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Names of supervisors,Name Position, Prof Dr Aida Abd El Maksoud Zaher Professor of Curricula and Methods. of Teaching English as a foreign,language Women s college Ain. Shams University,The Researcher Curriculum Vitae, Name of the researcher Shaimaa Abd El Fattah Torky. Title of the research The Effectiveness of a Task Based. Instruction Program in Developing the,English Language Speaking Skills of. Secondary Stage Students,Qualifications, 1 B A in English language and education English Department Faculty.
of Education Tanta University 1995 very good, 2 Special Diploma in Education Faculty of Education Tanta University. 1997 very good, 3 Master s degree in EFL curricula and methods of teaching Women s. College Ain Shams University 2002 excellent, Assistant Researcher at the Curricula Development Department the. National Center for Educational Research and Development since 2002. Acknowledgements, The researcher is deeply grateful to her supervisor Prof Dr Aida. Zaher for her great effort without which this work would have never been. The researcher has been working under her supervision since 1999. when she started her M A research During these years she has known. Prof Aida as a principle centered person Her overly enthusiasm and. integral view on research and her mission for providing only high quality. work and not less has made a deep impression on the researcher. I owe her lot of gratitude for having shown me this way of research. She could not even realize how much I have learned from her I am glad I. have come to get to know her in my academic life She always monitored. my work and took effort in reading and providing me with valuable. comments She really has a sharp eye for minute details and possesses. super analytical skills I have to acknowledge her important inputs in all. chapters of the thesis, The researcher would like to thank also her colleagues in the.
National Center for Educational Research and Development especially Mr. Rafik Abd El Moety and Ebtihal Abd El Aziz for the effort they exerted in. helping the researcher score the speaking test, The researcher would also like to express her gratitude to the jury. members for their worthy comments with respect to the study tools. especially Prof Zeinab El Naggar Prof Azza El Marsafy Prof Salwa El. Desouky Prof Kawthar Abou Haggar Prof Mostafa Abd EL Atti and all. those who helped the researcher complete her research work in its final. Table Of Contents,Chapter one Introduction problem Page. x Introduction 1 8,x Context of the problem 8 12,x Statement of the problem 12. x Purpose of the study 13,x The study hypotheses 13. x Variables of the study 14,x Delimitations of the study 14.
x Significance of the study 15,x Tools of the study 16. x Definitions of terms 16 19,Chapter two Theoretical Background. I The speaking skill,x Defining Speaking,x Aspects of speaking 22. x Spoken versus Written discourse 23 24,x Purpose of speaking 25 26. x Speaking genres 27,x Speaking sub skills 27,x Communicative competence taxonomies 28 31.
x Conversational skills models 31 33, x Integrating communicative and conversational models 33 38. II Communicative Tasks and teaching speaking,x Theoretical rational for tasks 40 41. x Definition of communicative tasks 41 43,x Task components 43. x Advantages of tasks in speaking instruction 44 45. x Factors considered in designing tasks 46,x Classifications of communicative tasks 47 51. x Pedagogical proposals of tackling tasks 51 53,III The cognitive approach to language teaching.
x The cognitive approach and language learning 55, x Concepts underlying the cognitive approach 55 56. x The information processing model 56 60,x The cognitive approach and speaking 60 63. instruction,x Planning and oral production 63 65,x Explicit vs implicit speaking instruction 65. x Raising learners Consciousness 65 69,x Self peer monitoring 69 70. x Starting points for raising awareness 70 72,x Teaching Lexical phrases 72.
IV Integrating communicative tasks and the cognitive approach. x Rationale for the integration 74,x A framework for task based instruction 74 76. x Implementing tasks to manipulate attention focus 76 77. a Pre task stage 77 80,b During task stage 80 83,c Post task stage 83 89. Chapter three Review of related studies, I Communicative tasks and developing speaking 94 100. II The cognitive approach and developing speaking skills 101 109. III Communicative tasks and the cognitive approach 110 133. Attempts of integration,General Conclusions 134 137. Chapter Four Method,I Design of the study 138,II Subjects of the study 138 139.
IIII Tools of the study 140 180,a The speaking skills checklist 140 143. b the pre post speaking test 143 160,c the suggested program 160 168. d The proposed teaching strategy 168 180,e Evaluation 182. Chapter Five Statistical analysis and Results,3 Results related to the study hypotheses 184 205. a Hypotheses concerned with the comparison between the experimental 185 195. and control groups on the post test, b Hypotheses focusing on the comparison between the pre post speaking 195 205.
performance of the experimental group, Chapter Six Discussion of results Conclusions and Recommendations. Discussion of the results 206 227,x Overall speaking performance 207 210. x Factors enhancing specific speaking skills 210 221. x Conclusions 222 225,x Recommendations 225 226,x Suggestions for further Research 227. x Bibliography 228 242,Appendices, Appendix A 1 Teachers supervisors questionnaire 243 244. Appendix B 2 The first final form of the speaking skills checklist 245 247. 3 Names of the jury 248, Appendix C 1 The speaking test in its final form 251 256.
