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Restorative Practices ii, In this thesis project students who had been suspended in secondary school. reflected on their experiences emotions and perceptions arising from suspension and the. effects of those experiences on their connectedness to school Student accounts fit well. documented deficiencies of the practice of suspension as noted in available literature. suspensions led to academic difficulties and the process was perceived by students as. punitive unfair unhelpful ineffective and sometimes harmful Students unanimously. preferred restorative models of discipline characterized by high levels of behavioural. control and limit setting on the one hand in combination with needed help and support. on the other The interpretive framework in this research was a reflective practitioner. model an interaction between my professional practice and the research process itself. Themes that emerged from interviews arose via inductive deductive and abductive. reasoning My previous training and practice in restorative justice provided background. and insight that facilitated identification of core restorative justice themes from the. interviews Emergent themes were sorted sifted and distilled by repeatedly poring over. interview transcripts and were further refined over several months in my restorative. practices as a school counsellor Transcribed interviews were analysed using a three. column methodology that 1 identified themes in the transcripts 2 thematically coded. and paraphrased salient transcript contents and 3 further refined and abstracted themes. and highlighted thematic interactions Thematic definitions were refined by continual. checking of fit between the interview data the abstracted definitions of themes and the. relevance and usefulness of these themes in my elementary school counselling work. Refinement of thematic definitions was facilitated by condensing representative. Restorative Practices iii, quotations paraphrases and abstractions under a separate heading for each theme to. provide a condensed reference source based on the interview data The analysis process. identifying interview themes by representative quotations coding transcripts. paraphrasing abstracting and integrating themes facilitated distillation of values. processes and behaviours central to restorative interventions The result is a set of. themes to guide school discipline practices in the form of a condensed template to guide. the practical dynamics of applying restorative discipline interventions Relationships. among themes developed into a working model that provides an action based template. for designing implementing and evaluating restorative disciplinary interventions in. school settings in a way that keeps students relationally connected to school Results of. the interview analysis converged with the feedback from key informants such as teachers. administrators and restorative practitioners Each time I shared my results with other. professional educators and laypeople alike the themes and the intervention template were. met both with interest and with intuitive affirmation of their relevance and potential for. utility in school discipline interventions The reflective practitioner approach was guided. by my professional training the integration of restorative justice in my life and work and. by ongoing feedback from students educators and restorative practitioners The template. comprises one tier of a three tiered restorative school model for promoting and. maintaining school connectedness 1 a school wide cultural approach to behaviour and. discipline 2 core restorative competencies for staff parents and students and 3 the. restorative intervention template derived from this research. Restorative Practices iv,TABLE OF CONTENTS,ABSTRACT ii. LIST OF TABLES vii,LIST OF FIGURES viii,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1,CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 12.
Restorative School Discipline Practices and School Connectedness 12. School suspensions as disciplinary interventions 14. Alternatives to punishment 17,Restorative justice in schools 18. School connectedness 25,Restorative Justice Theory and Practice 29. Process oriented and values oriented definitions 29. Restorative theory and practice in criminal justice 31. Empirical evidence for the effectiveness of restorative justice 33. The Role of Shame and Emotion in the Censuring of students 34. Principles of censure 34,Reintegrative shaming theory 35. Theories of shame 36, Psychological foundations of restorative justice applied in schools 39. Summary Focus and Importance of this Research 40,Restorative Practices v.
CHAPTER 3 METHOD 44,Introduction to Methodology 44. Participants 47, Ethical considerations in recruitment and information sharing 53. Procedures 55, Data collection interview development and implementation 56. School connectedness measures 59,Data analysis 60,Summary of Data Analysis 63. Validity 68,CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 77, Suspension Procedures and Student Perceptions of Suspension SUS 80.
Empathic Listening Caring and Support Respectful Treatment LICARE 83. Perceived Degree of Disapproval in the Suspension Process DIS 84. Emotions EM 86,Fairness and Justice FJ 89, Adaptive Shame Reactions and Maladaptive Shame Reactions ASMS 89. Cultivation of Obligation HH 93,Accountability Ownership and Restitution AC 96. Closure and Forgiveness CF 99,School Connectedness CX 103. Help Support and Controls Limits HECO 104,Restorative Practices vi. CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION 110, Research Questions and Outcomes Meaning and Validity 110.
Restorative template in context Correspondence with literature 111. Effect of suspension experiences on school connectedness 112. Integrating Themes in Context 116,Listening respecting and caring 117. Disapproval emotions and fairness 118,Adaptive shame and maladaptive shame 120. Cultivating obligation 122,Accountability 125, Help and support with controls and limit setting 126. Strengths and Limitations of the Findings 129,Integrative Summary of the Research Findings 132. REFERENCES 137,Appendix A Interview Materials 151,Appendix B Individual Restorative Templates 162.
