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Challenging America How Russia China and Other
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BACKGROUNDER NO 2698, June 21 2012, State Department s bureau oversee Russian government allocated 1 4 by power diffusion technologi. ing European affairs According to billion for international propaganda cal advances networks and an. a former State Department official in 2010 4 empowered global public The. the bureau responsible for U S poli Meanwhile in the U S a conflu sum total of these changes means. cies at the United Nations and other ence of issues and changing pri that addressing the world s major. international organizations received orities compound the challenges foreign policy challenges will. not even one USIA official presented by tightening budgets and require soft power approaches. The result of this misalignment entrenched anti Americanism The Driving international affairs. is that today more people around purpose and priorities for public in the 21st century will rest. the world believe the global balance diplomacy are being pulled in many on shaping narratives setting. of power is shifting away from the directions with U S military opera international norms mobilising. United States In over two thirds of tions in Iraq and Afghanistan wind trans national networks and. the countries surveyed in 2011 by ing down a pivot away from the winning the battle for global pub. the Pew Research Center either a Middle East and toward Asia an lic opinion This is not to say that. majority or a plurality of people said intentional downgrading of concerns soft power alone will always win. that China would replace or already over terrorism and a reset of rela the day but its relative strategic. has replaced the U S as the lead tions with Russia to name a few importance compared to hard. ing superpower That response was power will continue to grow at. widespread in countries where the THE GROWING EMPHASIS ON a time when the world s estab. U S is popular as well as in those PUBLIC DIPLOMACY BY COUNTRIES. lished powers are chipping away, where anti Americanism runs high 1 at their own capacity to operate. THAT DISAGREE WITH AMERICA S, This holds true despite the fact that under the changing conditions of. the U S has spent well over 15 bil VALUES AND POLICIES PRESENTS international politics Taken in. lion on public diplomacy since 1999 2 A SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGE BUT this context the results of this. Even more challenging is the fact SIMPLY FUNNELING MORE MONEY TO index beg the question how long. that many state and non state actors will historical trends sustain the. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY BUDGETS IS NOT, are competing aggressively with the soft power hegemony of tradi. U S for the hearts and minds of THE ANSWER tional Western powers 5. people around the world Seeking, greater influence and access they are The independent Institute for One need not agree with this.
funneling significant resources into Government in the United Kingdom assessment of the role of soft power. their own public diplomacy strate explained the challenges for pub to understand that in an age of. gies The Chinese government for lic diplomacy in its 2011 Global increasing interconnectedness and. instance announced in 2009 that Ranking of Soft Power new media the ability to make a per. it would spend almost 7 billion on suasive case for its values policies. a global media drive to improve International politics are under and goals improves the likelihood. China s image in the world 3 The going a fundamental shift driven that a nation can secure its interests. 1 Pew Research Center Global Attitudes Project China Seen Overtaking U S as Global Superpower July 13 2011 http www pewglobal org 2011 07 13 chapter. 1 the global balance of power accessed May 21 2012. 2 U S Office of Management and Budget Budget of the United States Government Washington U S Government Printing Office Fiscal Year 1996 Fiscal Year. 2012 http www gpo gov fdsys browse collection action collectionCode BUDGET browsePath Fiscal Year 2012 searchPath Fiscal Year 2012 leafLe. velBrowse false isCollapsed false isOpen true packageid BUDGET 2012 TAB ycord 1018 accessed May 21 2012. 3 Vivian Wu and Adam Chen Beijing in 45b Yuan Global Media Drive Morning China January 13 2009 http www wsichina org morningchina article. asp id 3962 accessed May 23 2012, 4 Luke Harding Russia Today Launches First UK Ad Blitz The Guardian December 18 2009 http www guardian co uk world 2009 dec 18 russia today. propaganda ad blitz accessed May 23 2012, 5 Jonathan McClory The New Persuaders II A 2011 Global Ranking of Soft Power Institute for Government December 1 2011 p 24 http www. instituteforgovernment org uk publications new persuaders ii accessed May 22 2012. BACKGROUNDER NO 2698, June 21 2012, That is U S public diplomacy s essen responsibility for public diplomacy of Defense the U S Agency for. tial task lies with the White House the State International Development the. The growing emphasis on public Department and the Broadcasting National Endowment for Democracy. diplomacy by countries that disagree Board of Governors BBG but the and the Departments of Agriculture. with America s values and policies Department of Defense also plays a Commerce Education and Labor. presents a significant challenge but key though sometimes controversial also reach out to foreign publics. simply funneling more money to role Engaging foreign publics wher Section 2732 of the U S Code lays. public diplomacy budgets is not the ever the U S military is deployed is a out the two purposes of public diplo. answer matter of necessity Informing civil macy first increasing foreign publics. Today there is too little coordi ians about the U S mission can gain knowledge of the United States and. nation of public diplomacy efforts support and lessen the threat of vio its foreign policy and second articu. among U S agencies Too often oper lence Yet the objectives of the mili lating the values and principles upon. ational decisions are constrained tary s strategic communications and which the United States government. by bureaucratic misinterpreta psychological operations psyops and its foreign policies are founded. tions of the U S Information and now called military information sup By law any U S public diplomacy. Educational Exchange Act known as port operations MISO are gener strategy must target. the Smith Mundt Act a post World ally more narrowly defined than the. War II measure aimed at preventing public diplomacy goals of the State developed and developing. the party that holds the White House Department countries and select and gen. from using the State Department to To harness the tools of public eral audiences using appropri. propagandize Americans The State diplomacy when American lead ate media to properly explain. Department for instance posts ership values and policies face the foreign policy of the United. neither its own published public mounting