2 Names of the jury who validated the test 257,3 Criteria for judging the test validity 258. 4 Time allotted for test sections 258, Appendix D 1 The raters training checklist 259 268. 2 Samples of students performance on the pre post test 269 283. 3 Names of the raters who scored the test 283, Appendix E 1 Activities used to develop speaking skills in each lesson 284. 2 Approximate time allotted for class activities 285. 3 The Names of the jury members who approved the program 286. 4 Criteria for judging the suitability of the program. Appendix F 1 The suggested program lessons 288 531. 2 Names of the teachers who approved the listening texts 532. List of tables, Table 1 Functions micro function measured throughout the test tasks 147. Table 2 Summary of the correlation coefficients among individual raters 152. Table 3 Pre post test specification indicating test sections and scores 156. assinged to each section skill, Table 4 The rating scale Rubrics for correcting students speaking 157 159.
performance, Table 5 Program Units lessons type of tasks supplementary listening texts 165 166. and speaking skills developed in all lessons,Table 6 The self evaluation checklist 176. Table 7 T test results of the pre test comparing the control and 183. experimental groups in overall speaking, Table 8 T tests results of the pre test comparing the control and. experimental groups in speaking skills competencies and in each. speaking sub skill 184, Table 9 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 185. experimental groups in overall speaking, Table 10 The referential framework for identifying the effect size of t 186.
Table 11 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 187. experimental groups in overall speaking in different. Table 12 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 188. experimental groups in overall grammatical competence and its. Table 13 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 189. experimental groups in overall linguistic competence and its. subskills in different genres functions, Table 14 T Test results of the post test comparing the control and 190. experimental groups mean scores in discourse competence and its. Table 15 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 192. experimental groups in overall discourse competence and its. subskills in speaking genres, Table 16 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 193. experimental groups in pragmatic competence, Table 17 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 193. experimental groups in fluency, Table 18 T test results of the post test comparing the control and 194. experimental groups in pragmatic competence and fluency in. different genres, Table 19 T test results comparing the pre test vs post test means for 195.
the experimental group in overall speaking, Table 20 T test results of the post test comparing the experimental 196. group on the pre test post test in overall speaking in different. Table 21 T test results comparing the pre test vs post test means for 197. the experimental group in overall grammatical competence and. its sub skills, Table 22 T test results comparing the pre test vs the post test mean scores 199. for the experimental group in overall grammatical competence and. its subskills in different genres, Table 23 T test results comparing the pre test vs post test mean scores for 200. the experimental group in overall discourse competence and its. Table 24 T test results comparing the experimental group on the pretest and 201. posttest in overall discourse competence and its subskills in different. genres functions, Table 25 T test results comparing the pre test vs posttest mean scores of 202. the experimental group in pragmatic,competence, Table 26 T test results comparing the experimental group on the pre and 203.
posttest in pragmatic competence in different,genres functions. Table 27 T test results comparing the experimental group on the pretest 203. and the posttest in fluency, Table 28 T test results comparing the experimental group on the pretest 205. and the posttest in fluency in different genres macro. List of Figures, Figure 1 Skills underlying speaking proficiency 34. Figure 2 Task components 43, Figure 3 Task based instruction and optimum condition for language. learning 89, Figure 4 The mean scores of the control and experimental groups in.
overall speaking proficiency 186, Figure 5 The mean scores of the control and experimental groups in. overall grammatical competence and its 189, Figure 6 The mean scores of the control and experimental groups in 191. overall discourse competence and its subskills, Figure 7 The control and experimental groups mean scores in 193. pragmatic competence, Figure 8 The control and experimental groups mean scores in terms of 194. Figure 9 The experimental group s mean scores on the pre test and 196. post test in overall speaking proficiency, Figure 10 The experimental group s mean scores on the pretest and.
