Bringing Semantics To Web Services With Owl S-Books Pdf

Bringing Semantics to Web Services with OWL S
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244 World Wide Web 2007 10 243 277, of unfamiliar Web Services and then employ those services to satisfy user goals OWL S. OWL for Services is a set of notations for expressing such specifications based on the. Semantic Web ontology language OWL It consists of three interrelated parts a profile. ontology used to describe what the service does a process ontology and corresponding. presentation syntax used to describe how the service is used and a grounding ontology. used to describe how to interact with the service OWL S can be used to automate a variety. of service related activities involving service discovery interoperation and composition A. large body of research on OWL S has led to the creation of many open source tools for. developing reasoning about and dynamically utilizing Web Services. Keywords Web Services Semantic Web Semantic Web Services OWL OWL S. service discovery service composition, 1 Introduction. An important trend in the evolution of the World Wide Web WWW has been the. development of standardized Web Service technologies by which a service provider can. make a service available to consumers through an advertised protocol The function of a. Web Service is often to supply information but can also involve exchange or sale of goods. or obligations Web Services provide a basis for interoperability between service providers. and consumers based on the reliable exchange of messages. Compiler based tools make it easy for programmers to incorporate Web Services in their. applications To call a Web Service a program must send it a message or a series of. messages normally encoded in XML extensible markup language which contain s the. information or request to be sent to the service the program then receives XML replies. containing the returned values The datatypes for the information passed between the service. consumer and provider and its encoding using the XML based simple object access protocol. SOAP 12 can be described using the Web Services description language WSDL 15. Existing compilers for languages like Java 33 and C 42 can automatically produce code. to convert from the datatypes of a language to their SOAP equivalents making it almost as. easy to call a Web Service as to use a standard library component. One thing WSDL does not supply however is a specification of what happens when a. Web Service is used A human programmer is supposed to figure that out from reading a. natural language description Suppose you want an automated software agent 60 to solve. problems such as the following, Given Web Service interfaces to access the current prices of two parts suppliers make a. periodic decision as to which of those suppliers to acquire raw materials from while. monitoring for the appearance of new alternative suppliers so that you can be informed. if one offers the same materials at a lower price, Given Web Service interfaces to a variety of networked capabilities that are available in. a meeting room send a copy of your slides to everyone attending an invited. presentation that you are giving in that room, Given Web Service interfaces for the catalogs of various online vendors find products.
described using one or more controlled vocabularies which might not be the same as. the vocabularies used in the vendors catalogs, Without a description of what happens when a Web Service is used a description that. can be processed by computer software a human must always be involved in solving such. World Wide Web 2007 10 243 277 245, problems Thus the question arises of how to provide software agents with the information. they need about Web Services to solve problems such as these. A second trend in the evolution of the Web known as the Semantic Web can provide. some answers The Semantic Web is a set of technologies for representing and publishing. on the Web computer interpretable structured information 10 Semantic Web Services 56. is a research field that endeavors to apply these technologies to the description and use of. Web Services Whereas interoperability is the primary motivation for Web Services. automation of information use and dynamic interoperability are the primary objectives of. Semantic Web Services These goals are based on the idea of adopting standard languages. for asserting relationships among entities that are declared to belong to classes The. information about the classes and the relationships among their members is captured in. ontologies The definitions encoded there allow programs to make inferences about the. relationships among the objects that they discover at Web sites A key step in the realization. of the Semantic Web has been the development of standard languages for recording. relationships and ontologies including the resource description framework RDF RDF. schemas RDFS and the Web ontology language OWL 52 all of which have. completed the standardization process at the World Wide Web Consortium W3C. The central question facing Semantic Web Services then is Can we use Semantic Web. techniques to automate dealings with Web Services The goal of the OWL S Coalition. 61 is to show that the answer is yes To move towards the realization of this vision. members of this coalition and other Semantic Web Service researchers have been. developing languages ontologies algorithms and architectures In this paper we describe. OWL S version 1 2 46 an ontology for services expressed in OWL 1 It provides a. framework for describing both the functions and advertisements for Web Services. including a process specification language a notation for defining process results and a. vocabulary for connecting these descriptions in OWL with syntactic specifications of. service message structure in WSDL and in other existing notations. OWL S can be used to solve the problems presented above although some of the Web. infrastructure and reasoning tools required for complete solutions are still the subject of. ongoing work In each case one would likely have a form based interface between the. human user and the automated software agent doing the required reasoning. To support a regular choice between suppliers a purchasing software agent could first. use automated planning technology 58 80 to access a registry and find vendors. potentially satisfying the user s objectives then use OWL S descriptions of those. vendors service interfaces to create an OWL S process to poll those vendors The agent. would also periodically recompute the set of known vendors and notify the user when. new vendors were found, To send a document to everyone currently in a particular room requires searching for a. resource management service for the building containing it then querying it for people. who have made their whereabouts in that building known perhaps just to other people. in the building 48, To find a vendor of say cutlery it would be necessary to include companies that. advertise the sale of kitchenware A software agent using OWL and OWL S could. apply ontological knowledge to broaden its search to include requests for providers of. kitchenware as this would be annotated as a superClass of cutlery If a vendor used a. different vocabulary where knives took the place of cutlery cross ontological. Prior to version 1 0 this work was known as DAML S so named for DAML OIL the precursor of OWL. 246 World Wide Web 2007 10 243 277, statements involving the equivalentClass construct of OWL would enable the agent to.
