Carnatic Music Concert Overview Srgmpdn A Forum For-Books Pdf

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mridangam and thus blend well with the main performer too The instruments that generally follow. in this category are Ghatam Khanjira and Morsing Occasionally there is also oral rhythmic. support known as Konnakkol, The Tambura or tanpura is the most important aid especially for vocalists in the quest for. attaining perfect Sruti Tuning the Tanpura everyday exposes the artist repeatedly to minute. variations in pitch and to intuitive recognition of the correct pitch. Structure of a concert, The conventional mode of beginning a concert is with a Varnam This can either be rendered in a. brisk pace usually madhyamakala or in two degrees of speed in the first half and. madhyamakala from the Charanam onwards The Varnam is generally regarded as a warm up. piece which sets the pace and mood of the concert, Some artistes prefer to follow varnam with an invocatory Krithi on Lord Ganesha who is believed. to bestow success upon one s endeavors, The opening piece is generally followed by a couple of brisk krithis with or without improvisations. If rendered with improvisations it may be a short raga alapana or a few rounds of crisp neraval. and kalpanaswaras, This is usually followed by a slower krithi with or without raga alapana.
Then the performer renders the main piece of the concert in an elaborate fashion It is fairly. common to choose a Ghana ragam and a weighty krithi for the main piece The main piece will. include various improvisations like raga alapana neraval and kalpana swaram. The main artiste then gives an opportunity to the percussionists to rhythmically embellish the. given melodic theme with the Tani Avartanam, Now a days most artistes sing a Ragam Tanam Pallavi as the secondary major piece after the. main piece In the olden days RTP used to be the main piece of a concert The duration of RTP. has reduced over the years and a typical RTP in present day concerts lasts about 30 to 40. This is followed with a sprinkling of the lighter variety of songs like Ashtapadis Bhajans Padam. Javali Ragamalika Tiruppugazh and Tillana Occasionally slokas or viruttams are rendered. These are nothing but verses in Sanskrit or Tamil with devotional or philosophical content and are. rendered like an alapana sans tala, The concert concludes with a Mangalam which is a prayer for peace and prosperity. Tana Varnam Used in music concerts, Pada Varnam Primarily intended for classical dance bharatanatyam Also rendered in carnatic. music concert, Musical features of the Varnam, Elaborate composition which fully explores the raga in which it is composed and serves to. illustrate the standard phrases occurring in that raga as well as the exceptions and special. phrases Hence while learning a raga it is important to learn Varnas in that raga. The composition also weaves intricate rhythmic patterns and illustrates the use of swara groups. of 3 4 5 etc, The solfa passages in a tana varnam are excellent illustrations of how to develop kalpana swaras.
the sahitya of the tana varnam is typically sparse requiring long vowel extensions during vocal. rendition thereby requiring the use of gamakas ornamentation to notes that characterize the. essence of the underlying ragam, Varna consists of two parts. 1 The first part Purvanga comprises Pallavi Anupallavi and Muktayi swara. 2 The second part Uttaranga comprises one Charana and several Charana Swara passages. The rendition of the Varna is in the following sequence. Purvanga is rendered first and concluded with the repetition of the Pallavi. Then the Uttaranga is rendered starting with the Charana and then each Charana Swara by turn. At the end of each Charana Swara passage the Charana is repeated. The varnam is concluded after rendering the Charanam after the last Charana Swaram. The Pallavi is not visited again, Tana Varnam and Pada Varnam. Similarities, o Sahityam in Pallavi Anupallavi and Charanam. o Solfa for muktayi swaram and charana swaram, Differences. o Only pada varnam has sahityam for muktayi swaram and charana swaram. o Sahityam in Tana Varnam has few words requiring extensive vowel elongations during vocal. rendition whereas the Sahityam in Pada Varnams is more expressive and full. o Pada Varnam is rendered at a single appropriate speed whereas tana varnam is rendered in. two or three speeds, Examples of varnams, Tana Varnams Eranapai Todi Vanajakshi Kalyani Ninnukori Mohanam.
