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What the Buddha Taught 1,The Buddha 1,Contents 2,Chapter 1 The Buddhist Attitude of Mind 3. The Four Noble Truths 12,Chapter 2 The First Noble Truth Dukkha 12. Chapter 3 The Second Noble Truth Samudaya The Arising of Dukkha 21. Chapter 4 The Third Noble Truth Niroda The Cessation of Dukkha 25. Chapter 5 The fourth noble truth Magga The Path 32. Chapter 6 The doctrine of no soul Anatta 37,Chapter 7 Meditation of mental culture Bhavana 48. Instruction for life 55,Chapter 1 The Buddhist Attitude of Mind. Among the founders of religions the Buddha if we are permitted to call him. the founder of a religion in the popular sense of the term was the only teacher who. did not claim to be other than a human being pure and simple Other teachers were. either God or his incarnations in different forms or inspired by him The Buddha. was not only a human being he claimed no inspiration from any god or external. power either He attributed all his realization attainments and achievements to. human endeavour and human intelligence A man and only a man can become. Buddha Every man has within himself the potentiality of becoming a Buddha if he. so wills it and endeavours We can call the Buddha a man par excellence He was so. perfect in his human ness that he came to be regarded later in popular religion. almost as super human Man s position according to Buddhism is supreme Man is. his own master and there is no higher being or power that sits in judgment over his. One is one s own refuge who else could be the refuge said the Buddha He. admonished his disciples to be a refuge to themselves and never to seek refuge in or. help from anybody else He taught encouraged and stimulated each person to. develop himself and to work out his own emancipation for man has the power to. liberate himself from all bondage through his own personal effort and intelligence. The Buddha says You should do your work for the Tathagatas 1 only teach. the way If the Buddha is to be called a saviour at all it is only in the sense that he. discovered and showed the Path to Liberation Nirvana But we must tread the Path. ourselves It is on this principle of individual responsibility that the Buddha allows. freedom to his disciples In the Mahaparinibbanasutta the Buddha says that he. never thought of controlling the Sangha Order of Monks nor did he wanted the. Sangha to depend on him, He said that there was no esoteric doctrine in his teaching nothing hidden in.
the closed fist of the teacher or to put it in other words there never was anything. up his sleeve The freedom of thought allowed by the Buddha is unheard of. elsewhere in the history of religions This freedom is necessary because according to. the Buddha man s emancipation depends on his own realization of Truth and not on. the benevolent grace of a god or any external power as a reward for his obedient. good behaviour, The Buddha once visited a small town called Kesaputta in the kingdom of. Kosala The inhabitants of this town were known by the common name Kalama. When they heard that the Buddha was in their town the Kalamas paid him a visit. and told him Sir there are some recluses and brahmapas who visit Kesaputta They. explain and illumine only their own doctrines and despise condemn and spurn. others doctrines Then come other recluses and brahmapas and they too in their. turn explain and illumine only their own doctrines and only despise condemn and. spurn others doctrines But for us Sir we have always doubt and perplexity as to. who among these venerable recluses and brahmapas spoke the truth and who. spoke falsehood, Then the Buddha gave them this advice unique in the history of religions. Yes Kalamas it is proper that you have doubt that you have perplexity for a doubt. has arisen in a matter which is doubtful Now look you Kalamas do not be led by. reports or tradition or hearsay Be not led by the authority of religious texts nor by. the delight in speculative opinions nor by seeming possibilities nor by the idea. this is our teacher But O Kalamas when you know for yourselves that certain. things are unwholesome akusala and wrong and bad then give them up And. when you know for yourselves that certain things are wholesome kusala and good. then accept them and follow them The Buddha went even further He told the. bhikkyus that a disciple should examine even the Tathagata Buddha himself so. that he the disciple might be fully convinced of the true value of the teacher. whom he followed, According to the Buddha s teaching doubt vicikiccba is one of the five. Hindrances nivarana 1 to the clear understanding of Truth and to spiritual. progress or for that matter to any progress Doubt however is not a sin because. there are no articles of faith in Buddhism In fact there is no sin in Buddhism as sin. is understood in some religions The root of all evil is ignorance avijja and false. views miccba dittbi It is an undeniable fact that as long as there is doubt. perplexity wavering no progress is possible, It is also equally undeniable that there must be doubt as long as one does not. understand or see clearly But in order to progress further it is absolutely necessary. to get rid of doubt To get rid of doubt one has to see clearly There is no point in. saying that one should not doubt or one should believe Just to say I believe does. not mean that you understand and see When a student works on a mathematical. problem he comes to a stage beyond which he does not know how to proceed and. where he is in doubt and perplexity As long as he has this doubt he cannot proceed. If he wants to proceed he must resolve this doubt And there are ways of. resolving that doubt Just to say I believe or I do not doubt will certainly not solve. the problem To force oneself to believe and to accept a thing without. understanding is political and not spiritual or intellectual The Buddha was always. eager to dispel doubt, Even just a few minutes before his death he requested his disciples several.