Appendix C Research Ethics Board Approval of this Research 170. Restorative Practices vii,LIST OF TABLES, Table 1 Retributive Versus Restorative Paradigms 26. Table 2 Participant Information 48, Table 3 Definitions and Abbreviations for Restorative Themes 64. Restorative Practices viii,LIST OF FIGURES, Figure 1 Ideally Restorative School Interventions 78. Figure 2 Restorative Pro Connectedness Cycle 106,Figure 3 Alienation Reinforcing Cycle 108. Appendix B,Figure B1 163,Figure B2 164,Figure B3 165.
Figure B4 166,Figure B5 167,Figure B6 168,Figure B7 169. Restorative Practices ix,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, I would like to gratefully acknowledge the love and support of my family. Wendy Jonathon and Noah Sincere appreciation goes to my thesis supervisor. Dr Marvin McDonald for his skilful caring assistance throughout the project. Special thanks to Dr Liz Elliott and Dr Brenda Morrison for their valuable insights. and contributions Sincere regards to the many people who contributed to this project. restorative practitioners colleagues community members and students My deepest. appreciation to all student participants for sharing their own school suspension stories. along with their valuable insights into restorative practices in schools. Restorative Practices 1,CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION, The central concern of this research is to develop school discipline interventions. that are safe and fair and that also keep students connected to school Student connection. to school is a desirable outcome for all students because it predicts academic success. health and well being in youth Promoting connection to school also reflects healthy. relationships and the community building value orientation of schools The present study. adapted the protective factor school connectedness from large Canadian and U S studies. on adolescent health The McCreary Centre Society of British Columbia research re. affirmed large U S studies of adolescents by emphasizing the importance of relational. attachment to school or school connectedness Several students who had previously been. suspended from school were interviewed about their suspension experiences with. particular concern given to their school connectedness and the results of the data analysis. are presented in this thesis, Discipline models in school often reflect what happens in criminal sanctions a. mixture of retribution rehabilitation and restoration Restorative justice values and. processes guided this research thanks to conceptual relationships between restorative. thinking and relational connectedness Relationships are central to restorative justice and. community building might be called its meta value Restorative justice practices have. been found effective in youth criminal justice and school settings on indicators such as. higher participant satisfaction lower offender recidivism and greater acceptance and. fulfillment of responsibility by offenders Restorative values and processes guided data. collection analysis and interpretation in this research Restorative themes to guide. Restorative Practices 2, school discipline practice emerged from the data and were applied and refined in a school.
setting in my work as a school counsellor and restorative practitioner. Restorative justice thinking asks who was harmed who is responsible to heal the. harm and how the community will support the victim and offender to reintegrate into the. community Retributive approaches focus on broken rules and laws who did the crime. and what punishment applies Rehabilitative approaches highlight something to be cured. in an offender I argue in this research that a restorative justice school discipline model. provides a more secure basis than retributive and rehabilitative models for responding to. wrongdoing offences and crimes A restorative paradigm represents values attitudes. beliefs processes and behaviours enacted in response to wrongdoings This research is. important because punitive and alienating school censuring structures like suspension are. widely considered to be ineffective and sometimes harmful to students Yet suspensions. continue to be widely used as discipline interventions Through a restorative lens Zehr. 1995 school suspensions and other discipline interventions are defined as effective if. they heal harm and restore relationships And while the participant interviews related. specifically to suspensions themes generated from those interviews apply broadly to. school discipline interventions such as classroom management strategies and not simply. to suspensions per se The lens metaphor represents a restorative paradigm which focuses. interventions on healing harm meeting the needs of students and keeping students. connected to school, One can imagine having committed an offence the painful shame affect and. feelings and emotions that arise from it the social moral confrontation of the discipline. experience and how our affects feelings and emotions might influence our responses A. Restorative Practices 3, specific focus in this research was on student emotions in school discipline because of the. way emotions like shame remorse and empathy mediate future school related. behaviours and attitudes and relational attachment to school Students who had been. suspended from school were invited to talk about how their suspension experience. affected them Interviews allowed students to talk in a safe comfortable setting about. their thoughts and feelings around suspension and how suspension affected their. academic progress thoughts attitudes emotions and connection to school. Traditional retributive justice tends to ask Was there a crime Who did it. What punishment should be applied Rehabilitative approaches might ask What can. we do to cure or rehabilitate the offender Restorative justice asks Who was harmed. What are their needs Who is responsible to meet their needs The varied questions. reflect assumptions about appropriate values oriented and effective process oriented. responses to wrongdoing and crime Looking at student suspension experiences through a. restorative justice lens helps us see how the actions of offending students can be. censured and how the student can be held accountable and re integrated in a way that. preserves and promotes relational attachment to