posttest in overall grammatical competence and its subskills 198. Figure 11 The mean scores of the experimental group on the pretest vs 200. the posttest in overall discourse competence and its subskills. Figure 12 The means of the experimental group on the pretest and the 202. posttest in pragmatic competence, Figure 13 The experimental group s mean scores on the pre and posttest 204. in fluency,Introduction and problem,Introduction, Language is a means of thinking and transferring culture from one. generation to another as well as from one nation to another It is also a means of. communication among people Hence many countries emphasize teaching. languages other than the native language to its citizens. Over the last three decades English has become the most important foreign. language in the world At present English is the language for international. communication science commerce advertising diplomacy and transmitting. advanced technology It has also become a lingua franca among speakers of. languages that are not mutually intelligible Willis 1996 a and Coury Carlos. 2001 Furthermore in the age of globalism we live nowadays the. interdependence of nations and countries creates a need for a global language and. no language qualifies for this better than English Abousenna 1995 P xv. The status of English on the international level is a major factor that. contributes to the increase in the importance of English in Egypt As a matter of. fact English has become an important asset for anyone seeking employment in. business industry or technology in Egypt Accordingly the main aim of teaching. English in our secondary schools is to enable students to communicate in English. so that they become able to enroll in the labor market and to cope with the. challenges of higher education as well Thus eventually the need for equipping. Egyptian EFL secondary stage students with effective speaking skills as the most. important means of communication has arisen and more focus is given to spoken. English at the secondary stage Directives for General Secondary School 2005. Speaking is one of the four language skills reading writing listening and. speaking It is the means through which learners can communicate with others to. achieve certain goals or to express their opinions intentions hopes and. viewpoints In addition people who know a language are referred to as speakers. of that language Furthermore in almost any setting speaking is the most. frequently used language skill As Rivers 1981 argues speaking is used twice as. much as reading and writing in our communication, Speaking has usually been compared to writing both being considered. productive skills as opposed to the receptive skills of reading and listening. Speaking also is closely related to listening as two interrelated ways of. accomplishing communication Every speaker is simultaneously a listener and. every listener is at least potentially a speaker Oprandy 1994 153 EL Menoufy. Speaking has been classified to monologue and dialogue The former. focuses on giving an interrupted oral presentation and the latter on interacting with. other speakers Nunan 1989 27 Speaking can also serve one of two main. functions transactional transfer of information and interactional maintenance of. social relationships Brown and Yule 1983 3, Developing speaking skills is of vital importance in EFL ESL programs. Nunan 1999 and Burkart Sheppard 2004 argue that success in learning a. language is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the. target language Therefore speaking is probably a priority for most learners of. English Florez 1999 Speaking instruction is important because it helps students. acquire EFL speaking skills thus converse spontaneously and naturally with native. speakers Furthermore if the right speaking activities are taught in the classroom. speaking can raise general learners motivation and make the English language. classroom a fun and dynamic place to be Nunan 1999 Celce Murcia 2001 In. addition speaking can support other language skills Recent research has. considered oral interaction as an important factor in the shaping of the learner s. developing language Gass Varionis 1994 For instance it was proved that. leraning speaking can help the development of reading competence Hilferty. 2005 the development of writing Trachsel Severino 2004 as well as the. development of listening skills Regina 1997, Taking into account the importance of developing EFL speaking skills it is.
vital to determine the speaking skills SL FL learners have to acquire in order to. converse with native language speakers, Actually it was assumed that the interactional nature of spoken language. requires the speaker s ability to use motor perceptive skills which are concerned. with correctly using the sounds and structures of the language and interactional. skills which involve using the previous skills for the purposes of communication. This means that EFL students should acquire the knowledge of how native. speakers use language in the context of structured interpersonal exchanges in. which many factors interact Bygate 1987 Brown 2001 In addition speaking. requires that learners understand when why and in what ways to produce. language sociolinguistic competence Burns Joyce 1997 Cohen 1996 and. Harmer 2001 269 270 A good speaker hence synthesizes this array of skills and. knowledge to succeed in a given speech act, Florez 1999 highlights the following skills underlying speaking. x Using grammar structures accurately, x Assessing characteristics of the target audience including shared. knowledge status and power relations or differences in perspectives. x Selecting vocabulary that is understandable and appropriate for the. audience the topic being discussed and the setting in which the speech act. x Applying strategies to enhance comprehensibility such as emphasizing. key words rephrasing or checking for listener s comprehension. x Paying attention to the success of the interaction and adjusting components. of speech such as vocabulary rate of speech and complexity of grammar. structures to maximize listener s comprehension and involvement. A careful examination of all previously mentioned speaking skills. emphasizes that speaking is a high complex mental activity which differs from. other activities because it requires much greater effort of the central nervous. system Bygate 1998 23 It includes sub processes and involves distinct areas of. planning First the speaker has to retrieve words and phrases from memory and. assembles them into syntactically and propositionally appropriate sequence. Harmer 2001 269 270 Speaking also happens in the context of limited. processing capacities due to limitations of working memory and thus a.


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