times to ask him if they had any doubts about his teaching and not to feel sorry later. that they could not clear those doubts But the disciples were silent What he said. then was touching If it is through respect for the Teacher that you do not ask. anything let even one of you inform his friend i e let one tell his friend so that the. latter may ask the question on the other s behalf, Not only the freedom of thought but also the tolerance allowed by the. Buddha is astonishing to the student of the history of religions Once in Nalanda a. prominent and wealthy householder named Upali a well known lay disciple of. Nigantha Nataputta Jaina Mahavira was expressly sent by Mahavira himself to. meet the Buddha and defeat him in argument on certain points in the theory of. Karma because the Buddha s view on the subject were different from those of. Quite contrary to expectations Upali at the end of the discussion was. convinced that the views of the Buddha were right and those of his master were. wrong So he begged the Buddha to accept him as one of his lay disciples Upasaka. But the Buddha asked him to reconsider it and not to be in a hurry for considering. carefully is good for well known men like you When Upali expressed his desire. again the Buddha requested him to continue to respect and support his old. religious teachers as he used to, In the third century B C the great Buddhist Emperor Asoka of India. following this noble example of tolerance and understanding honoured and. supported all other religions in his vast empire In one of his Edicts carved on the. rock the original of which one may read even today the Emperor declared One. should not honour only one s own religion and condemn the religions of others but. one should honour others religions for this or that reason So doing one helps one s. own religion to grow and renders service to the religions of others too. In acting otherwise one digs the grave of one s own religion and also does. harm to other religions Whosoever honours his own religion and condemns other. religions does so indeed through devotion to his own religion thinking I will glorify. my own religion But on the contrary in so doing he injures his own religion more. gravely So concord is good Let all listen and be willing to listen to the doctrines. professed by others We should add here that this spirit of sympathetic. understanding has been from the beginning one of the most cherished ideals of. Buddhist culture and civilization, That is why there is not a single example of persecution or the shedding of a. drop of blood in converting people to Buddhism or in its propagation during its long. history of 2500 years It spread peacefully all over the continent of Asia having. more than 500 million adherents today Violence in any form under any pretext. whatsoever is absolutely against the teaching of the Buddha. The question has often asked Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy. It does not matter what you call it Buddhism remains what it is whatever label you. may put on it The label is immaterial Even the label Buddhism which we give to. the teaching of the Buddha is of little importance. The name one gives it is inessential,What s in a name That which we call a rose. By other name would smell as sweet, In the same way Truth need no label it is neither Buddhist Christian Hindu.