competition abroad the States to the governments and. diplomacy materials nor links to its U S needs a coordinated strategy populations of such countries. international broadcasting programs that increases awareness by deci with the objectives of increas. on its website effectively preventing sion makers in Washington of how ing support for United States. most Americans from ever seeing countries such as China and Russia policies and providing news and. them are employing public diplomacy to information The Secretary of. At the same time Americans do compete with the U S establishes State shall through the most. have ready access on the Internet to best practices prioritizes objectives effective mechanisms counter. Chinese and Russian public diplo and consolidates lines of author misinformation and propaganda. macy programming that is heavily ity across the government removes concerning the United States. critical of U S policy Technology has outdated restrictions and expands The Secretary shall continue. changed and online access to the the capabilities of U S officials to to articulate the importance of. materials that the U S distributes explain American policies and freedom democracy and human. abroad could help Americans better increases oversight of public diplo rights as fundamental principles. understand and evaluate their gov macy spending underlying United States foreign. ernment s foreign policies allow bet policy goals 6. ter oversight and make public diplo The State of U S. macy spending more accountable Public Diplomacy In the 1980s the U S public. What is needed in Washington As defined by law public diplo diplomacy machine under President. is more focused commitment to macy is a tool of U S foreign Ronald Reagan and USIA Director. public diplomacy prioritization of policy employed primarily by Charles Wick helped win the Cold. programs better organization of the Department of State and the War battle of ideas After the Soviet. instruments better trained and Broadcasting Board of Governors Union fell the peace dividend that. experienced personnel and stricter though many other U S government caused declining military spending. oversight of resources Primary agencies including the Department also led to stagnant and declining. 6 U S Code 2732 http www law cornell edu uscode text 22 2732 accessed May 23 2012. BACKGROUNDER NO 2698, June 21 2012, public diplomacy and international deeply engaged in the Arab world embassies websites and mobile tech. broadcasting budgets 7 In 1999 the without the institutional capacity to nologies accompanied each speech. USIA was absorbed by the State mount a response to the ideological Yet despite the ambitious begin. Department as part of the bureau challenges posed by al Qaeda the ning the Administration did not. cratic reorganization brokered by Taliban and other radical Islamists follow through on its promises of. Senator Jesse Helms R NC and The White House established an engagement Institutional changes. Secretary Albright Office of Global Communications to in the public diplomacy machin. The transfer of public diplomacy formulate and coordinate messages ery were neglected Various strat. functions to the State Department about U S operations in Afghanistan egy documents were issued indi. was both a curse and a blessing The and later in Iraq After four years cating a good deal of thinking on. USIA had been a small generally well its functions were taken over by the the subject These include the. managed independent government State Department The Department State Department s Quadrennial. organization with a clear mission of Defense tried to merge public Diplomacy and Development Review. and efficient finance and personnel affairs and information warfare and its framework document titled. systems When it was broken up and capabilities but its Office of Public Public Diplomacy Strengthening. folded into the State Department s Diplomacy Support was eventu U S Engagement with the World. much larger and less efficient bureau ally closed under Secretary Robert A Strategic Approach for the 21st. cracy USIA staff did not disappear Gates and its resources sent to the Century the National Security. entirely Area officers were sent to State Department The Pentagon s Council s Public Diplomacy. the department s geographic bureaus public diplomacy functions have Strategy and the Pentagon s. thereby losing their independent not ceased altogether indeed they Strategic Communications. budgets and reporting channels The cannot However under President Strategy But they provoked little. department s Bureau of Intelligence Obama the State Department plays practical change Although the. and Research incorporated the the dominant role Administration added six Deputy. USIA s media reaction and opinion Assistant Secretaries of State for pub. analysis division The department s THE TRANSFER OF PUBLIC lic diplomacy and created a Center. Public Affairs Bureau absorbed DIPLOMACY FUNCTIONS TO THE. for Strategic Counterterrorism, the USIA s television production Communication no major reorgani.
STATE DEPARTMENT IN 1999 WAS, facilities as well as the Foreign Press zation has taken place. Centers in Washington New York BOTH A CURSE AND A BLESSING The President s budget request. and Los Angeles The USIA s Office for public diplomacy for fiscal year. of Strategic Communication an From the outset the Obama FY 2012 at 536 million includes. important message coordinating Administration sought to advance funding for the State Department s. entity was abolished 8 Meanwhile U S standing overseas In a number public diplomacy offices in the. the U S international broadcasting of strategy documents it outlined a regional and functional bureaus. complex with the Voice of America focus on smart power the combina as well as the work of the Office of. at its center became a stand alone tion of hard power and the soft power International Information Programs. agency under the Broadcasting instruments of diplomacy public President Obama requested addi. Board of Governors diplomacy and foreign aid In a series tional funding for related programs. With the dissolution of the Soviet of ambitious yet controversial policy such as Educational and Cultural. Union little attention was paid to speeches in Prague Ghana Cairo Exchanges the National Endowment. functions that were considered rel and Oslo during his first year in office for Democracy the East West Center. ics of the Cold War including public President Obama emphasized his and other exchange programs at. diplomacy When al Qaeda terrorists message of a more humble even apol 766 million These figures do not<. Cold War ideological battle between supporters of liberty and the totali tarians For example though the threat to Europe from the Soviet Union had dissipated all 22 officers who had covered European nations for the USIA were assigned to the Challenging America How Russia China and Other Countries Use Public Diplomacy to Compete with the U S

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