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2008 Ashley Lynn Hughes,To Hank and McLovin, Thank you for your continued support and dedication during this project Your steadfast work. ethics and incredible personalities through all of the challenges we have faced helped to enable. the success of this research,ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, I would like to thank first and foremost Dr Matt Hersom for his incredible guidance and. understanding as the chair of my supervisory committee Despite encountering numerous. unforeseen obstacles during this program Dr Hersom has enabled and encouraged my success. through all odds I would also like to extend my gratitude to Dr Adegbola Adesogan and Dr. Joao Vendramini for their service and contribution as members of my graduate committee I. would like to thank Dr Mary Beth Hall and Dr Adesogan for giving me the opportunity to learn. and grow in the ruminant nutrition lab and gain an unexpected love of the nutrition world The. graduate students under whom I worked should also be recognized for their guidance and. motivation from one degree to the next Jamie Foster Nathan Krueger Kathy Arriola Bruno do. Amaral Lucia Holtshausen Celeste Kearney Dervin Dean Faith Cullens and Colleen Casey I. will always remember these individuals who have shown me that education is a gift that you give. to yourself which no one can take from you Dr Todd Thrift also deserves my appreciation for. his advice and constant scrutiny which has inspired my personal and professional endeavors. I would like extend deep and meaningful thanks to all who have helped during this project. I would like to thank the farm crews at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center USDA. Subtropical Agricultural Research Station Santa Fe River Ranch Beef Unit Boston Farm and. North Florida Research and Education Center I would like specifically thank Austin Bateman. Eugene Rucks Jamie Bradley Todd Matthews and David Thomas for their amazing support and. patience through all of the obstacles this trial has presented Also I will never be able to truly. express the level of gratitude I have for all of the unfortunate souls who have had to accompany. me on the monthly adventures across the state of Florida for the sake of research I would to. thank Dr Hersom Jackie Wahrmund Dusty Holley Scot Eubanks Reyna Speckmann Lauren. Dillard Eduardo Alava Julie Driscoll and Megan Thomas In addition I would like to thank. my steers for constantly challenging my abilities as a cow whisperer and for furthering my. knowledge of the peculiarities that cattle can possess. I would also like to thank my amazing friends Julie Driscoll Adriane Bell Lauren Dillard. Nicky Brashear Katie Roberts Ginger Larson Megan Thomas Jackie Wahrmund Katie Webb. J G Vickers and Scott Johnson for their never ending support and kindness I would like to. express my utmost appreciation to these incredible people for helping me to cope with the trials. of this project from crazy steers to hospital visits to immeasurable advice I as well as my. sanity thank you from the bottom of my heart, Last however certainly not least I would like to thank my parents Vince and Jennifer. Rossignol and grandparents Cal and Sylvia Waldron for their love and support I would never. have been able to accomplish this degree and my goals in life without you. TABLE OF CONTENTS,ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 4,LIST OF TABLES 8. LIST OF FIGURES 11,ABSTRACT 12,1 INTRODUCTION 15,2 LITERATURE REVIEW 16.
Predominant Florida Forages 16,Bahiagrass 17,Bermudagrass 20. Limpograss 22,Comparison of Florida Forages 24,Beef Cattle Nutritional Requirements 26. Factors Affecting Requirements 27,Plant Animal Interface 34. 3 EFFECTS OF FORAGE SAMPLING METHOD ON NUTRITIVE VALUE OF. BAHIAGRASS DURING THE WINTER AND SPRING 41,Introduction 41. Materials and Methods 42,Locations and Collections 42.
Laboratory Analysis 44,Statistical Analysis 44,Results and Discussion 45. Forage Mass 45,In Vitro Digestible Organic Matter 46. Crude Protein 49,Neutral Detergent Fiber 52,Acid Detergent Fiber 53. Implications 55, 4 EFFECTS OF FORAGE SAMPLING METHOD ON NUTRITIVE VALUE OF. BAHIAGRASS DURING THE SUMMER AND FALL 60,Introduction 60.
Materials and Methods 61,Locations and Collections 61. Laboratory Analysis 63,Statistical Analysis 63,Results and Discussion 64. Forage Mass 64,In Vitro Digestible Organic Matter 65. Crude Protein 68,Neutral Detergent Fiber 70,Acid Detergent Fiber 73. Implications 74,5 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 80.
A WINTER SPRING 83,B SUMMER FALL 96,LITERATURE CITED 109. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 119,LIST OF TABLES,Table page, 3 1 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha 56. 3 2 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass 56. 3 3 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass 57. 3 4 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection indexa of bahiagrass forage 58. 3 5 Precipitation data cm Winter 2006 and spring 2007 59. 3 6 Temperature data 0C Winter 2006 and spring 2007 59. 4 1 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha 76. 4 2 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass 76. 4 3 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass 77. 4 4 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage 78. 4 5 Precipitation data cm Summer and fall 2007 79,4 6 Temperature data 0C Summer and fall 2007 79. A 1 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at Ona 84. A 2 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at Ona 84. A 3 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Ona 85. A 4 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. A 5 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at. Brooksville 86, A 6 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at. Brooksville 87, A 7 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Brooksville 88.
A 8 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. at Brooksville 89, A 9 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at Santa. A 10 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at Santa. A 11 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Santa Fe 91. A 12 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. at Santa Fe 92, A 13 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at. Marianna 92, A 14 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at. Marianna 93, A 15 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Marianna 94. A 16 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. at Marianna 95, B 1 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at Ona 97.