nor Moslem It is not the monopoly of anybody Sectarian labels are a hindrance to. the independent understanding of Truth and they produce harmful prejudices in. men s mind, This is true not only in intellectual and spiritual matters but also in human. relations When for instance we meet a man we do not look on him as a human. being but we put a label on him such as English French German American or Jew. and regard him with all the prejudices associated with that label in our mind Yet. he may be completely free from those attributes which we have put on him. People are so fond of discriminative labels that they even go to the length of. putting them on human qualities and emotions common to all So they talk of. different brands of charity as for example of Buddhist charity or Christian charity. and look down upon other brands of charity But charity cannot be sectarian it is. neither Christian Buddhist Hindu nor Moslem The love of a mother for her child is. neither Buddhist nor Christian it is mother love Human qualities and emotions like. love charity compassion tolerance patience friendship desire hatred ill will. ignorance conceit etc need no sectarian labels they belong to no particular. To the seeker after Truth it is immaterial from where an idea comes The. source and development of an idea is a matter for the academic In fact in order to. understand Truth it is not necessary even to know whether the teaching comes from. the Buddha or from anyone else What is essential is seeing the thing. understanding it There is an important story in the Majjhima nikaya sutta no 140. which illustrate this, The Buddha once spent a night in a potter s shed In the same shed there was. a young recluse who had arrived there earlier They did not know each other The. Buddha observed the recluse and thought to himself Pleasant are the ways of this. young man It would be good if I should ask about him So the Buddha asked him O. bhikkhu in whose name have you left home Or who is your master Or whose. doctrine do you like O friend answered the young man there is the recluse. Gotama a Sakyan scion who left the Saka family to become a recluse There is high. repute abroad of him that he is an Arahant a Fully Enlightened One He is my. Master and I like his doctrine Where does the Blessed One the Arahant the. Fully Enlightened One live at the present time In the countries to the north. friend there is a city called Savatthi It is there that that Blessed One the Arahant. the Fully Enlghtened One is now living, Have you ever seen him the Blessed One Would you recognize him if you. saw him I have never seen the Blessed One Nor should I recognize him if I saw. him The Buddha realized it was in his name that this unknown young man had left. home and become a recluse But without divulging his own identity he said O. bhikkhu I will teach you the doctrine Listen and pay attention I will speak Very. well friend said the young man in assent, Then the Buddha delivered to this young man a most remarkable discourse. explaining Truth the gist of which is given later It was only at the end of the. discourse that this young recluse whose name was Pukkusati realized that the. person who spoke to him was the Buddha himself So he got up went before the. Buddha bowed down at feet of the Master and apologized him for calling him. friend unknowingly He then begged the Buddha to ordain him and admit him into. the Order of Sangha, The Buddha asked him whether he had the alms bowl and the robes ready.
a bhikku must have three robes and alms bowl for begging food When Pukkusati. replied in the negative the Buddha said that the Tathagatas would not ordain a. person unless the alms bowl and robes are ready So Pukkusati went out in search of. an alms bowl and robes but was unfortunately savaged by a cow and died Later. when this sad news reached the Buddha he announced that Pukkusati was a wise. man who had already seen the Truth and attained the penultimate stage in the. realization of Nirvana and that he was born in a realm where he would become an. Arahant and finally passed away never to return this world again. From this story it is quite clear that when Pukkusati listened to the Buddha. and understood his teaching he did not know who was speaking to him or whose. teaching it was He saw Truth If the medicine is good the disease will be cured It is. not necessary to know who prepared it or where it came from. Almost all religions are built on faith rather blind faith it would seem But. in Buddhism emphasis is laid on seeing knowing understanding and not on faith. or belief In Buddhist texts there is a word saddha Skt sraddha which is usually. translated as faith or belief But saddha is not faith as such but rather confidence. bone out of conviction In popular Buddhism and also in ordinary usage in the texts. the word saddha it must be admitted has an element of faith in the sense that it. signifies devotion to the Buddha the Dhamma Teaching and