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Responsible publisher under Swedish law the Dean of the Medical Faculty. This work is protected by the Swedish Copyright Legislation Act 1960 729. ISBN 978 91 7601 398 4,ISSN 0346 6612 1738, Cover front Matthew 7 1 6 back Ecclesiastes 1 2 11 by Niklas Boman. Elektronisk version tillg nglig p http umu diva portal org. Printed by Print Media,Ume Sweden 2016,Science is unchangeable impersonal general. abstract insensible like the laws of which it is but. the ideal reproduction reflected or mental that is. cerebral Life is wholly fugitive and temporary,but also wholly palpitating with reality and. individuality sensibility suffering joys,aspirations needs and passions Science creates. nothing it establishes and recognizes only the,creations of life And every time that scientific.
men emerging from their abstract world mingle, with living creation of the real world all that they. propose or create is poor ridiculously abstract,bloodless and lifeless. Mikhail Bakunin,Table of contents,Table of contents I. Acknowledgments IV,Dedication V,Abstract VI,List of appended papers VII. Introduction 1,About the author 1,Explanation of content 4.
Physical training in humans 6,This is what life demands 8. The physical body 11,Human skeletal muscle 11,Muscles called in to action 13. Demand and supply 14,What about the body fat 16,The hormone hypothesis 17. Anabolism and the body 18,Skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ 20. Conditions for conditioning 21,Understanding adaptation 23.
Adaptation is problem solving 23, Complex systems emerge as a result of lower order adaptations 23. Complex systems may solve other problems than lower order systems 24. A complex system must maintain homeostasis at all levels of organization. A multilevel system survives through integrated selfishness 27. Physical training is a means to achieve physical fitness 27. Evaluation of physical fitness is at best a description of an individual s. physical fitness in the specific modality designed to test physical fitness 29. The primary effect of exercise is the physical action taken 30. Secondary effects of exercise are consequences of the primary effect 30. Tertiary effects of exercise counter the secondary effects 32. Delayed and cumulative effects of training are a mixture of secondary and. tertiary effects caused by the actions performed 32. Training should strive to optimally stress the targeted system 33. Overtraining is caused by a gradual decrease in the capacity of support. systems to resist the effects of training 34, The effects of training depend on the previous conditioning of the. performing subject 35, The process of planning and executing training should involve matching. the perceived stress of the intended activity to the level of preparation of. the performing subject 36, Exercise must be consistent with the strategy of the training program 38. Theory into practice 39,Empirical aims 40,Empirical findings 42.
Method test 42,Immediate and delayed effects of exercise 45. Cumulative effects of eight weeks of training 50,Discussion of empirical findings 57. Gene expression in vastus lateralis muscle tissue samples is not affected. by location or timing of the sampling 57, The study of physiological training adaptation should consider all. exposures during the time period not just the training 58. Increases in strength and lean body mass after physical training may not. result in changed resting testosterone levels 60, Cumulative effects of training may not be apparent from immediate and. delayed effects 61,Concluding summary 64,In spite of all imperfection I m a fan of man 65.
Materials and methods 68,References 81,Appended papers. Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis. biopsies A, Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle adipose tissue and whole body. oxidative capacity in response to resistance training B. Effects of protein ingestion on the hormonal response to resistance exercise. and increases in lean body mass after eight weeks of training C. Acknowledgments, My family Eva Peter Ida Mikael Mona Jimmy Martin Ragnvi Mats Maria. Emma Therese Karl Josefine have with their hearts and homes been a source. of rest and recovery, I have learned much from my supervisor Michael Svensson. When it was needed Jonas Bur n shouldered responsibility beyond what was. asked of him, Henrik Antti with his optimism and seemingly effortless way of finding.
solutions has saved the day on more than one occasion. Malin Alvehus was perhaps the right person at the right time when I was in the. wrong place, Anna Karin Olofsson apart from her professional skills also brought happiness. Anyone who knows Lennart Burlin and Erkki Jakobsson will know why they have. been included in this section, Gunnar Andersson for reading and criticizing the draft of this thesis. For the souls who at one time or other have shared the workplace with me. Andreas Hult Andreas Isaksson Margareta Danielson Lars Stigell Carl Johan. Olsson Susanne Gidlund Emma Wichardt, Bj rn Wistr m and Fredrik Nilsson whose separate contributions and tolerance. for caffeine have aided development of method and thinking. The people at Idrottsmedicin SMU Department of Anatomy and the 6M. building for all the small things that makes us human. The time effort and pain donated in the doctoral project will not be forgotten. any time soon,Dedication, One person has paid a higher price than anyone else one person has. contributed more than all others put together,This is for her.