B 2 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at Ona 97. B 3 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Ona 98. B 4 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. B 5 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at. Brooksville 99, B 6 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at. Brooksville 100, B 7 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Brooksville 101. B 8 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. at Brooksville 102, B 9 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at Santa. B 10 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at Santa. B 11 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Santa Fe 104. B 12 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. at Santa Fe 105, B 13 Effect of forage availability and month on overall mean forage mass kg ha at. Marianna 105, B 14 Effect of sampling type and month on chemical composition of bahiagrass at.
Marianna 106, B 15 Effect of forage availability on chemical analysis of bahiagrass at Marianna 107. B 16 Effect of forage availability and month on steer selection index of bahiagrass forage. at Marianna 108,LIST OF FIGURES,Figure page, 5 1 Nutrient requirement cycles and pasture characteristics 82. Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School. of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the. Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science, EFFECTS OF FORAGE SAMPLING METHOD ON NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BAHIAGRASS. Ashley Lynn Hughes,December 2008,Chair Matt Hersom. Major Animal Sciences, As with many tropical grasses the nutritive value of bahiagrass Paspalum notatum has.
been reported to be relatively low However the data that does exist is based on hand harvested. samples and does not account for the ability of cattle to selectively graze within a pasture. Previous research has shown that the hand sampled forage is inaccurate in its estimation of a. grazing animal s selected diet The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritive value. of forage selected by grazing cattle compared to hand collected forage during the winter and. spring December to May as well as the summer and fall seasons June to November Four. locations were utilized to represent variation in the Florida pasture landscape the locations. included Range Cattle Research and Education Center Ona USDA Subtropical Agricultural. Research Station Brooksville Santa Fe River Ranch Beef Unit Alachua and North Florida. Research and Education Center Marianna Forage availabilities FA were visually assigned to. selected pastures as either HIGH or LOW to represent differences in forage quantity between. pastures at each location Forage and masticate samples were collected from each of the four. locations from December 2006 to November 2007 Samples were analyzed to determine forage. mass in vitro digestible organic matter IVDOM crude protein CP neutral detergent fiber. NDF and acid detergent fiber ADF concentrations Selection indices SI were also. determined for each chemical analysis Hand shears were used to cut the forage to an. approximate height of 3 5 cm within a 0 25 m quadrat masticate samples were collected using. eight ruminally fistulated steers two steers location. During the winter and spring masticate samples consistently had greater P 0 001. IVDOM concentration mean 59 1 and CP concentration mean 12 3 compared to hand. collected forage samples 45 8 IVDOM 10 5 CP Concentration of IVDOM and CP of. masticate and forage samples was also affected by month P 0 001 resulting in a type x month. effect for IVDOM and CP concentration P 0 001 and P 0 02 respectively Selection indices. of IVDOM differed between FA P 0 04 and month P 0 001 The SI for IVDOM within the. LOW FA was 10 greater compared to the HIGH FA The selection index for CP. concentration was also affected by FA P 0 01 and month P 0 03 The SI for CP within the. LOW FA was nearly 20 greater than that for the HIGH FA This indicates the steers were. more selective of forage material within the LOW FA compared to the HIGH FA for IVDOM. and CP concentration during the winter and spring During the summer and fall masticate. samples consistently had greater P 0 001 IVDOM concentration mean 60 8 and CP. concentration mean 11 2 compared to hand collected forage samples 51 7 IVDOM 9 6. CP Concentration of IVDOM and CP of masticate and forage samples was also affected by. month P 0 001 resulting in a type x month effect for IVDOM and CP concentration P 0 08. and P 0 001 respectively Selection indices for IVDOM did not differ between FA P 0 48. or month P 0 43 However the steers selected forage material that was nearly 19 greater in. IVDOM concentration compared to hand collected forage samples The selection index for CP. concentration was also not affected by FA P 0 72 or month P 0 16 However the steers. selected forage material that was 20 greater in CP concentration compared to hand collected. forage samples during the summer and fall Throughout the year steers will selectively graze. bahiagrass forage that is greater in IVDOM and CP concentration compared to forage collected. by hand sampling thus influencing supplementation recommendations for cow calf producers. INTRODUCTION, Southeastern U S cattle production is primarily involved with cow calf production. systems Ball et al 2002 In 2007 there were approximately 950 000 beef cows in Florida. USDA 2007 Florida pastures are comprised primarily of tropical and subtropical forages. which are typically high yielding but low in quality Skerman and Riveros 1990 Tropical and. subtropical grasses are reported to contain more cell wall constituents and are less digestible than. temperate grasses Minson and Mcleod 1970 Moore and Mott 1973 Barton et al 1976. Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum occupies approximately one million hectares within Florida and. is the primary component of diets of grazing cattle in the state Chambliss and Sollenberger. 1991 As with many tropical grasses bahiagrass has been reported to be low in nutritive value. as determined by hand harvested samples Brown et al 1976 however this data does not. account for the ability of cattle to selectively graze within a pasture Previous research has. shown that cattle selectively graze when adequate forage is available for grazing Weir and. Torrell 1959 Fontenot and Blaser 1965 Jung et al 1989 Russell et al 2004 Other research. has illustrated that hand sampled forage is inaccurate in its estimation of the forage selected by. grazing animals Kiesling et al 1969 Coleman and Barth 1973 Skerman and Riveros 1990. If cattle select forage that is greater in nutritive value than hand harvested samples indicate this. may affect supplementation strategies for producers The purpose of this study was to. characterize the nutritive value of bahiagrass from four locations across the state of Florida. during the winter and spring comparing sampling techniques either by hand sampling or. collection of masticate sample within pastures of varying levels of forage availability.

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