the Sangha The. According to Asanga the great Buddhist philosopher of the 4th century. A C sraddha has three aspects 1 full and firm conviction that a thing is 2 serene. joy at good qualities and 3 aspiration or wish to achieve an object in view. However you put it faith or belief as understood by most religions has little to do. with Buddhism, The question of belief arises when there is no seeing seeing in every sense of. the word The moment you see the question of belief disappears If I tell you that I. have a gem hidden in the folded palm of my hand the question of belief arises. because you do not see it yourself But if I unclench my fist and show you the gem. then you see it for yourself and the question of belief does not arise So the phrase in. ancient Buddhist texts reads Realizing as one sees a gem in the palm. A disciple of the Buddha named Musila tells another monk Friend Savittha. without devotion faith or belief without liking or inclination without hearsay or. tradition without considering apparent reasons without delight in the speculations. of opinions I know and see that the cessation of becoming is Nirvana And the. Buddha says O bhikkhus I say that the destruction of defilement and impurities is. meant for a person who knows and who sees and not for a person who does not. know and does not see, It is always a question of knowing and seeing and not that of believing The. teaching of the Buddha is qualified as ehi passika inviting you to come and see. but not to come and believe The expressions used everywhere in Buddhist texts. referring to persons who realized Truth are The dustless and stainless Eye of Truth. Dhamma cakkhu has arisen He has seen Truth has attained Truth has known. Truth has penetrated into Truth has crossed over doubt is without wavering Thus. with right wisdom he sees it as it is yatha bhutam With reference to his own. Enlightenment the Buddha said The eye was born knowledge was born wisdom. was born science was born light was born It is always seeing through knowledge or. wisdom nana dassana and not believing through faith. This was more and more appreciated at a time when Brahmanic orthodoxy. insisted on believing and accepting their tradition and authority as the only Truth. without question Once a group of learned and well known Brahmins went to see. the Buddha and had a long discussion with him One of the group a Brahmin youth. of 16 years age named Kapathika considered by them all to be an exceptionally. brilliant mind put a question to the Buddha Venerable Gotama there are the. ancient holy scriptures of the Brahmins handed down along the line by unbroken. oral tradition of texts With regard to them Brahmins come to the absolute. conclusion This alone is Truth and everything else is false. Now what does the Venerable Gotama say about this The Buddha. inquired Among Brahmins is there any one single Brahmin who claims that he. personally knows and sees that This alone is Truth and everything else is false The. young man was frank and said No Then is there any one single teacher or a. teacher of teachers of Brahmins back to the seventh generation or even any one of. those original authors of those scriptures who claims that he knows and he sees. This alone is Truth and everything else is false No Then it is like a line of blind. men each holding on to the preceding one the first one does not see the middle one. also does not see the last one also does not see Thus it seems to me that the state of. the Brahmins is like that of a line of blind men, Then the Buddha gave advice of extreme importance to the group of. Brahmins It is not proper for a wise man who maintains lit protects truth to come. to the conclusion This alone is Truth and everything else is false Asked by the. young Brahmin to explain the idea of maintaining or protecting truth the Buddha. said A man has a faith If he says This is my faith so far he maintains truth But by. that he cannot proceed to the absolute conclusion This alone is Truth and. everything else is false In other words a man may believe what he likes and he. may say I believe this So far he respects truth But because of his belief or faith he. should not say that what he believes is alone the Truth and everything else is false. The Buddha says To be attached to one thing to a certain view and to look down. upon other things views as inferior this the wise men call a fetter. Once the Buddha explained the doctrine of cause and effect to his disciples. and they said that they saw it and understood it clearly Then the Buddha said O. bhikkhus even this view which is so pure and so clear if you cling to it if you fondle. it if you treasure it if you are attached to it then you do not understand that the. teaching is similar to a raft which is for crossing over and not for getting hold of. Elsewhere the Buddha explains this famous simile in which his teaching is. compared to a raft for crossing over and not for getting hold of and