Training is preparation for what is expected to come through utilization of the. plastic and resistive features of nature known as adaptation As such training. in humans may have a number of desired goals These are typically related to. sports performance or education Whatever the goal a plan needs to be made. for reaching it One needs to identify or select which activities and. environments constitute the event or events to which adaptation is sought. Adaptations occurs by imposing something similar to said environment and. practicing the selected activities in preparation for the events that can. ultimately lead to goal fulfillment, One quite common goal of physical training is to achieve a more lean and. muscular physique be it for reasons of performance or esthetics A leaner and. more muscular physique can have many advantages for health and quality of. life If we are to prepare the body s physical capabilities and properties they. should be utilized in the preparation By proper design and execution of a. program for physical preparation we set out on the path to achieve the goal. A factor that is often highlighted as an important key to building muscle in the. human body is the steroid hormone testosterone According to the hormone. hypothesis increases in muscle mass are achieved through transient elevations. in anabolic hormones such as testosterone and IGF1 induced by physical. training To achieve hypertrophy of the muscles through physical training one. must ensure sure that the muscles get the correct signal the growth signal as a. result of the training, The work presented in this thesis is in part an examination of the hormone. hypothesis with both empirical and theoretical elements The empirical. foundations are results of an experiment in which a group of young men were. subjected to a program of physical training designed for all intents and. purposes in accordance with contemporary knowledge to result in muscular. hypertrophy in the subjects The goal was achieved with an average 4 6. increase in lean body mass in the subjects after the training program However. there was no evidence that anabolic hormones were elevated at any time. during the measurement period, The major part of this thesis details a model for explaining the collected. observations It is not intended to merely provide a guide for achieving a leaner. more muscular physique but rather is aimed at formulating the problem of. inducing the desired adaptations and difficulties involved in approaching the. problem For reasons discussed in this thesis I do not claim that this is the full. and final word on the matter However it goes some way toward explaining. why and perhaps how desired goals should be formulated so that the muscles. may understand them,List of appended papers,A Boman N Bur n J Antti H Svensson M B. 2015 Gene expression and fiber type variations,in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies Muscle.
Nerve 52 5 812 7 doi 10 1002 mus 24616,B Alvehus M Boman N S derlund K Svensson. M B Bur n J 2014 Metabolic adaptations in,skeletal muscle adipose tissue and whole body. oxidative capacity in response to resistance,training European Journal of Applied Physiology. 114 7 1463 71 doi 10 1007 s00421 014 2879 9,C Boman N Bur n J kerfeldt T Svensson M. B Effects of protein ingestion on the hormonal,response to resistance exercise and increases in.
lean body mass after eight weeks of training,Manuscript. Introduction,About the author,No one asked me so I asked myself. Ken Robinson, As I set out on the journey undertaken to reach the point where. I wrote this thesis I thought that I was on a quest to find the truth at least I. thought that it was the truth I was looking for As the process evolved I came to. see that it was certainty that I was looking for I really hoped that there was an. ultimate truth or irrefutable certainty to find or at least an answer that. unravels reality At this stage I have not found the certainty that I set out to. achieve I have in fact abandoned my initial quest on the basis that I did not. fully understand the problem The problem did not lead to a solution it led to. another problem, When faced with a situation such as this I found inspiration. from my favorite author Terry Pratchett On numerous points in his books he. describes the strategy of academics faced with difficult situations or problems. go to the library and find a book about the subject The best outcome is that. someone else has faced the same problem before and written a book on how to. deal with it the worst outcome is that you will be performing indoor work that. involves a lot of sitting down, Luckily others have intensively addressed the question of.
whether we can perceive the world in its true form to find the final truth. Sadly the answer seems to be no According to Kant 2004 we only experience. the world as it appears to us not as it is What appears to me is the world but. also my knowledge about the world that I am observing. On a cold and dark winter evening I came into contact with. Critical Rationalism 1 presented as a system of thought to avoid the pitfalls of. infinite regression circular arguments and dogmatism which occur when one. tries to prove the truth of a theory This led me to Karl Popper and his writings. 1 Presented by Gunnar Andersson at Filosofiska F reningen 121211 Briefly critical realism centers. on the idea that all scientific statements are fallible Hence an inquiry into any subject is aimed at. falsifying the investigated statement or hypothesis As there is no possibility of proving a statement. to be true the rational option is to hold statements that have survived severe testing as true. However this does not make them true one should keep in mind that a statement will at best be. well tested As the possibility of testing is ever present no statement is ever final. After reading and pondering on some of Popper s work my problem of finding. the truth 2 seemed to dissolve many of my views were changed by the ideas. Popper suggested For example Popper considers three worlds world one. consists of physical states world two consists of mental states and world three. contains the products of mind Among other things the third world contains. products of language All statements of science are made in language Thus all. the statements of science can be found in world three Popper 1979 3 This. converts all statements or knowledge into objects Thus our so called. knowledge becomes objects open to examination and testing. The notion that knowledge can be viewed as objects turned so. many things around for me all of a sudden there was a possibility of examining. knowledge in a different way Knowledge was no longer mystical or divine in. any way it was now open to be tested and changed The objective of science is. to produce conjectures in the form of statements about reality statements with. great content of explanation about the observed reality Popper 1979 4 It is. when a theory is unable to explain an observation that a new theory must be. constructed This means that we must sometimes adapt our theories if we. encounter situations that are not logically consistent with the said theory. This suggests that the growth of knowledge is an evolutionary. process much like the evolution of life from a biological perspective Popper. 1979 5 This means that knowledge which is now considered well tested may. be falsified in the future by new conditions arising from the changing. environment Thus statements will never be final as our measures of finality. are also fallible How then can knowledge grow or how can science work to. make knowledge grow if there is no way of knowing how close to the truth we. ultimate truth or irrefutable certainty to find or at least an answer that unravels reality At this stage I have not found the certainty that I set out to achieve I have in fact abandoned my initial quest on the basis that I did not fully understand the problem The problem did not lead to a solution it led to another problem

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