school. Through a restorative lens censure is defined as formal disapproval of an act. because of the harm caused to people and school community by the act Care is taken to. intentionally communicate how people and community were harmed and who is morally. obligated to heal the harm But the offending student is also viewed positively as a good. person worthy of respect and dignity and an asset to the school The relationship with. the student is highly valued This intentional relationship building occurs in the context. of framing the wrongful act as a learning opportunity an opportunity to also heal harm. Restorative Practices 4, to be accountable and to stay connected to school Connection to school is a valuable end. in itself and a good outcome for the school and broader community Connected students. find school fair and safe and they feel happy a part of things and connected to people. Connected students are also healthier and practice safer more pro social behaviours. School responses to wrongdoing and crime have important consequences for the. health and well being of youth and can affect their future trajectories in life It is. important then to develop good school practices that build connectedness and mitigate. those that detract from it Restorative thinking directs actions that tend to promote. connectedness and inhibit disconnectedness Broadly speaking we need actions that. maximize student resiliencies and minimize risk factors Retributive and rehabilitative. responses tend to frame the offender as more passive than active recipients of. punishment and cure respectively Restorative responses invite and require active. participation of the offender the victim and the community to heal harm and restore. relationships Direct involvement in healing and restoration can and ought to promote. connectedness build resilience and minimize risk factors like academic failure and. alienation from a community of care Active responsibility and involvement of the. offender also facilitates learning The focus on relationships reflects and promotes the. community building value of public schools, A focus on relationships affects our understanding of how to respond fairly and. justly to student misconduct Even the language we use to describe incidents reflects this. understanding since speaking about a broken law is much different than speaking. about people harmed Restorative justice asks different questions and arrives at. different answers about how to respond to wrongdoing and crime Retributive responses. Restorative Practices 5, can sometimes work to secure a desired behavioural change in the short term however.
the payback aspect of retribution that of punishment for punishment s sake is more. likely to damage relationship bonds that are in fact the foundation for healthy student. development in schools Punishment is embedded in parenting structures school. discipline and criminal justice systems and our culture in general so a paradigm shift is. needed to move parents educators and community members toward restorative thinking. Restorative thinking helps identify elements of school disciplinary interventions. that maximize important outcomes such as healing harm not re offending and being. connected Schools play a central role in building democratic societies and promoting. healthy citizens so it is important that school censuring structures embody democratic. ideals and nurture healthy student development Since schools exist to socialize and. educate citizens in a democracy they must embody the highest ideals and employ best. practices for nurturing virtues like freedom justice and respect Censuring models that. heal harm and build relationships and school connectedness also align with rights and. values embodied in international human rights charters Schools are in a unique position. to educate citizens and particularly to promote models of censure that embody. restorative practices models that promote healing problem solving peace making and. connection to school, Restorative practices are comprised of restorative values processes and. behaviours The focus is on issues of hurt and harm substantive experience of people. whereas formalized justice focuses on a retributive response to law breaking conceptual. abstraction School practices are restorative when they reflect values processes and. behaviours like community building respectful and truthful dialogue support for those. Restorative Practices 6, harmed promotion of healing when an offence has occurred victim offender and. community direct involvement and accountability of offenders in the healing process. prevention of future harm and ultimately closure and reintegration of all persons as. fully functioning members of the community, Restorative values guide processes and behaviours which strive for restorative. outcomes For offending students restorative processes enable them to follow a. resolution restoration sequence acknowledgement of harm demonstration of remorse. acceptance and fulfilment of responsibility to repair harm with necessary support. closure forgiveness and reintegration Schools naturally integrate restorative justice s. strong emphasis on social emotional and moral learning throughout the school day. using restorative responses to wrongdoing as teaching learning opportunities Restorative. practices depend on respectful face to face dialogue that supports victims that. challenges supports and teaches offenders and that builds mutual understanding and. relational attachment to the school community, School censuring practices that build connectedness must be sensitive to the. whole child and consider multiple modalities of intervention such as academic social. emotional spiritual and family Emotional reactions of students were of particular. interest in the present research because of the way emotions influence thinking and. behaviour Since censuring experiences like suspension are shame inducing by nature. the pain and social threat of shame can lead to maladaptive shame reactions like anger. withdrawal or denial For these reasons it is crucial to understand how to manage shame. that naturally arises The qualitative nature of the shame experience in the offender has. immediate and future consequences for that person Shame reactions can be either.

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