Bosnian Croatian And Serbian Bcs Duke University-Books Pdf

Bosnian Croatian and Serbian BCS Duke University
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Acknowledgements, We are grateful to many teachers colleagues friends and other speakers. who helped us over the years particularly to the late Prof Rudolf Filipovi who. brought us into contact with most of these valued people He organized the. contrastive grammar projects which we both worked on in Zagreb and directed. W Browne s thesis We further thank Milka Ivi and the late Pavle Ivi. professors under whom W Browne earlier studied in Novi Sad. We thank Grace Fielder for inviting us to create the present site for. inclusion in the University of North Carolina Duke University series Edna. Andrews head of the Slavic and East European Language Resource Center. Troy Williams both Slavist and computer expert and his colleague Cal Wright at. the Center who both did valiant work converting our archaic fonts into universally. readable pdf format, Bernard Comrie and Greville Corbett kindly invited W Browne to write the. Serbo Croat chapter Browne 1993 for their book The Slavonic Languages. Much of this web publication stems from Browne 1993 but has been rewritten for. clarity and simplicity Most of what Browne 1993 said about accents language. history and dialects is not used here so those interested will still need to look. there This text also includes material that did not fit into Browne 1993 because. of length limits Finally this text includes much new material. Material of all these sorts has been checked against the Oslo Bosnian. corpus at http www tekstlab uio no Bosnian Corpus html and the Croatian. National Corpus at http www hnk ffzg hr korpus htm see web resources in the. Bibliography and we hereby express our gratitude to both these corpora. Our gratitude also goes to Sasha Skenderija of the Cornell Law School. Library for letting us use the Text Samples from his short story ToFa. Table of Contents,Abbreviations 6,0 Introduction 7. 0 1 Geography 7,0 2 History 7,0 3 Dialects 8,0 4 Standard languages 9. 1 Sound system 10,1 1 Vowels and consonants 10,1 1 1 Vowels 10.
1 1 2 Consonants 12,1 1 3 Alphabets 12,1 2 Accent and vowel length 15. 1 2 1 Long and short vowels 15,1 2 2 Accents 15,1 3 Alternations 16. 1 3 1 Consonant changes 16,1 3 2 Vowel changes 18,1 3 3 Alternations from later sound changes 19. 2 Morphology 21,2 1 Noun pronoun and adjective endings 21. 2 1 1 Categories 21,2 1 1 1 Numbers 21,2 1 1 2 Cases 21.
2 1 1 2 1 Uses of the cases 21,2 1 1 2 2 Fewer case forms in plural 28. 2 1 1 3 Genders 28,2 1 2 Noun declensions 28,2 1 2 1 Nouns with a in genitive singular 29. 2 1 2 1 1 Masculine zero ending nouns 29,2 1 2 1 2 Neuter o e ending nouns 30. 2 1 2 2 Nouns with e in genitive singular 31,2 1 2 3 Nouns with i in genitive singular 32. 2 1 2 4 Nouns declining as adjectives 32,2 1 3 Pronoun declensions 33.
2 1 3 1 Personal and reflexive pronouns 33, 2 1 3 2 Demonstrative possessive and other pronouns 33. 2 1 3 3 All 35, 2 1 3 4 Interrog pronouns demonstrative and interrogative forms 35. 2 1 4 Adjectival declensions 36,2 1 4 1 Long and short endings 38. 2 1 4 2 Soft stems 38,2 1 4 3 Short and long contrasted 38. 2 1 4 4 Possessive adjectives 38,2 1 4 5 Passive participles 38.
2 1 4 6 Comparatives and superlatives 38,2 1 4 7 Adverbs derived from adjectives 39. 2 1 5 Numeral declensions 39,2 2 Verbal forms 39,2 2 1 Categories expressed 39. 2 2 1 1 Finite forms vs compound tenses 39,2 2 1 2 Simple tenses 40. 2 2 1 3 Compound tenses 40,2 2 1 4 Aspect 41,2 2 1 5 Verbs of motion 41. 2 2 1 6 Imperative and conditional 42,2 2 1 7 Active and passive 42.
2 2 1 8 Non finite verb forms L participle 43,2 2 2 Conjugation 43. 2 2 2 0 General remarks about conjugations 43,2 2 2 1 Present tenses in e 44. 2 2 2 2 Present tenses in a 47,2 2 2 3 Present tenses in i 48. 2 2 2 4 The verb to be 49,2 2 2 5 The verb to eat 49. 2 2 2 6 The verb want will 49,2 3 Word formation 50.