carrying on one s. back O bhikkhus a man is on a journey He comes to a vast stretch of water On this. side the shore is dangerous but on the other it is safe and without danger No boat. goes to the other shore which is safe and without danger nor is there any bridge for. crossing over He says to himself This sea of water is vast and the shore on this side is. full of danger but on the other shore it is safe and without danger No boat goes to. the other side nor is there a bridge for crossing over It would be good therefore if I. would gather grass wood branches and leaves to make a raft and with the help of. the raft cross over safely to the other side exerting myself with my hands and feet. Then that man O bhikkhus gathers grass wood branches and leaves and. makes a raft and with the help of that raft crosses over safely to the other side. exerting himself with his hands and feet Having crossed over and got to the other. side he thinks This raft was of great help to me With its aid I have crossed safely. over to this side exerting myself with my hands and feet It would be good if I carry. this raft on my head or on my back wherever I go What to you think O bhikkhus if. he acted in this way would that man be acting properly with regard to the raft No. In which way then would he be acting properly with regard to the raft. Having crossed and gone over to the other side suppose that man should think This. raft was a great help to me With its aid I have crossed safely over to this side. exerting myself with my hands and feet It would be good if I beached this raft on. the shore or moored it and left it afloat and then went on my way wherever it may. be Acting in this way would that man act properly with regard to that raft In the. same manner O bhikkhus I have taught a doctrine similar to a raft it is for crossing. over and not for carrying lit getting hold of You O bhikkhus who understand. that the teaching is similar to a raft should give up even good things dhamma how. much more then should you give up evil things adhamma. From this parable it is quite clear that the Buddha s teaching is meant to. carry man to safety peace happiness tranquility the attainment of Nirvana The. whole doctrine taught by the Buddha leads to this end He did not say thing just to. satisfy intellectual curiosity He was a practical teacher and taught only those. things which would bring peace and happiness to man. The Buddha was once staying in a Simsapa forest in Kosambi near. Allahabad He took a few leaves into his hand and asked his disciples What do. you think O bhikkhus Which is more These few leaves in my hand or the leaves. in the forest over here Sir very few are the leaves in the hand of the Blessed One. but indeed the leaves in the Simsapa forest over here are very much more. Even so bhikkhus of what I have known I have told you only a little what I. have not told you is very much more And why have I not told you those things. Because that is not useful not leading to Nirvana That is why I have not told you. those things It is futile as some scholars vainly try to do for us to speculate in what. the Buddha knew but did not tell us The Buddha was not interested in discussing. unnecessary metaphysical questions which are purely speculative and which. create imaginary problems He considered them as a wildness of opinions. It seems that there were some among his own disciples who did not. appreciate this attitude of his For we have the example of one of them. Malunkyaputta by name who put to the Buddha ten well known classical. questions on metaphysical problems and demanded answers One day. Malunkyaputta got up from his afternoon meditation went to the Buddha saluted. him sat on one side and said Sir when I was all alone meditating this thought. occurred to me There are these problems unexplained put aside and rejected by. the Blessed One Namely 1 is the universe eternal or 2 is it not eternal 3 is the. universe finite or 4 is it infinite 5 is soul the same as body or 6 is soul one thing. and body another thing 7 does the Tathagata exist after death or 8 does he not. exist after death or 9 does he both at the same time exist after death or 10 does. he both at the same time not exist and not not exist These problems the Blessed. One does not explain to me, This attitude does not please me I do not appreciate it I will go to the. Blessed One ask him about this matter If the Blessed One explains them to me then. I will continue to follow the holy life under him If he does not explain them I will. leave the Order and go away If the Blessed One knows that the universe is eternal. let him explain it to me so If the Blessed One knows that the universe is not eternal. let him say so If the Blessed One does not know whether the universe is eternal or. not etc then for a person who does not know it is straight forward to say I do not. know I do not see, The Buddha s reply to Malunkyaputta should do good to many millions in.
