Burden Of Disease From Household Air Pollution For 2012-Books Pdf

Burden of disease from Household Air Pollution for 2012
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Figure 2 Deaths per capita attributable to HAP in 2012 by region. Deaths per 100 000 capita, 0 3 0 0 3 0 0, HAP Household air pollution Amr America Afr Africa Emr Eastern Mediterranean Sear South East Asia. Wpr Western Pacific LMI Low and middle income HI High income. Figure 3 Deaths attributable to HAP in 2012 by disease. 26 Lung cancer, Percentage represents percent of total HAP burden add up to 100. HAP Household air pollution ALRI Acute lower respiratory disease COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary. disease IHD Ischaemic heart disease, Figure 4 Deaths attributable to HAP in 2012 by age and sex. Children 5yr, 46 Women 25yr, Percentage represents percent of total HAP burden add up to 100. HAP Household air pollution yr year, For further information please contact.
Public Health Social and Environmental Determinants of Health Department. World Health Organization 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland. Website www who int phe email EBDassessment who int. World Health Organization 2014, All rights reserved. Burden of disease from Ambient Air Pollution for 2012. Summary of results, Globally 3 7 million deaths were attributable to ambient air pollution AAP in 2012 About 88 of. these deaths occur in low and middle income LMI countries which represent 82 of the world. population The Western Pacific and South East Asian regions bear most of the burden with 1 67. million and 936 000 deaths respectively About 236 000 deaths occur in the Eastern Mediterranean. region 200 000 in Europe 176 000 in Africa and 58 000 in the Americas The remaining deaths. occur in high income countries of Europe 280 000 Americas 94 000 Western Pacific 67 000. and Eastern Mediterranean 14 000, The large increase in burden compared with the previous estimate of 1 3 million deaths from AAP. from 2008 1 is due to 1 additional evidence that has become available on the relationship between. exposure and health outcomes and the use of integrated exposure response functions 2 2 an. increase in non communicable diseases 3 the inclusion of the rural population whereas the. previous estimate only covered the urban population and 4 the use of a lower counterfactual i e. the baseline exposure against which the effect of air pollution is measured 3. Figure 1 Total deaths 000 attributable to AAP in 2012 by region. Number of deaths 000, 176 236 203 279, AAP Ambient air pollution Amr America Afr Africa Emr Eastern Mediterranean Sear South East Asia Wpr. Western Pacific LMI Low and middle income HI High income. Burden of disease attributable to outdoor air pollution World Health Organization Geneva 2011. www who int phe health topics outdoorair databases burden disease en. Burnett R et al 2014 EHP http dx doi org 10 1289 ehp 1307049. Previously the 1 3 million deaths represented the health gains if the WHO Air Quality Guideline levels were. Figure 2 Deaths per capita attributable to AAP in 2012 by region. Deaths per 100 000 capita, AAP Ambient air pollution Amr America Afr Africa Emr Eastern Mediterranean Sear South East Asia Wpr.
Western Pacific LMI Low and middle income HI High income. Figure 3 Deaths attributable to AAP in 2012 by disease. 127 000 227 000, 1 505 000 Lung cancer, Percentage represents percent of total AAP burden add up to 100. AAP Ambient air pollution ALRI Acute lower respiratory disease COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary. disease IHD Ischaemic heart disease, Figure 4 Deaths attributable to AAP in 2012 by age and sex. Children 5yr, 1 632 000 Women 25yr, 1 973 000 44, 53 Men 25yr. Percentage represents percent of total AAP burden add up to 100. AAP Ambient air pollution yr year, For further information please contact. Public Health Social and Environmental Determinants of Health Department. World Health Organization 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland. Website www who int phe email EBDassessment who int. World Health Organization 2014, All rights reserved.