2 3 1 Major patterns of noun derivation 50,2 3 2 Major patterns of adjective derivation 51. 2 3 3 Major patterns of verb derivation 53,3 Syntax 53. 3 1 Element order in declarative sentences 53,3 1 1 Topic comment structure 53. 3 1 2 Adverbs and adverbials 54,3 1 3 Typical subject verb order 54. 3 1 4 Existential verbs 54,3 1 5 Enclitic placement 55.
3 1 6 Ordering of elements within noun phrases 56,3 2 Non declarative sentence types 57. 3 2 1 Interrogative sentences 57,3 2 2 Commands 59. 3 3 Copular sentences 60,3 4 Coordination 62,3 5 Subordination 64. 3 5 1 Complement clauses as subjects or objects 64. 3 5 2 Verbal adverbs verbal noun participle 66,3 5 3 Relative clauses and their antecedents 67. 3 5 4 Relative clauses and order of elements 68,3 6 Negation 69.
3 6 1 Sentence negation 69,3 6 2 Negative conjunction niti 69. 3 6 3 Agreement in negativity 69,3 6 4 Negation and infinitive complements 70. 3 6 5 Genitive vs accusative in negated objects 70. 3 6 6 Subject of negated sentences 70,3 7 Using pronouns in discourse 70. 3 7 1 Personal pronoun agreement with antecedent 71. 3 7 2 Identity of sense vs identity of reference 71. 3 7 3 When personal pronoun cannot be used 71,3 7 4 Demonstratives 71. 3 7 5 Antecedents outside of the clause 72,3 7 6 Dropping the personal pronoun 72.
3 7 7 Pronoun subjects in complex sentences 73,3 7 8 Short answers 73. 3 8 Reflexives and reciprocals 73,3 8 1 Reflexives sebe se svoj 73. 3 8 2 Reciprocals like jedan drugog 74,3 9 Possession 75. 3 9 1 The verb to have 75,3 9 2 The preposition u 76. 3 9 3 Dative for possession 76,3 9 4 Genitive for possession 76.
3 9 5 Possessive adjective 77,3 9 6 Possessor omitted 77. 3 10 Quantification 78,4 The vocabulary 81,4 1 General composition of the word stock 81. 4 2 Patterns of borrowing 81,4 3 Incorporation of borrowings 83. 4 4 Lexical fields 84,4 4 1 Color terms 84,4 4 2 Body parts 84. 4 4 3 Kinship terms 85,5 Dialects 85,6 Text Samples 89.
Bibliography 92,Web resources 95,Abbreviations,ACC accusative. ADJ adjective,AG accusative and genitive,AN animate. AUX auxiliary,BCS Bosnian Croatian and Serbian,DAT dative. DL dative and locative,DLI dative locative and instrumental. F feminine,GEN genitive,IL instrumental and locative.
INST instrumental,LOC locative,LP L participle,M masculine. NA nominative and accusative,NAV nominative accusative and vocative. NOM nominative,NV nominative and vocative,PF perfective. SG singular,SOV subject object verb order,SV subject verb order. SVO subject verb object order,VOC vocative,phonetic transcription.
English glosses,1 first person,2 second person,3 third person. 234 234 numerals,comes from,turned into,is derived from. 0 Introduction, Bosnian Croatian and Serbian are three standardized forms based on very similar. linguistic material For many people the term language means standardized form. of a language and in this meaning we can speak of a Bosnian language a. Croatian language and a Serbian language Language can also be a system that. permits communication and in this meaning we can consider all three to make up. one language Serbo Croatian was the traditional term The non native learner will. usually want to choose to concentrate on Bosnian or Croatian or Serbian but. learning any of these actively plus some knowledge of the differences will permit. the learner to take part in the communication system throughout the whole area. This description will use the term BCS to denote what the three standards have in. common The differences in grammar are not very numerous and will be discussed. as we go along The differences in vocabulary are more numerous some will be. pointed out in the vocabulary section,0 1 Geography. 0 1 1 Standard Croatian is used in Croatia Standard Serbian is used in Serbia and. Montenegro Crna Gora presently a single country until recently called. Yugoslavia 1991 2003 Standard Bosnian is used in Bosnia Hercegovina. although some residents prefer standard Croatian or standard Serbian Serbia. Montenegro Croatia and Bosnia Hercegovina were four of the six republics of. former Yugoslavia 1945 1991, 0 1 2 Croatia has just over 4 4 million inhabitants nearly all of whom speak.
