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BIM basedVirtualRealityandHumanBehaviorSimulation
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and con icted assets of design predict and design for in any phase of design due. Through a combination of BIM and VR prob to the diverse and numerous risk that a ect users in. lems generated during design can be visualized an emergencies of that a ect the built environment An. alyzed and optimized Virtual Reality VR and Aug indication of the importance of user safety is evident. mented Reality AR are advancements that include in the need for regular safety inspection in buildings . potential advantages from the conceptualization to There is importance in understanding the re . facility management of the building lifecycle VR is action of users in Emergency Situations Buildings. known as an innovation that includes the interaction not in accordance with safety requirements or be . and immersion to three dimensional computer mod low safety standards lead to higher injuries and fatali . els suitable for analysis and inspection by architects ties in emergency situations Safety requirements are. M HOSOKAWA 2016 eCaade derived by choosing appropriate mitigation mecha . The role of architects in the Architecture Engi nisms to protect against the negative circumstances. neering and Construction AEC industry is unique that constitute safety design Previous designs de . because designers in uence a project s safety perfor pend on building code and regulations and instinc . mance through the whole life cycle based on design tive decisions by building designers rather than rig . decisions Decisions made by architects in design are orous experimentation and simulation Evacuation. often uncertain especially in the initial phase which is planning demands rigorous and rational analysis of. where simulation becomes important in understand experimentation on the relationship between users . ing the unbuilt environment BIM and VR have ad evacuation behaviors and the physical layout of pro . vanced in recent years BIM and Simulations assist posed buildings . architects and building engineers in experimenting In emergency situations user decisions need to. and analyzing ideas standards and rules adequately be e ective and rapid based on limited information. and amend mistakes from the design stage that can and occasionally knowledge of the physical layouts. become exponential later in the life cycle of the build of buildings An example is in case of re evacuations . ing Visibility is important to both occupants and rescue. Events in South Korea such as the Gyeongju services Visibility is a key factor in faster evacuation. earthquake Seonmun market re and the collapse and more e cient rescue for re services Smoke ef . of the Mauna resort has shown that there is a need fects cause a reduced speed in evacuation and visi . for more analysis and experimentation in the area of bility causing users to be prolonged exposure to fa . evacuation disaster situations In May 2016 South tal toxins Such factors need consideration in design. Korea implemented the Design for Safety DFS sys that goes beyond speculation and regulation Kim J . tem Unlike the existing DFS system the institutional 2004 The rst step in emergency planning is to. meaning of DFS in South Korea is not only to man recognize and identify the hazards and determine. age the safety of construction workers As errors in facility vulnerabilities to emergencies A one size . the design phase of buildings can a ect users later ts all life safety inspection checklist could not meet. into the stages of the lifecycle of the building DFS the needs of every facility A basic knowledge of. starts in the basic conceptual design of buildings life safety concepts by designers can identify and. and become more important in the documentation abate many common types of life safety hazards but. construction and use of the buildings P Hyejin UIA through a data driven simulation the ability to iden . 2017 Due to safety accidents the Ministry of Land tify such problems is ampli ed . Infrastructure and transport has extended the con In this paper through a procedure that combines. cept of DFS to user safety User safety is at the high human behavior simulation and res dynamic simu . est risk in emergency situations which is di cult to lation combined with thermal imaging used by re . 824 eCAADe 36 VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2. ghters in emergency situations to analyze the rela includes the completion of a post evacuation ques . tionships between humans re and smoke in a Vir tionnaire to supplement and supply the results that. tual built environment in an immersive VR environ are hard to be observed such as perception of emer . ment Furthermore presenting recommendations for gency cues during the drills KIM 2003 This de . the possibility of a real time integration to BIM to im mands a computer aided emergency management. prove work ow and e ciency and decision making support Conventionally the. re safety assessment process is generally a paper . BACKGROUND based process regarding o cial re safety regula . Existing methods of re safety design, A review of the Korean 2010 re data shows the. number of res and casualties were decreased by , Related Research. Safety is paramount in design and so much research. 11 5 5 455 res in number civilian death tolls de . has been conducted through for the safest methods. creased by 25 7 105 civilian injuries 21 9 444 , to evaluate buildings A computer simulation is a. and property loss by 5 9 As seen in table 1 , computer program that contains a model of a partic . Table 1 ular system either factual or theoretical and that can. Overview of 2010 be executed after which the execution output can be. Korea Fire analyzed Although schematically VR cannot be ana . Experience lyzed there are various applications that utilized for. the sole purpose of simulation provide data that can. be semi automatically inputted in VR game engine, for an improved visualization of simulation Rysanek .