the world today who are wasting valuable time on such metaphysical questions and. unnecessarily disturbing their peace of mind Did I ever tell you Malunkyaputta. Come Malunkyaputta lead the holy life under me I will explain these questions to. you No Sir Then Malunkyaputta even you did you tell me Sir I will lead the. holy life under the Blessed One and the Blessed One will explain these questions. to me No Sir Even now Malunkyaputta I do not tell you Come and lead the. holy life under me I will explain these question to you. And you do not tell me either Sir I will lead the holy life under the Blessed. One and he will explain these questions to me Under these circumstances you. foolish one who refuses whom Malunkyaputta if anyone says I will not lead the. holy life under the Blessed One until he explains these questions he may die with. these questions unanswered by the Tathagata, Suppose Malunkyaputta a man is wounded by the poisoned arrow and his. friends and relatives bring him to a surgeon Suppose the man should then say I. will not let this arrow be taken out until I know who shot me whether he is a. Ksatriya of the low caste what his name and family may be whether he is tall. short or of medium stature whether his complexion is black brown or golden from. which village town or city he comes I will not let this arrow be taken out until I. know the kind of bow with which I was shot the kind of bowstring used the type of. arrow what sort of feather was used on the arrow and with what kind of material the. point of the arrow was made Malunkyaputta that man would die without knowing. any of these things Even so Malunkyaputta if anyone says I will not follow the. holy life under the Blessed One until he answers these questions such as whether. the universe is eternal or not etc he would die with these questions unanswered by. the Tathagata, Then the Buddha explains to Malunkyaputta that the holy life does not. depend on these views Whatever opinion one may have about these problems. there is birth old age decay death sorrow lamentation pain grief distress the. Cessation of which i e Nirvana I declare in this very life Therefore. Malunkyaputta bear in mind what I have explained as explained and what I have. not explained as unexplained What are the things that I have not explained. Whether the universe is eternal or not etc those 10 opinions I have not explained. Why Malunkyaputta have not explained them Because it is not useful it is not. fundamentally connected with the spiritual holy life is not conducive to aversion. detachment cessation tranquility deep penetration full realization Nirvana That. is why I have not told you about them, Then what Malunkyaputta have I explained I have explained dukkha the. arising of dukkha the cessation of dukkha and the way leading to the cessation of. dukkha Why Malunkyaputta have I explained them Because it is useful is. fundamentally connected with the spiritual holy life is conducive to aversion. detachment cessation tranquility deep penetration full realization Nirvana. Therefore I have explained them Let us now examine the Four Noble Truths which. the Buddha told Malunkyaputta he had explained,The Four Noble Truths. Chapter 2 The First Noble Truth Dukkha, The heart of Buddha s teaching lies in the Four Noble Truths Cattari.
Ariyasaccani which he expounded in his very first sermon to his old colleagues the. five ascetics at Isipatana modern Sarnath near Benares In this sermon as we have. it in the original texts these four Truths are given briefly But there are innumerable. places in the early buddhist scriptures where they are explained again and again. with greater detail and in different ways If we study the Four Noble Truths with the. help of these references and explanations we get a fairly good and accurate. account of the essential teachings of the Buddha according to the original texts. The Four noble Truths are,2 Samudaya the arising or origin of dukkha. 3 Nirodha the cessation of dukkha, 4 Megga the way leading to the cessation of dukkha. The First Noble Truth Dukkha ariyasacca is generally translated by almost. all scholars as The Noble Truth of Suffering and it is interpreted to mean that life. according to Buddhism is nothing but suffering and pain Both translation and. interpretation are highly unsatisfactory and misleading It is because of this limited. free easy translation and its superficial interpretation that many people have been. misled into regarding Buddhism as pessimistic, First of all Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic If anything at all it. is realistic for it takes a realistic view of life and of the world It looks at things. objectively yathabhutam It does not falsely lull you into living in a fool s paradise. nor does not frighten and agonize you with all kinds of imaginary fears and sins It. tells you exactly and objectively what you are