Casamance Understanding Conflict 2016-Books Pdf

Casamance Understanding Conflict 2016
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Table of Contents, Acknowledgements, List of Acronyms. Introduction I William Zartman, Part I Elements of the Problem. 1 The Neighborhood Enclaved Zachary Vinyard, 2 The Challenge Trust and Reconciliation Kimya Zahedi. 3 The Role of Ethnicity Yael Mizrahi, Part II Handling the Conflict. 4 Mediation Catherine Simon, 5 Handling Conflict from the MFDC Side Sam Fishman.
6 Handling the Conflict from the Government Side Matthew Brandeburg. 7 Challenges of Devolution Wout Van Eylen, 8 Role of the Military Elizabeth Parker Magyar. Part III Societal Insecurity, 9 Displaced Populations Alice Dufeu. 10 Agriculture Ruchira Srinivasakrishnan, 11 Food Security Chelsey Buurman. Part IV Economic Development, 12 Underdevelopment Julia Miller. 13 Local Enterprise Jillian Foerster, 14 Foreign Direct Investments Jamie Farrell.
15 Funding the MFDC Katrien Hinderdael, Conclusion I William Zartman. List of Interviews, Bibliography, Acknowledgements. We are most grateful for the active help and hospitality of the West African Research. Center WARC the American Overseas Research Center of the West African Research. Association WARA and especially of its long term director Dr Ousmane Sene and. Martiane Yade We are also appreciative of the guidance and welcome of Dr Doudou. Sidib of Novancia who accompanied the group And we owe so much to Isabelle. Talpain Long who in personal adversity put so much effort in making the trip and. publication successful, List of Acronyms, ANRAC Agence Nationale pour la Relance des Activit s Economiques et Sociales en. CCC Collectif des Cadres Casaman ais Collective of Leaders of the Casamance. CHD Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, CNAMS Centre National d Action Antimines au S negal. DDDR Disarmament Demobilization Rehabilitation and Reintegration. ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States, EEC European Economic Community.
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization, FDI Foreign Direct Investments. FRELIMO Frente de Liberacao de Mo ambique, GOS Government of Senegal. ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross, IDP Internally Displaced Person. MCC Millennium Challenge Corporation, MFDC Mouvement des Forces D mocratiques de Casamance. MOCAP Mission for the Observation and Consolidation of the Peace Accord. NGO Non Governmental Oganization, NPA Norwegian People s Aid.
OAU Organization of African Unity, OCA Agricultural Marketing Office. PADERCA Program for the Reactivation of Economic Activities in Casamance. PAIGC Partido Africano da Independ ncia da Guin e Cabo Verde. PDS Parti D mocratique S n galais, PPDC Projet du P le de D veloppement de la Casamance. PRAESC Programme de Relance des Activit s Economiques en Casamance National. Agency for the Revival of Economic and Social Activities in Casamance. PSE Plan S n gal Emergent Emerging Senegal Plan, RENAMO Resistencia National de Mo ambique. SME Small and Medium Enterprise, SSA Sub Saharan Africa. UNICEF UN Children s Fund, UNICEF United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
USDoS U S Department of State, WFP World Food Program. Introduction, I William Zartman, A long lasting and little noted conflict in West Africa has been festering like an old sore. since 1982 or 1960 or around 1500 depending on the remembered source of grief and. grievance Perhaps its basic cause is the wicked colonial inheritance of the formerly. British enclave of Gambia that cuts Senegal into unequal halves and separates the conflict. area Casamance from the rest of the country From that bold fact all other causes flow. Yet efforts are underway to overcome the ensuing conflict if not the geopolitical cause. and that is what attracted 15 graduate students and three senior scholars from the Johns. Hopkins University s School of Advanced International Studies SAIS to travel to. Dakar and Ziguinchor and Bignona on 16 to 23 January 2016 1 We had a series of open. discussions with a wide range of Casaman ais in high and low places and with analysts. and observers in the capital and in the south providing some very penetrating insights. into the situation and a frank exchange of views Many figures from the region hold. important positions in government circles in the capital We found it curious that we met. less openness on the side of the government which we regretted Our challenge was to. understand why and how the conflict has lasted so long at such a low level we came. away with an impression of conflict fatigue in the midst of continuing feelings