor and incomplete. 4 Part 1 Getting Started, Copyright 2020 by SAGE Publications Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. descriptions of it found in the media and elsewhere You would learn that this research was Sample Subset of a. based on a sample or a subset of 18 to 25 year old college students attending two large pub population of interest. lic universities in the United States Students who were eligible to participate in the research from which information or. data is gathered Samples, had to be enrolled at least time Data from the survey were gathered from 5 466 women are often composed of.
and 1 375 men An examination of the methodology would make clear the particular defini people but they can also. tions and measurement used to estimate rape and sexual assault perpetrated against those be other things including. college students in any location You would also see that behaviorally specific questions geographic areas e g. were used to identify who had been victimized These questions are more graphic in nature cities or organizations. or documents e g, and leave little doubt in the mind of the respondent about what rape and sexual assault. means in this specific research newspaper reports, One of the many conclusions from the Krebs and colleagues research was that 19 of Definition Clarifying the. female college seniors had experienced an attempted or completed rape or sexual assault precise meaning of a. which includes forced kissing or unwanted groping of sexual body parts since entering particular concept when. college Furthermore you would learn by examining the research methodology that in used in research For. example in one piece of, contrast to the name of the study only one question was asked about whether the event. research injury may be, happened on campus The 19 statistic represents rapes and sexual assaults perpetrated defined as physical harms. against these college women in any location Another very important piece of information perpetrated to another. available in the published research study is that these findings apply only to the two uni person against his or her. versities that participated in the study and that findings do not reflect any other university will In some other piece. or any other student outside of those two universities This research has been so frequently of research injury may. be defined as physical, misstated that Krebs and Linquist 2014 wrote a second piece titled Setting the Record.
emotional psychological, Straight on 1 in 5 where they stressed that and financial harms. perpetrated against, f irst and foremost the 1 in 5 statistic is not a nationally representative estimate another person against his. of the prevalence of sexual assault and we have never presented it as being or her will. representative of anything other than the population of senior undergraduate Measurement Process. women at the two universities where data were collected two large public of quantifying a concept. universities one in the South and one in the Midwest para 3 Measurement can be. conducted in a variety, of ways such as through, How does understanding a bit about the research methodology of the CSA study alter survey questions e g on. your view of the 1 in 5 statistic How might you view newer headlines with similar claims a scale from 1 to 10 how. Hopefully this example encourages you to find the original research and consult the method happy are you today How. ology before making an assessment With the information you ll learn in this text you will be many cigarettes have you. a savvier consumer of material and hold informed views on topics that are based on scientific smoked this week and. research What is your current GPA, About eight years after Krebs and his collaborators finished their work on the CSA the counting behaviors during. observation taking blood, New York Times Perez Pena 2015 ran a headline proclaiming that 1 in 4 Women Experience pressure measurements or.
Sexual Assault on Campus What is your assessment about this headline Is it your experi recording one s age. ence that 25 of the women you know were sexually assaulted on campus Do you believe. it to be accurate Why Why not How might you investigate this claim to ascertain whether Behaviorally specific. question In research a, you find it credible question that tends to be. To assess this information you should examine the specific research methods from the more graphic in nature. Association of American Universities AAU study by Cantor and colleagues that led to that which leaves little doubt in. conclusion Cantor et al 2015 If you accessed the original research by Cantor and his the mind of the respondent. colleagues you would learn more A lot more In the case of the New York Times headline about the type of. you would learn that this study came from a nonrepresentative sample or subset of students information the research. Chapter 1 Why Study Research Methods 3 there are many research methodologies that can be used when conducting scientific research in criminology and criminal justice Research methods offer the tools needed to solve the puz zle of how to best conduct the research of interest given many acceptable options Learning about the suitable options available in research methods the logic behind

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