Burden of disease from the joint effects of Household and Ambient Air. Pollution for 2012, Summary of results, Globally 7 million deaths were attributable to the joint effects of household HAP and ambient air. pollution AAP in 2012 The Western Pacific and South East Asian regions bear most of the burden. with 2 8 and 2 3 million deaths respectively Almost 680 000 deaths occur in Africa about 400 000. in the Eastern Mediterranean region 287 000 in Europe and 131 000 in the Americas The remaining. deaths occur in high income countries of Europe 295 000 Americas 96 000 Western Pacific. 68 000 and Eastern Mediterranean 14 000, Note of caution An approximation of the combined effects of risk factors is possible if independence. and little correlation between risk factors with impacts on the same diseases can be assumed 1 In the. case of air pollution however there are some limitations to estimate the joint effects limited. knowledge on the distribution of the population exposed to both household and ambient air pollution. correlation of exposures at individual level as household air pollution is a contributor to ambient air. pollution and non linear interactions 2 3 In several regions however household air pollution remains. mainly a rural issue while ambient air pollution is predominantly an urban problem Also in some. continents many countries are relatively unaffected by household air pollution while ambient air. pollution is a major concern If assuming independence and little correlation a rough estimate of the. total impact can be calculated which is less than the sum of the impact of the two risk factors The joint. effects of both ambient and household air pollution would result in the impacts shown in Figure 1 4. Given the limitations however the estimates presented below should be interpreted with caution and. provide indicative values only, Figure 1 Total deaths attributable to the joint effects of HAP and AAP in 2012 by region. Number of deaths 000, 2 500 2 275, 394 287 295, 500 131 96 14 68. HAP Household air pollution AAP Ambient air pollution Amr America Afr Africa Emr Eastern. Mediterranean Sear South East Asia Wpr Western Pacific LMI Low and middle income HI High income. Ezzati et al 2003 The Lancet 362 271 80, Lim et al 2012 The Lancet 380 2224 2260.
Smith Bruce Balakrishnan et al 2014 Annual Review of Public Health in press. Figure 2 Deaths per capita attributable to the joint effects of HAP and AAP in 2012 by region. Deaths per 100 000 capita, 120 106 100, HAP Household air pollution AAP Ambient air pollution Amr America Afr Africa Emr Eastern. Mediterranean Sear South East Asia Wpr Western Pacific LMI Low and middle income HI High income. Figure 3 Deaths attributable to the joint effects of HAP and AAP in 2012 by disease. Lung cancer, 36 1 187 900, Percentage represents percent of total HAP burden add up to 100. HAP Household air pollution AAP Ambient air pollution ALRI Acute lower respiratory disease COPD Chronic. obstructive pulmonary disease IHD Ischaemic heart disease. Figure 4 Deaths attributable to the joint effects of HAP and AAP in 2012 by age and sex. Children 5yr, Women 25yr, 2 985 700 Men 25yr, Percentage represents percent of total burden add up to 100. HAP Household air pollution AAP Ambient air pollution yr year. For further information please contact, Public Health Social and Environmental Determinants of Health Department. World Health Organization 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland. Website www who int phe email EBDassessment who int. World Health Organization 2014, All rights reserved.
Burden of disease from Household Air Pollution for 2012. Description of method, Version 1 2, The burden of disease attributable to household air pollution was estimated for the year 2012. based on Comparable Risk Assessment methods 1 and methods developed by IHME. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and expert groups for the Global Burden of. Disease GBD 2010 study 2 3, Source of the data, Health data. The total number of deaths and DALYs disability adjusted life years by disease country sex. and age group have been developed by the World Health Organization 4. Exposure data, Modelled estimates for 2012 of the percentage of the population using solid fuels for cooking. have been developed by the World Health Organization 5 according to methods described in. Bonjour et al 6 and were used as basis for disease burden calculation. Exposure risk relationships, The integrated exposure response functions IER developed for the GBD 2010 study were. used for ALRI acute lower respiratory infections lung cancer stroke and IHD ischaemic. heart disease 7 Table 1 Personal exposure values for women men and children were. derived by Balakrishnan et al 8 for the GBD 2010 Table 2. For COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease the relative risks from the systematic. review meta analysis conducted for the GBD 2010 study were used 3. Table 1 Relative risks, Disease RR 95 CI women RR 95 CI men Reference.