Croatian Census figures are incomplete for the other new countries Bosnia. Hercegovina has a population of over 3 5 million virtually all speakers of the. language Serbia and Montenegro have about 10 5 million inhabitants but Serbia s. multilingual northern province Vojvodina includes many Hungarians Slovaks. Romanians and Rusyns and a disputed southern province Kosovo has an. Albanian majority of over one million, 0 1 3 There are Serbs who have lived within present day Romania and Hungary for. several centuries There are Croatians who have lived in eastern Austria Slovakia. Hungary and Romania for hundreds of years There are also scattered emigrant. communities that preserve the language in the United States Canada Australia. New Zealand Argentina Chile and other countries In the neighboring countries of. Slovenia and Macedonia many people speak Bosnian Croatian or Serbian as a. second language,0 2 History, 0 2 1 Slavic speakers arrived in the Balkans and spread throughout their present. territories in approximately the sixth and seventh centuries AD They settled in. small scattered groups interspersed with groups of speakers of other languages. Only gradually over many centuries did any of these languages come to be spoken. over large contiguous areas Those South Slavs who settled closer to the Adriatic. soon came under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church whereas those. further east came under the Byzantine Empire and its Eastern Orthodox Church. The cultural division between the Eastern and Western churches predated by. several centuries the formal split of 1054 Eastern Orthodoxy came to be a. distinguishing mark of the Serbs and Roman Catholicism of the Croatians. 0 2 2 In the 860s prior to the complete breakup of the two churches two Byzantine. missionaries Cyril and Methodius worked in Moravia They created a special. Slavic alphabet called Glagolitic which was very well suited to the early Slavic. sound system Disciples of theirs took the alphabet hundreds of miles south It took. root in the Adriatic coastal regions Further east the system of Glagolitic was. preserved but the shapes of the letters were revised to look like the Greek. alphabet The result is what we now call Cyrillic It came to be used by all the. different Eastern Orthodox peoples including the Serbs. 0 2 3 There were medieval Serbian Croatian and Bosnian states with shifting. boundaries In the 14th century the Ottoman Turks began to take over large parts. of the Balkans Considerable populations were displaced Serbia and Bosnia. Hercegovina were under Turkish rule for 400 to 500 years During this period many. Bosnians converted to Islam In general the cultural impact of the Ottoman Empire. was greatest in Bosnia Northernmost Serbia Vojvodina and much of Croatia. were conquered later by the Turks and broke away earlier The Dalmatian coast. was never under Turkish rule but was heavily influenced by Italian states. Northwestern Croatia did not fall to the Turks but to the Habsburgs Montenegro. remained independent throughout, 0 2 4 As the Ottoman Empire receded the rest of inland Croatia and Vojvodina. became parts of the Habsburg Empire Austria Hungary In the late 17th century. the Habsburg Empire enticed Serbs to cross over and in exchange for various. privileges populate the Military Frontier around the Ottoman borders In the early. 19th century the part of Serbia immediately south of Beograd broke away from the. Ottoman Empire and become an independent kingdom Over a century more parts. joined until by 1913 none of Serbia was left under Turkey Bosnia and Hercegovina. remained Ottoman until 1878 when it was given to Austria Hungary to administer. 0 2 5 World War I brought fighting throughout the Balkans and the breakup of the. Austro Hungarian Empire In the aftermath a new country the Kingdom of the. Serbs Croatians and Slovenes Yugoslavia was created within the approximate. boundaries of the later 1945 1991 Yugoslavia It thus included most areas. populated by speakers of Bosnian Croatian Serbian as well as Slovenian speaking. areas in the northwest and Macedonian speaking areas in the southeast Thanks. in part to internal dissensions the whole country fell to or allied with Germany and. Italy in World War II The victorious Partisans under Tito who eventually liberated. it reconstituted it in 1945 as a federation of republics that took language and. national identities into account However identity conflicts remained Slovenia. Croatia and Macedonia declared independence in 1991 Bosnia Hercegovina in. 1992 In 2003 acknowledging reality the remaining Yugoslavia changed its name. to Serbia and Montenegro,0 3 Dialects, 0 3 1 Speakers are conscious of local dialects and are able to name the one they. belong to There are three main dialects called tokavski akavski and Kajkavski. They are named for the question word what which is to or ta a or kaj In fact. these dialects differ not only in this word but in sounds accent patterns endings. the case and tense system and vocabulary Some of thes. and Croatian by Wayles Brown and Theresa Alt for their book The Slavonic Languages English glosses

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