of neglect. and official efforts to finally put an end to the conflict and also to the grievances that feed. it a long term as well as an immediate challenge, Senegal is a showcase country of democracy and stability in a troubled continent. a country poor in natural resources and rich in human experience It build a solid. political and socio economic system centered on presidential dominance of the Jacobin. state inherited from its position as capital of French West Africa and maintained through. a vibrant democracy functioning first through a dominant party and then a vigorous. Prevoius research trips have included Sri Lanka January 2016 Colombia January 2015 Mindanao 2014. and 2011 Nagorno Karabakh 2013 Tunisia 2012 Kosovo 2010 Cyprus 2009 Northern Ireland 2008. Haiti 2007 and 2006 Reports from previous Field Trips are available at https sais. jhu edu programs cm activities, multiparty system characterized by both limited presidential reelection and by party. alternance Thus the problem of the Casamance poses a challenge to an otherwise. unusually healthy state, The Casamance conflict is felt on three levels One level contains all the.
grievances of neglect underdevelopment and colonization from the hypercephalic. state that the Casaman ais refer to as the Senegal of which they are not a part The. third is the level of violence which has risen and fallen since the confrontation of 23. December 1982 when the Senegalese army fired on a peaceful demonstration In between. lies a second level of memory that ties the two levels together and continues to be. assiduously cultivated even as the first level loses activity. The first level of the conflict began with the French colonization that came only in. the late nineteenth century in the south In contrast the seventeenth century French. implantation in Cape Verde included the four communes of Dakar Rufisque St Louis. and Gor e that have voted in French elections since the Revolution of 1789 The 1793. Treaty of Paris confirmed British ownership of The Gambia effectively amputating the. Casamance from French territories to the north and creating the physical basis of the. conflict Gambian borders were established in agreement with the French in 1889 and. Casamance was governed separately from Senegal until World War II Casamance is an. enclave and communication and affinity is stronger across porous neighboring borders. with Gambia and Guinea Bissau than with the government economy and society of the. main part of Senegal Access to the territory from the north is through Gambia which. refuses to construct a bridge across its river or through a long circuitous road that. circumvents its territory inhibiting commerce and communication Casamance is. inhabited by various tribes with the Atlantic side predominated by the Diola an. acephalic society of many little agricultural kingdoms with strong animist traditions. little inclined to commerce Investment in services health and transportation. infrastructure from the government or from private sources in the backward region has. been low and economic activity including rice farming has been dominated particularly. since a 1974 land reform by interests from the north locally referred to as Senegalese. colonization Government is concentrated in Dakar in the centralized tradition inherited. from France and perfected by L opold Sedar Senghor the father of the country and first. president 1960 1981 Various programs of decentralization have been variations on a. system of strong regional governance interacting directly with the central authority. untouched by local politics, To Senghor s successor Abdou Diouf 1981 2000 under whom the rebellion. broke out Casamance was a nuisance worthy only of repression and it took him a decade. to begin to turn to negotiations and ceasefires all cut short by his electoral defeat in 2000. His successor Abdoulaye Wade junked Diouf s measures promised a solution in 100. days and achieved ceasefire agreements taking four years instead after which he. abandoned the search for a meaningful solution When the current president Macky Sall. was elected in 2012 he instituted a number of measures to begin to handle the economic. isolation and underdevelopment of the enclave and instituted efforts to negotiate an end. to the conflict, The third level of the conflict began as early as 1947 with the founding of the. Movement of Democratic Forces MFDC in Casamance as a cultural association by. Diola intellectual Emile Badiane The MFDC supported Senghor s drive for. independence of Senegal in 1960 and then turned to work for Casamance s own. independence under the iconic leadership of Abb Diamacoune Senghor no relation. The 1982 repression turned the movement violent and protracted violence led to the. creation of a militant wing Atika under Sidy Badji in 1984 The Cacheu agreement in. May 1991 produced a ceasefire and further splinters in the Movement the Ziguinchor. agreement in July 1993 fell apart by June 1995 followed by another ceasefire in January. 