and what the world around you is. and shows you the way to perfect freedom peace tranquility and happiness. One physician may gravely exaggerate an illness and give up hope. altogether Another may ignorantly declare that there is no illness and that no. treatment is necessary thus deceiving the patient with false consolation You may. call the first one pessimistic and the second optimistic Both are equally dangerous. But a third physician diagnose the symptoms correctly understands the cause and. the nature of the illness see clearly that it can be cured and courageously. administers a course of treatment thus saving his patient The Buddha is like the last. physician He is the wise and scientific doctor for the ills of the world Bhisakka or. Bhaisajya guru, It is true that the Pali word dukkha or Sanskrit dukkha in ordinary usage. means suffering pain sorrow or misery as opposed to the word sukha meaning. happiness comfort or ease But the term dukkha as the First Noble Truth which. represents the Buddha s view of life and the world has a deeper philosophical. meaning and connotes enormously wider senses It is admitted that the term dukkha. in the First Noble Truth contains quite obviously the ordinary meaning of. suffering but in addition it also includes deeper ideas such as imperfection. impermanence emptiness insubstantiality It is difficult therefore to find one word. to embrace the whole conception of the term dukkha as the First Noble Truth and. so it is better to leave it untranslated than to give an inadequate and wrong idea of. it by conveniently translating it as suffering or pain. The Buddha does not deny happiness in life when he says there is suffering. On the contrary he admits different forms of happiness both material and spiritual. for layman and monks In the Anguttara nikaya one of the five original Collections. in Pali containing the Buddha s discourses there is a list of happinesses sukhani. such as the happiness of family and the happiness of the life of recluse the. happiness of sense pleasures and the happiness of renunciation the happiness of. attachment and the happiness of detachment physical happiness and mental. happiness etc But all these are included in dukkha. Even the very pure spiritual states of dhyana recueillement or trance. attained by the practice of higher meditation free from even a shadow of suffering. in the accepted sense of the word states which may be described as unmixed. happiness as well as the state of dhyana which is free from sensations both pleasant. sukha and unpleasant dukkha and is only pure equanimity and awareness even. these very high spiritual states are included in dukkha In one of the suttas of the. Majjhima nikaya again one of the five original Collections after praising the. spiritual happiness of these dhyanas the Buddha says that they are impermanent. dukkha and subject to change anicca dukkha viparnamadhamma Notice that. the word dukkha is explicitly used It is dukkha not because there is suffering in. ordinary sense of the word but because whatever is impermanent is dukkha yad. aniccam tam dukkham,The Buddha was realistic and objective.
He says with regard to life and the enjoyment of sense pleasures that one. should clearly understand three things 1 attraction or enjoyment assada 2 evil. consequence or danger or unsatisfactoriness adinava and 3 freedom or liberation. When you see a pleasant charming and beautiful person you like him or. her you are attracted you enjoy seeing that person again and again you derive. pleasure and satisfaction from that person This is enjoyment assada It is fact of. experience But this enjoyment is not permanent just as that person and his or her. attractions are not permanent either When the situation changes when you cannot. see that person when you are deprived of this enjoyment you become sad you may. become unreasonable and unbalanced you may even behave foolishly This is evil. unsatisfactory and dangerous side of the picture adinava This too is a fact of. experience, Now if you have no attachment to the person if you are completely. detached that is freedom liberation nissarana These three things are true with. regard to all enjoyment in life From this it is evident that it is no question of. pessimism or optimism but that we must take account of the pleasure of life as well. as of its pains and sorrows and also of freedom from them in order to understand life. completely and objectively Only then is true liberation is possible. Regarding this question the Buddha says, O bhikkhus if any recluses or brahmanas do not understand objectively in. this way that the enjoyment of sense pleasures is enjoyment that their. unsatifactoriness is unsatisfactoriness that liberation from them is liberation then it. is not possible that they themselves will certainly understand the desire for sense. pleasures completely or that they will be able