ALRI 2 9 2 0 3 8 for children 3 7, COPD 2 3 1 7 3 1 1 9 1 2 3 1 3. Lung cancer 2 3 1 5 2 8 1 9 1 4 2 3 3 7, IHD 1 4 2 2 1 4 2 2 3 7. Stroke 1 4 2 4 1 3 2 4 3 7, RR Relative risks CI Confidence interval ALRI Acute lower respiratory disease COPD Chronic. obstructive pulmonary disease IHD Ischaemic heart disease Women resp men refer to adult women. resp men aged 25years Children refer to children under 5 years. For stroke and IHD there is an age gradient for the relative risks but presented here are the 95. confidence interval over their predicted values from the integrated exposure response functions over. Table 2 Personal exposure values, Group Mean PM2 5 95 CI Reference. Children 285 g m3 201 405 3 8, Women 337 g m3 238 479 3 8.
Men 204 g m3 144 290 3 8, PM2 5 particulate matter with a diameter of 2 5 micrometre or less CI confidence interval Women. resp men refer to adult women resp men aged 25years Children refer to children under 5 years. Demographic data, Population data used were from the United Nations Population Division Revision 2012 9. Estimation of disease burden, The percentage of the population exposed to household air pollution was provided by country. relative risks were calculated separately for men women and children based on the. integrated exposure response functions IER for all diseases but COPD The counterfactual. concentration was selected to be between 5 8 and 8 8 g m3 as described in 2 and 6 The. country population attributable fractions for ALRI COPD LC stroke and IHD were calculated. using the following formula, where Pe is the percentage of the population exposed to that level of air pollution i e the. percentage of the population using solid fuels for cooking. Uncertainty analysis, The uncertainty intervals are based on the 2 5th and 97th percentiles of 1000 draws for the.
relative risks of the integrated exposure response functions the personal exposure values and. the modelled solid fuel use estimates Uncertainty is however still underestimated given that. uncertainty for baseline mortality is not taken into account. References, 1 Ezzati M Lopez AD Rodgers A Vander Hoorn S Murray CJL Selected major risk factors. and global and regional burden of disease Lancet 2002 360 9343 1347 60. 2 Lim SS Vos T Flaxman AD Danaei G Shibuya K Adair Rohani H et al A comparative. risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk. factor clusters in 21 regions 1990 2010 a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of. Disease Study 2010 The Lancet 2012 380 9859 2224 60 doi 10 1016 S0140. 6736 12 61766 8, 3 Smith KR Bruce N Balakrishnan K Adair Rohani H Balmes J Chafe Z et al Millions dead. how do we know and what does it mean Methods used in the Comparative risk. assessment of houshold air pollution Annu Rev Public Health 2014 Vol 35. http www annualreviews org doi abs 10 1146 annurev publhealth 032013 182356. 4 Global Health Estimates 2013 Deaths by Cause Age and Sex by Country 2000 2012. provisional estimates Geneva World Health Organization 2014. 5 WHO The Global Health Observatory WHO 2014 cited 2014. 01 03 2014 http apps who int gho data node main 135 lang en. 6 Bonjour S Adair Rohani H Wolf J Bruce NG Mehta S Pruss Ustun A et al Solid fuel. use for household cooking country and regional estimates for 1980 2010 Environ. Health Perspect 2013 121 7 784 90 doi 10 1289 ehp 1205987 PubMed PMID. 23674502 PubMed Central PMCID PMC3701999, 7 Burnett RT Pope A Ezzati M Olives C Lim SS Mehta S et al An intgrated risk function. for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate. matter exposure Environ Health Perspect 2014 Advance publication 7 February 2014. http dx doi org 10 1289 ehp 1307049, 8 Balakrishnan K Ghosh S Ganguli B Sambandam S Bruce N Barnes DF et al State and. national household concentrations of PM2 5 from solid cookfuel use results from. measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease. Environ Health 2013 12 1 77 doi 10 1186 1476 069X 12 77 PubMed PMID. 24020494 PubMed Central PMCID PMC3851863, 9 UN World Urbanization Prospects The 2012 Revision Population Database United.
Nations 2012, For further information please contact. Public Health Social and Environmental Determinants of Health Department. World Health Organization 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland. Website www who int phe email EBDassessment who int. World Health Organization 2014, All rights reserved. Burden of disease from Ambient Air Pollution for 2012. Burden of disease from Ambient Air Pollution for 2012 Summary of results Globally 3 7 million deaths were attributable to ambientair pollution AAP in 2012 About 88 of these deaths occur in low and middle income LMI countries which represent 82 of the world population The Western Pacific and South East Asian regions most of the burden with bear 1 67 million and 936 000 deaths

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