2017 The challenge is to realize the virtual simula . tion environment based on geometrical and material. boundary conditions to consider the mutual interac . tion e ects of di erent parameters especially the hu . man factors as well as the visualization of the simu . lated results , Rendering and physical phenomena have be . This shows that there have been improvements such come possible to study at the design stage by visual. as South Korea s advancement in research on re simulation and environmental simulation As VR has. safety through BIM but South Korea safety design is become more realistic it has allowed architect not. still limited to design adjusted to law through build only to visualize but experience simulations To en . ing codes and regulations that are validated in 2d sure that building designs are according to building. drawing plans and 3d models that a ect the built en codes and regulations many countries have created. vironment resulting in iterations to elements such as a BIM safety system promoting mandatory model. oor plan layouts structure legislation and mechan checking for BIM quality including compliance with. ical systems with little to no consideration to emer regulation while such systems have shown massive. gency re factors such as re size growth rate smoke development but there is a need for human behavior. production rate and human behavior in relation to design Kinateder 2015 . The normal approach to address emergency pre Recent research has distinguished that the re. planning includes preplanning drills and digital pre high risk in emergency situations has a direct connec . planning The preplanning drills are to record the tion to a delayed evacuation of facilities this can be. behavior of participants as evacuees which usually. VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2 eCAADe 36 825. attributed to design factors such as complex way nd Figure 1. ing lack of required egress points among others The Current work ow. existing methods of re safety design do not inte from BIM to VR. grate all elements of re design as this is a compli . cated time consuming and expensive process which, can create uncertainties for architects in the design. stage making them vulnerable to errors that can be. fatal when the building is built , The AEC industry is dangerous by its nature of. complexity and uncertainty In the past decades re . searchers have made great endeavors to improve the. safety performance for the industry Decision making. for design which previously had to rely only on de . signers experience and speci cations from product. manuals can now be accurately and objectively en Human Behavior Simulation. sured using simulation tools A more intensive and A computer simulation is a computer program that. comprehensive experimentation and simulation of contains a model of a particular system either actual. re dynamics and human behavior are necessary to or theoretical and that can be executed after which. solve the wicked problems an architect could en the execution output can be analyzed Human be . counter in the design stages that could hinder evac havior simulation exposes design errors or problems. uation A research showed that virtual users created in relation to users and the building Human behavior. through an A algorithm applied to simulations done simulation and experimentation assist architects nd. by students bene ted them in understanding safety the best possible solution to problems that users en . design in terms of egress evacuation and the student counter in everyday use of buildings before it is built . nal layout plan was optimized for evacuation Rysanek 2017 . Emergency preplanning is an action plan de Human behavior remains complex to absolutely. vised as a precautionary measure before any disaster simulate in one tragic case evacuees eeing a re at. and is activated in response to major incidents only the Station Night Club in West Warwick Rhode Island. In this paper In an immersive 3d virtual reality envi headed towards the main doors of the building while. ronment architects can experience a rsthand look at ignoring available peripheral exits Such is an exam . the problems that go beyond the building layout but ple of how rational decisions can be a ected by stress. also other building elements such as doors windows and other factors in an emergency and the need for. furniture and material and present alternative itera development in human behavior simulation. tions for optimization in evacuation situations Fur Recently computation technology allow design . thermore fast calculations allow timely feedback on ers to mimic reality along parameters Computer. new design alternatives for a project rather than rely generated simulations as a means of experimen . ing on speculation on the end product Although the tation allow interaction between properties of au . interoperability between Building Information Mod tonomous agents and environmental conditions . elling and the VR game engines is semi automatic The simulation of human behavior in buildings is as. technological improvements of AEC VR tools such as important as crash tests in automobiles . Fuzor allow real time visualization and work ow but In the context of this research we explore not. lack in the tools for a more accurate human behavior only the physical properties of the building and en . and re dynamic simulation As seen in gure 1 vironment but also the properties of re and smoke. 826 eCAADe 36 VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2. in buildings The process of human behavior simu PROCEDURE. lation considers the impact of re on users such as To achieve a realistic virtual simulation We designed. reduced visibility impaired movement toxicity and a scenario of a re in an educational facility using. stimulus Simeone 2013 The manipulation of vir used the Revit building sample advanced project for. tual environments during the design process pushes this simulation This scenario allowed us to have a. designers to better perceive space for example its more detailed scope of the types of simulation to run . uidity and functionality without using 2D represen The accuracy of data for human and re simulations. tations enhances the quality of the virtual reality experience. and a thermal image system increases visibility The. Immersive Virtual Reality ow of this research starts at the modeling stage and. VR is known as a technology that adds the di the creation of an emergency scenario to the simu . mensions of immersion and interactivity to three lation stage for data and then visualization in an im . dimensional computer generated models and o ers mersive environment the overall procedure is shown. an exploration that is not viable with the traditional in gure 2 . form of representation, Figure 2 This immersive experience allows architects to. Flow of procedure experiment with ideas compared to conventional 3D. modeling tools that allows architects to only visualize. models in an immersive rst person The use of im , mersive VR assists in analyzing building beyond oor.