to instruct another person to that. end or that person following their instruction will completely understand the desire. for sensepleasures, But O bhikkhus if any recluses or brahmanas understand objectively in this. way that the enjoyment of sense pleasures is enjoyment that their. unsatisfactoriness is unsatisfactoriness that liberation from them is liberation that it. is possible that they themselves will certainly understand the desire for sense. pleasures completely and that they will be able to instruct another person to that. end and that the person following their instruction will completely understand the. desire of sense pleasures, The conception of dukkha may be viewed from three aspects 1 dukkha as. ordinary suffering dukkha hukkha 2 dukkha as produced by change. veparinama dukkha and 3 dukkha as conditioned states samkhara dukkha. All kinds of suffering in life like births old age sickness death association with. unpleasant persons and conditions separation from beloved ones and pleasant. conditions not getting what one desires grief lamentation distress all such forms. of physical and mental suffering which are universally accepted as suffering or. pain are included in dukkha as ordinary suffering dukkha dukkha. A happy feeling a happy condition in life is not permanent not everlasting. It changes sooner or later When it changes it produces pain suffering produced by. change viparinama dukkha mentioned above No one will dispute them This. aspect of the First Noble Truth is more popularly known because it is easy to. understand It is common experience in our daily life. But the third form of dukkha as conditioned states samkhara dukkha is the. most important philosophical aspect of the First Noble Truth and it requires some. analytical explanation of what we consider as a being as an individual or as I. What we call a being or an individual or I according to Buddhist philosophy is. only a combination of ever changing physical and mental forces of energies which. may be divided into five groups or aggregates pancakkhandha The Buddha says. In short these five aggregates of attachment are dukkha Elsewhere he distinctly. defines dukkha as the five aggregates O bhikkhus what is dukkha It should be. said that it is the five aggregates of attachment Here it should be clearly. understood that dukkha and the five aggregates are not two different things the. five aggregates themselves are dukkha We will understand this point better when. we have some notion of the five aggregates which constitute the so called being. Now what are these five,The Five Aggregates, The first is the Aggregate of Matter Rupakkhandha In this term.
Aggregate of Matter are included the traditional Four Great Elements cattari. mahabhutani namely solidity fluidity heat and motion and also the Derivatives. upadaya rupa of the Four Great Elements In the term Derivatives of Four Great. Elements are included our five material sense organs i e the faculties of eye ear. nose tongue and body and their corresponding objects in the external world i e. visible form sound odour taste and tangible things and also some thoughts or ideas. or conceptions which are in the sphere of mind objects dharmayatana Thus the. whole realm of matter both internal and external is included in the Aggregate of. The second is the Aggregate of Sensations Vedanakkgandha In this group. are included all our sensation pleasant or unpleasant or neutral experienced. through the contact of physical and mental organs with the external world They. are of six kinds the sensations experienced through the contact of the eye with. visible forms ear with sounds nose with odour tongue with taste body with. tangible objects and mind which is the sixth faculty in Buddhist Philosophy with. mindobjects or thoughts or ideas All our physical and mental sensations are. included in this group, A word about what is meant by the term Mind manas in Buddhist. philosophy may be useful here It should clearly be understood that mind is not. spirit as opposed to matter It should always be remembered that Buddhism does. not recognize a spirit opposed to matter as is accepted by most other systems of. philosophies and religions Mind is only a faculty or organ indriya like the eye or. the ear It can be controlled and developed like any other faculty and the Buddha. speaks quite often of the value of controlling and disciplining these six faculties The. difference between the eye and the mind as faculties is that the former senses the. world of colours and visible forms while the latter senses the world of ideas and. thoughts and mental objects, We experience different fields of the world with different senses We cannot. hear colours but we can see them Nor can we see sounds but we can hear them. Thus with our five physical sense organs eye ear nose tongue body we.


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