Pada Varnams Sarasalanu Kapi Chalamela Natakurinji. Popular composers, 1 Pacchimiriam Adiyappa, 2 Pallavi Gopala Iyer. 3 Vina Kuppayyar, 4 Tiruvottriyur Tyagayyar, 5 Patnam Subramanya Iyer. 6 Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar, 7 Balamurali Krishna, 8 Lalgudi Jayaraman. Demonstration of Varnam thana and parts of pada varnam. Krithis Purpose, Most of a typical Carnatic music concert will involve rendition of Krithis Kritis form the major part of all. existing musical compositions A kriti is a composition based on a particular raga and tala Kritis bring out. the beauty and feeling of a raga as the composer can choose the raga tala speed style and the text that. the composer wants Krithis are ideally suited for neraval and kalpanaswara improvisations. 1 Kriti is the most important form belonging to the Sabha Gana group You will not hear a concert. without krithi rendition Theme of krithis is mostly devotional The emphasis is more on the. musicality and aesthetic content, 2 Evolution Kriti is said to have evolved from the older form Keertana which was in vogue around.
the 14 century The keertana is a simpler form giving more emphasis to the lyrics which are. usually devotional The kriti however is a more complex form. 3 Structure Normally the kriti has all the three sections Pallavi Anupallavi and Charanam The. performer begins with the Pallavi which is mounted with additional musical phrases in a. progressive manner called Sangatis and then goes to the Anupallavi also sung with variations. He then returns to the pallavi again before proceeding to the Charanam The kriti ends with the. Pallavi It is usually in Charanam that one finds the mudra signature of the composer For. example Tyagaraja used his own name while Muthuswami Dikshitar adopted Guruguha and. Syama Sastri Syamakrishna, Special Features of a kriti. Some kritis of Muthuswami Dikshitar have only two sections the Pallavi and the Anupallavi. where the Anupallavi is called Samashti Charanam Example Anandamritakarshini in raga. Amritavarshini, Some of Tyagaraja s kritis have multiple Charanams with different tunes Example. Endukunirdaya in raga Harikambhoji, Some kritis have Chittaswara or solfa passages and matching lyrics Example Marivere in raga. Anandabhairavi, Certain kritis resemble the Swarajati in that before a line of text is sung the corresponding swara. passage is sung Example Tyagaraja s Pancharatna kritis. Certain kritis consist of a passage with lyrics which is faster than the rest of the kriti This is. known as the Madhyamakala Sahitya This is typical of Oothukkadu Venkata Kavi s kritis who. pioneered it Later Muthuswami Dikshitar profusely used it in his kritis Example Dikshitar s. Mahaganapatim in raga Nata, Languages used There are a number of kritis in Tamil Telugu Kannada and Sanskrit Examples Tamil.
Eppo Varuvaro Jonpuri Telugu Brocevarevarura Khamas Kannada Mosahodenallu. Subhapantuvarali Sanskrit Ekamresha Karnataka Suddha Saveri There are also kritis in which the. text is in two or more languages Tamil and Sanskrit Such kritis are called Manipravala kritis An. example of the latter is Muthuswami Dikshitar s Venkatachalapate in raga Karnataka Kapi. Popular Composers Annamacharya Tyagaraja Muthuswami Dikshitar Syama Sastri Swati Tirunal. Papanasam Sivan Patnam Subramanya Iyer and a host of others. The Trinity, The Trinity have a very special place among the pantheon of great vageyakkaras in the history of carnatic. music Most of carnatic musicians invariably render several compositions composed by the Trinity Quite. amazingly all three of them hailed from the same geographical area called Tiruvarur in Tamil Nadu and. they were contemporaries, 1 Saint Thyagaraja born in 1767. 2 Muthuswami Dikshitar born in 1775 and, 3 Syama Sastry born in 1763. Born on May 4 1767 Tyagaraja was a prolific composer who composed about 800 songs His. compositions were mainly in the Telugu language though he did compose in Sanskrit too A great devote. of Lord Rama Tyagaraja s songs are very noble sublime and soul stirring Saint Tyagaraja is the most. celebrated composer in Carnatic music, The following characterstics define Tyagaraja s compositions. 1 First composer to perfect the musical form Kriti. 2 Introduced the concept of the Sangati variations on the melodic line of a composition which can. enrich the composition, 3 Composed several songs in unusual Apurva Ragas.