1996 that brought on serious confrontations with the army The Banjul II agreement in. November 1999 with the help of the Sant Egidio Community from Rome brought. another ceasefire and a Mission for the Observation and Consolidation of the Peace. Accord MOCAP and the Banjul III agreement in February 2000 to consider the. negotiation calendar Just as Diouf was getting his stride on handling the conflict Wade. elected a month after Banjul III abolished the MOCAP and fired Diouf s Casamance. team and brought the MFDC and Casaman ais civil society groups to the Ziguinchor. Accord of December 2004 officially ending the conflict Foundiougne I in February. 2005 and II in January 2006 moved the peace agreement toward implementation but to. Wade the war was over and he turned to other projects including personal enrichment. The MFDC was not quiet during this decade Prolonged conflict and disputed. peace agreements led to splits upon splits as did political upheavals in neighboring. countries where MFDC camps and support were also to be found The government of. Dawda Jawara in Gambia generally cooperative with Senegal with which it confederated. in 1981 1989 was overthrown in 1994 Yahya Jammeh also Diola has given greater. support to the Movement s factions including accommodation of their illegal timber. operations In Guinea Bissau to the south coups occurred every three or fours years. with effects on the fortunes of the MFDC on its borders Violent encounters with the. army and civilian targets have occurred yearly since 2000 increasing since 2009 but. falling off lately and a leader who sought to negotiate with the government in 2006 was. shot as a traitor, Badji s death in 2003 and Diamacoune s in 2007 left the Movement with no. recognized leader The South Front under Salif Sadio camped along the Guinea Bissau. border until chased north to the Gambian border by the Guinean army and other Atika. factions although most militant with a bloody past within the Movement it reached out. to Sall and began negotiating contacts with the involvement of Sant Egidio The other. factions make up the North Front directed by C sar Atoute Badiat around Ziguinchor at. Kassalol who in February 2016 brought together the groups of Kamougue Diatta at. Diakeye near the Gambian border of Ibrahima Compass Diatta and of Abdou Elinkine. Diatta in Ziguinchor some of whom have armed camps in the bush maquis The. consolidating agreement sought to establish an assembly assise that would choose a. military commander a secretary general to head the political wing finally replacing. Abb Diamacoune and a negotiating commission with a spokesman for the MFDC to. speak directly to the Ad Hoc Commission, Another faction of Ousmane Nyantang Nyatta has declared itself a political party. and left the armed struggle sending disarmed militants to DDRR pilot programs for. resettlement and a different faction has constituted itself as a Contact Group working to. combine the factions Diaspora figures such as Kourouma San Jean Fran ois Biagi and. Ousmane Tamba mainly in Paris claim to be the political wing and are certainly a. financial wing of the movement, Under the many attempted ceasefires from 1991 to 2005 the political groups were.
pulled away from their militants in the maquis who in turn felt no constraints from the. ceasefires and indeed were impelled ever more to break them because they did not. respect the goal of independence By 2016 violent incidents had all but disappeared. although the camps continued to attract young men and Sadio s threat to go back to. violence if progress were not made on major demands is hollow Sall s government. under the control of a mostly military Ad Hoc Negotiating Committee for the. Casamance headed by Admiral Farba Sarr chief of Intelligence began a reconciliation. process using the offices of Sant Egidio with the Sadio group and hiring the Centre for. Casamance from French territories to the north and creating the physical basis of the conflict Gambian borders were established in agreement the French in 1889 and with Casamance was governed separately from Senegal until World War II Casamance is an enclave and communication and affinity is stronger across porous neighboring borders

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