plan layouts to other architectural elements such. as windows doors structure and furniture among, other things in relation to positions in buildings and. the e ciency of their function Tukera 2013 , The e ect of res on all building elements evac . uation of users can also be analyzed in context from. an immersive rst person perspective Interactive VR. also allows the simulation of way nding functions in. and re repellant devices such as re extinguishers. and sprinklers Such elements e ciency can be mea . sured in position and quantity in the building, The cost of Immersive virtual reality has been. In this paper we consider two fundamental elements. made a ordable and accessible to institutions and. which are human behavior Simulation and re dy , individuals Virtual reality games engines are readily. namic simulation The Merge is analyzed in an im , available for free downloads such as Unity 3D and.
mersive VR This process required data that could not. unreal engine and the commercialization of Head, be random as this will generate inaccuracies Using. Mounted Displays HMD like the oculus rift HTC vive. third party tools simulation data was comprehensive. and google cardboard makes immersive architecture. for virtual reality visualization The diagram below. an everyday possibility improving building conve . shows the process of incorporating 3rd party tools for. nience and saving lives , data driven simulation in VR . VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2 eCAADe 36 827. Fire Dynamic Simulation of the data generated from the re dynamic simula . The building is modeled using the Revit BIM platform tion shows that visibility is impaired unevenly around. which is a BIM tool where preliminary safety checks the building from the source of the re and visibil . can be made Then exported to the Pyrosim DSF sim ity in the building reduced to 80 at 50 seconds into. ulation software generating data to be used in a vir the simulation Although we acknowledge that ev . tual reality simulation third party tools had to be in ery second count we have narrowed our scope to the. corporated as seen in gure 3 moment where the ames are its peak as this is this. PyroSim is a graphical user interface for the Fire time evacuation is least likely and more complicated . Dynamics Simulator FDS PyroSim helps you quickly, create and manage the details of complex re mod Intelligent Virtual Users. els Where parameters were set for Fire source reac The goal of the intelligent virtual users is to evacu . tions temperature per surface area and materials ate the building through the nearest egress exit point. considering visibility collision with ames and other. agents The simulation allows agents unable to es Figure 3. cape evacuate to perish as this will present a more Process of data. accurate result of the simulation and elucidate con collection through. sequence of poor design in disasters third party, In order to generate data for our Intelligent goal simulations. driven agents we needed two main inputs 1 distance. traveled and 2 speed rather than random or uniform. default values generated by default game engines . To generate the data for human behavior simulation. using Oasys mass motion we imported the model, and simulated an evacuation of the building The.
simulation was conducted for 100 agents evacuating. the building in 4 minutes and the data of each agent. showing desired speed distance traveled agent ID . Exit is exported in CSV File format In a spreadsheet . we plot the speed of all agents according to speed. and distance traveled The simulation in Oasys mass. motion is shown below in gure 4 , Mass motion, evacuation. simulation, The data generated in mass motion is primarily a uni . The re type was important we created a 1500kw form evacuation agents This simulation data can . burner re with an 8m plume height with a reaction not comprehensively be analyzed in relation to fac . of propane gas from the reaction library Then sim tors like re and smoke which are parameters that can. ulated the rst 100 seconds of the re An analysis, 828 eCAADe 36 VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2. be programmed based on the output data generated mass motion as that was a uniform evacuation that. from FDS simulations in a game AI did not factor re dynamics Speed ratio generated. In unreal engine through code language visual from mass motion can be seen in gure 6 . blueprint scripting we create game AI whose end, goal is to evacuate the building to a safe location and Thermal Imaging. make decisions based on a behavior tree As seen in Thermal imaging can be achieved using a concept of. gure 5 heat mapping Heat maps can be created for the en . tire environment and made to track the movement, Figure 5 of certain agents The temperature and smoke pat .