4 Style was simple beautiful and charming which appeals not only to the scholar but also to the. 5 Composer of Pancharatna kritis lit Pancha means five ratna means jewel or gem. 6 His compositions have relatively few words and so their movement is often spritely. Born on March 24 1776 Dikshitar was the youngest of the Trinity He wrote about 300 compositions in all. which were in Sanskrit, 1 A great scholar he had profound knowledge of the Vedas Upanishads astrology mythology. 2 He sang praises of all the Deities without exception. 3 He chose a medium to slow tempo for his songs which gave him the scope to bring out the depth. and beauty of each Raga by using subtle gamakas ornamentations and delicate microtones. The use of the Madhyamakala passages which are in a faster tempo than the rest of the song. only added to the beauty of the compositions, 4 His compositions reflect the great intellect he possessed He has composed in many rare ragas. 5 His five year stay in the holy city of Benares caused him to be profoundly influenced by the. Dhrupad style of singing which was prevalent at the time He also composed songs based on. some North Indian Ragas, 6 Navagraha kritis in praise of the nine planets and Navavarana kritis in praise of Devi Goddess. are some of his other superb compositions, 7 Dikshitar s compositions are carefully worked out the laboured quality of his compositions. cannot appeal to the layman They have to be studied carefully to appreciate their intrinsic value. Syama Sastri was born on April 26th 1762 He was well versed in both TeIugu and Sanskrit both of. which he used in his compositions He composed about three hundred compositions mainly kritis and. Swarajatis A great devotee of Devi Goddess Parvati She is the theme for his compositions His. compositions are very scholarly and have to be listened to a few times before their value can be. appreciated He perfected the Swarajati to its present form Some of his compositions are very rich in. rhythmic conception His style is not as simple as Tyagaraja s but at the same time not as laborious as. Dikshitar s, Demonstration of a brisk krithi rendition without improvisations.
Improvisational Aspects, Raga Definition, Despite being a musical reality the raga defies a simple definition given that music is an abstract art. form A raga may be described from the following perspectives. 1 Aesthetic intuitive A combination of swaras musical notes which is pleasing to hear is raga. 2 Analytical Grammar A raga comprises a set of musical notes that follow a defined sequence. while ascending in pitch and an inverse another sequence while descending in pitch. In addition there are further defining factors such as whether a note is rendered prominently or. only fleetingly straight or with embellishment etc. 3 Character and emotional impact A raga has its own unique character and emotional impact. This is the reason that the final elevating conclusion of a concert is performed only in certain. ragas mangala ragas For the same reason the raga chosen for a composition has to be. appropriate for the meaning and emotion being conveyed by the text. Identifying a Raga, During a music concert there are some people in the audience who always seem to know which raga is. being rendered much to the bafflement and wonder of those who may not yet be so deeply into music. though they enjoy it keenly, So how is the raga identified Following methods are used. 1 Known composition method This however does not help to identify the raga during the. alapana or if the composition is unknown, 2 Sounds like method This is a more advanced method used by those who have developed a. keen sense for music through long years of listening but have not had a formal training As the. raga alapana progress the listener is able to associate the raga lakshana with some krithis. whose raga names are known and is able to deduce the name of the ragam The fact that this. method works pretty well in most cases shows that the raga has a feel and intuitive quality that. can be recognized even if one is not conscious of its grammar There is a however a possibility. of confusing between closely allied ragas in this method. 3 Analytical method This is a precise fail proof method but requires two qualifications. a Swaragnana i e ability tell which notes are being rendered. b Knowledge of the grammar of the raga Those trained in music use this method naturally. and without any effort This method only depends on the correct understanding of the. grammar of the various ragas, It must be noted that recognizing a raga and giving it a name is only the academic aspect of music The.
Carnatic Music Concert Overview Concert format Pre Ariyakudi days 1 Typical concert was 4 hours but there was no definite structure to the concert format 2 Each concert had only four or five songs that were elaborated in great detail 3 RTP occupied the pride of place for nearly two hours because the pallavi was presented in 8 kalai Each rendering of the pallavi line took a very long time

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