translate between the two, This paper describes OWL S and selected tools technologies and research directions based. upon it The rest of the paper is organized as follows In Section 2 we discuss the high level. objectives of OWL S and the overall structure of the framework in terms of service profiles. process models and groundings In Section 3 we discuss key concepts for describing services. their inputs outputs preconditions and results In Section 4 we describe the structure and. content of the profile ontology designed for use in advertising services In Section 5 we present. the process model ontology and a more human readable notation The latter allows the model to. be viewed more easily as a recursive syntax for describing service processes rather than simply. as an ontology In Section 6 we discuss the ontology for describing groundings of services. enabling service calls to be translated into and out of message transport protocol languages such. as SOAP and its partner WSDL In Section 7 we discuss how OWL S can be used in various. Web Service applications focusing on service discovery and service composition In Section 8. we survey a broad range of tools and prototypes that have been developed based on OWL S. and extensions of OWL S In Section 9 we discuss related efforts to model aspects of Web. Services The paper ends with a brief summary and directions for future work in Section 10. 2 Overview of OWL S, In this section we provide some context for understanding OWL S After presenting the. objectives that motivate this work we give a brief overview of its logic foundations ways. in which it can be used and its overall structure, The principal high level objectives of OWL S are 1 to provide a general purpose. representational framework in which to describe Web Services 2 to support automation of. service management and use by software agents 3 to build in an integral fashion on. existing Web Service standards and existing Semantic Web standards and 4 to be. comprehensive enough to support the entire lifecycle of service tasks. 2 1 Logic foundations, OWL S starts off as an ontology i e a vocabulary plus axioms constraining its terms 51. The axioms are stated in OWL so they involve things like class descriptions subclass. hierarchies and definitions of the kinds of relationships that may hold between different. classes OWL includes three sublanguages OWL lite OWL DL and OWL full The first. two but not the third correspond to decidable description logics DLs 5 Decidability in. this context means that certain fundamental questions about an ontology are guaranteed to. be answerable An example of this is the question of subsumption 5 i e whether one. particular class A is a superclass of another class B in other words whether A subsumes B. To preserve decidability we had a design objective to keep OWL S expressible in OWL DL. Nevertheless we have discovered that for some purposes OWL DL is not expressive. enough For example to specify the preconditions and results of processes we need. expressiveness comparable to that of first order logic 26 Thus while many aspects of. processes can be represented in OWL DL and are in OWL S we have found it necessary. to allow for preconditions and results to be expressed in other logical languages. In addition we have found that the language elements and syntax provided by OWL DL. are not particularly well suited to provide process descriptions that can be easily. comprehended by humans For this reason we have provided a presentation syntax for. World Wide Web 2007 10 243 277 247, developers to use when writing their process models which can be expanded into OWL.
and associated rule representations for publication on the Semantic Web. 2 2 Applicability, As an ontology OWL S does not make any assumption with respect to the processing. environment or Web Service architecture Indeed OWL S has been used in very different. configurations from traditional Web Service architectures that adopt the service oriented. architecture SOA triangle set of interactions 11 among a service registry producer and. consumer to peer to peer P2P systems 23 using a Gnutella based architecture 67 to. multicast based universal plug and play UPnP 48 systems used with wireless devices to. architectures that exploit a centralized mediator 44 87 to manage the interaction with. services and perform different forms of translation between service consumers and providers. OWL S is not intended to replace existing Web Services or Semantic Web standards Our. goal is to enhance their utility by remaining compliant with existing standards and adding. explicit semantics that is operational and understandable to computer programs In our opinion. the Web Services community needs a little push to get to the point where it feels comfortable. with descriptions of entities outside current Web Service specifications OWL S provides that. push right in the direction of the space that the Semantic Web community already inhabits. 2 3 Overall structure of OWL S, The OWL S ontology includes three primary sub ontologies the service profile process. model and grounding The service profile is used to describe what the service does the. process model is used to describe how the service is used and the grounding is used to. describe how to interact with the service The service profile and process model are thought. of as abstract characterizations of a service whereas the grounding makes it possible to. interact with a service by providing the necessary concrete details related to message. format transport protocol etc Figure 1 shows the relationships between the top level. classes of the ontology In this figure an oval represents an OWL class and an arc. represents an OWL property For example the presents property represents a relationship. that can hold between a service and a profile, Each service described using OWL S is represented by an instance of the OWL class. service which has properties that associate it with a process model an instance of the class. Semantic Web can be used to augment these standards The resulting Web Service specifications enable the development of software programs that can interpret descriptions World Wide Web 2007 10 243 277 DOI 10 1007 s11280 007 0033 x This work was performed while Paolucci was at the Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Sirin was at the University of Maryland College Park and

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