Game Ai behavior terns were represented to a spectrum The spectrum. tree was used to show the heat levels that was generated. from the previous simulation in pyrosim and a combi . nation with an infrared spectrum to visualize smoke. Heat mapping in unreal engine works similarly, to infrared which is invisible to the human eye and. Figure 6 works both indoors and outdoors similar technology. Agents evacuation is used in thermal imagining cameras TIC to iden . speed ratio tify patterns that exist in res that will be oblivious to. both the architect and re ghter Fds systems use a. similar concept that represents re on spectrum base. so we apply the same system in unreal engine to view. what is usually uncertain due to poor visibility in a. case of excessive smoke to our design , Environmentally Heat mapping in unreal engine. works similarly to infrared which is invisible to the hu . man eye and works both indoors and outdoors simi . lar technology is used in thermal imagining cameras. The speed of the various agents generated from the TIC to identify patterns that exist in res that will. mass motion simulation is applied to the intelligent be oblivious to both the architect and re ghter in. also the game AI is programmed to avoid areas of in a real life situation re The environmental and heat. tense re and smoke generated from the re dynamic map maps present a more certain tendency of both. simulation through a collision system of unreal game the user and the building in relation to the re As. engine The re completely blocked one of the egress seen in gure 7 . exits so we blocked the exit through collision , For this paper we considered access to egress. Virtual simulation in, point as the main factor Due to temperature. thermal image, and smoke patterns three categories of accessibil .
ity perimeters were set to absolute low moderate, and high The combination of human behavior and. the re behavior in a virtual built environment is ana . lyzed through these criteria Collison set according to. accessibility parameters di er from the simulation in. VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2 eCAADe 36 829. Figure 8, Reduced visibility at, various egress, The immersive VR combines 3d game combines Figure 9. the re dynamic simulation and human behavior in The systems allows. an immersive the interactive system that allows designers to make. the user to experience evacuation from all egress design iterations. points As most egress points su er from bottlenecks. and reduced visibility due to unpredictable behav . ior of humans in an evacuation situation andteleport. through the virtual building to give feedback on de . sign changes to building elements can be optimized. to improve visibility and evacuation movement , The simulation presented that the main egress. point was not accessible due to re patterns the exit. closet to the ames and with on the shorter corridor LIMITATIONS AND DISCUSSION. had more reduced visibility as seen in gure 8 and Limitations. through a teleporting system the user can navigate In a case of re Fire behavior does not only com . and analyze all design assets that go beyond layout promise the elements mentioned in this paper but. Modeling and simulation tools for architectural it mainly a ects the structure and building materials . design have been developing to cope with the in A report on the Wooshin golden suits re in Busan. herent unpredictability of complex design process South Korea showed that material was a contribut . For instance visualizing and simulating physical phe ing factor to the spread of the re KIM Y Fire and sci . nomena at the design stage have been enabled by ence technology journal vol 30 The current game. using environmental simulation methods and visual technology does not allow explicitly allow us to go. simulation methods such as this procedure to create in depth data driving structural integrity or material. iterations to design for safety As seen in gure 9 simulations In the emergency most situations com . promised structure leads to fatal either by direct con . tact or as a barrier to the egress point This presents. 830 eCAADe 36 VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2. a gap in knowledge of how structure reacts to dis tic simulation API that links directly to BIM and al . aster factors We are aware of the complexities that lows real time editing and other simulations such as. evolve structural integrity simulations and the lack of energy security and structure integrity among many. technology for such complex simulations We aspire other possibilities . in the future to incorporate structural integrity to our An IFC Support that will solve the information. simulation as this will be a step closer to reality in a gap especially schematic information required for. case of fore evacuation safety Despite VR and AR po higher accuracy of simulations In the AEC domain . tentials there are still di culties which withhold their the rst step towards a computerized process and. use in AEC information interoperability has been developed in. 1999 with the development of the IFC As IFC is, Interoperability to BIM an internationally recognized standard this will en . In the course of this research one key challenge that hance collaboration in the AEC industry through Vir . stands out is the complexity of achieving realistic VR tual reality The current game engines only sup . re simulation Present industry practice typically uti port geometric information from which generation. lizing multiple models independently require con of documents statistical analysis and information are. suming e orts in maintenance updating and coor not available IFC supported VR systems will pro . dination Valande 2008 vide schematic data that could be analyzed virtu . Interoperability of software has emerged with ally Wang 2014 . substantial improvements in recent years permitting. some exciting developments to aid and assist design Big Data. ers in considering alternatives and identifying advan Some human behaviors during an evacuation have. tageous design decisions The few AECVR tools are not been su ciently understood and require further. most viewers with only limited capabilities for func study to build a connection between the re evac . tions like clash detection foliage and navigation Fu uation and re safety engineering Further increas . ture AEC VR platforms would be a more e ective tool ing this complexity is the non deterministic nature. if safety simulations for re earthquakes and other of human behavior itself which is heavily context . unforeseen disasters can be simulated The Key to in dependent on such aspects as culture education . teroperability of BIM and VR simulation systems will role and dynamics in the society customs and be . need to incorporate1 Computer language program liefs due to which every human being behaves very. ming APIs2 IFC support system di erently from others given the same event and. Computer language programming APIs that link same built context there is a need for visualization of. directly to VRBIM platforms similar to the dynamo not only models in architecture but also Data Data. computational design technology are needed to di visualization has been shown to support highly ab . rect link VR simulation to BIM tools stract multi dimensional analyses Many researchers. Through a combination of computer program look to visualization to support exploration of large. ing and a creation of simulation libraries for human datasets Through a convergence of big data and Vir . behavior and emergency simulation will ease the tual reality simulations can be done based on data. work ow and make safety design more appealing generated from real world situations of re histories . for architects Although most architects will need drills regulations This makes design decisions more. to learn some form of computational programming vivid for architects . this is a more feasible option than simulation through. various third party tools Through computational, programming there is a possibility to create a holis .
VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2 eCAADe 36 831. CONCLUSION Architects Congress , Our analysis of this research concludes that design el Kim Y S Mizuno M and Ohmiya Y 2011 Fire Ex . ements that a ect building safety are beyond the lay amination of Superhigh Rise Apartment Building. Wooshin Golden Suites in Busan Korea Fire Sci , out of the building Uncertainties of the relation of. ence and Technology Vol 30 No 3, building elements to human behavior in evacuation Kim J H Roh S K Hur J H and Kim W H 2004. situations should be minimalized as much as possible Performance based Fire Safety Design for Smoke. and visually analyzed to present various design iter Management System in the Subway Platform Inter . ations and alternatives presenting the best possible national Association for Fire Safety Science. solution for safety Kim M J Wang X Love P Li H and kang S H 2013 Vir . tual reality for the built environment A critical Re . Fire design entails various uncertain elements, view of recent advances Icon Vol 0. and should not be limited to building codes and reg Kinateder M T Kuligowski E D Reneke P A and Peacock . ulation or intuition Experimentation of the dynam R D 2015 BIM based Immersive Evacuation Simula . ics of re and smoke in a virtual environment showed tions Risk perception in re evacuation behavior re . areas of the building that will be most a ected This visited de nitions related concepts and empirical. allowed us to make design changes that assisted in a evidence Fire Science Reviews. Rysanek A Miller C and Schlueter A 2017 A work , faster evacuation design .
ow for managing building information and perfor , Virtual reality technology is still semi automatic mance data using virtual reality an alternative to. to generate the required data to create a virtual re BIM for existing buildings Proceedings of the 15th. with realistic parameters and intelligent agents third IBPSA Conference . party tools were utilized For future re simulations R ppel u and Zadeh P A 2009 BIM based immersive. a real time API with the possibility for VR simulation evacuation simulations digital proceedings. Simeone D Schaumann D and Kalay Y E 2013 Using, with human behavior simulation will be more inter . Game like Narrative to simulate human behavior in. operable making work ow more convenient accu built environment 18th International Conference on. rate and suitable for safety optimization design Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia. CAADRIA 2013 , Tuckera A Marsha K L Gi ordc T Lub X Luhb P B and. AKNOWLEDGEMENTS Astura R S 2018 The e ects of information and haz . This research was supported by a grant 18AUDP ard on evacuee behavior in virtual reality Fire Safety. B127891 02 from the Architecture Urban Devel Journal 99. opment Research Program funded by the Ministry of Vanlande R Nicolle C and Cruz C 2008 IFC and build . Land Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean gov ing lifecycle management Automation in Construc . ernment tion 18 2008 70 78, wang B Li H Rezgui Y Bradley A and Ong H N 2014. BIM Based Virtual Environment for Fire Emergency, REFERENCES Evacuation PubMed.
Coroado L D J Pedro T and Dias M S 2015 VIAR 1 www autodesk com. MODES Visualization and interaction in immer 2 www datasciencecentral com. sive virtual reality for architectural design process 3 www kfpa or kr. eCAADe2015 4 unrealengine com, Hosokawa M Fukuda T Yabuki N and Motamedi A 5 www thunderheadeng com pyrosim. 2016 Intergating CFD and VR for Indoor thermal en 6 www oasys software com. vironment design feedback 21st International Con . ference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Re . search in Asia CAADRIA 2016 , Hyein P and Panya D 2017 Building Safety Design Pro . cess Based On BIM Using VR UIA 2017 Seoul World, 832 eCAADe 36 VR AR VISUALISATION Explorations Volume 2.


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