Belt Conveyors For Bulk Materials Practical Calculations-Books Pdf

Belt Conveyors for Bulk Materials Practical Calculations

2019 | 21 views | 0 downloads | 47 Pages | 1.36 MB

Belt conveyors consist of two powered pulleys with a continuous loop of belting material used to convey products. Belt conveyors are the most economical powered conveyor and are typically used for conveying products over long distances, at high speeds, or for incline/decline applications. This is done with endless




www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION
2 BELT CHARACTERISTICS
3 BELT CONVEYORS BASIC CALCULATIONS
4 CEMA BELT TENSION THEORY
5 TROUGHED BELT CONVEYOR CAPACITIES
6 BELT CARRYING IDLERS OR BELT TROUGHED ROLLERS
7 CEMA TROUGHED IDLERS
8 STANDARD BELT CONVEYOR PULLEYS
9 BELT CONVEYORS ACCESSORIES
10 BASIC DESIGN CRITERIA
11 LOADING OF BELT AND IMPACT ROLLERS
12 BELT CONVEYOR COVERS
13 BELT FABRICATION TYPES
14 INTERNATIONAL ISO STANDARDS
15 EASY SPREADSHEET CALCULATION TABLE
References
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 2 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
BELT CONVEYORS FOR BULK MATERIALS
1 INTRODUCTION
Belt conveyors consist of two powered pulleys with a continuous loop of belting material used to convey
products Belt conveyors are the most economical powered conveyor and are typically used for conveying
products over long distances at high speeds or for incline decline applications This is done with endless
procession of hooks gears buckets and a wide rubber belt The belt is then supported by a series of
rollers along the path
Belt conveyors are an excellent choice for an inexpensive and simple method of moving products from
one point to another Because of the simplicity of the flat moving belt they can be used to move a variety
of product sizes shapes and weights effectively for long lengths with a single drive Belt Conveyors are
also a great option to move products through elevations Incline Belt Conveyors from low to high and
Decline Belt Conveyors from high to low
This manual is short with quick and easy reading paragraphs very practical for calculations of belt chain
conveyors and mechanical miscellaneous in the metric and imperial system The main function however
is to give more informative methods for both experienced professionals and beginners interested in
knowing the dynamics of Material Handling
Material handling equipment is mechanical equipment used for the movement storage control and
protection of materials goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing distribution
consumption and disposal
Material handling equipment include belt conveyors of several models and patterns horizontal vertical
inclined declined with chains or rollers tube type etc Works in warehousing distribution
manufacturing order fulfillment aerospace government military agency automotive parcel Handling
appliances cabinetry furniture food beverage
Note In recent years CEMA Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association and many member
companies have developed computer programs capable of engineering analysis of the most complex and
extensive process for belt and other material conveyor types These programs are more comprehensive
and include more extensive analysis and calculations not included in this short manual
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 3 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
2 BELT CHARACTERISTICS
There are a great range of belt conveyors specially manufactured to perform any carrying application and
to surpass since a simple unit loading to tough conveying industrial conditions See below some of the belt
characteristics and special applications
a Standard Rubber Belts
Standard belts incorporate covers suitable for the handling of most abrasive materials
having a blend of natural and synthetic rubber
b Cut Resistant Belts
Cut resistant belts have a high content of natural rubber recommended for belts operating
under extremely difficult conditions where cutting and gouging of covers may occur
c Heat Resistant Belts
Heat Resistant belts incorporate covers with styrene butadiene recommended for belts
handling materials with temperatures up to 1200 C
d Super Heat Resistant Belts
Super Heat Resistant belts have Chlorobutyl covers recommended for belts handling
materials with temperatures of up to 1700 C
e Fire Resistant Belts
Fire resistant belts are manufactured with covers containing neoprene with multi ply
carcass constructions to meet the maximum standards of safety in underground mines
f Wood Handling Belts
These belts were especially developed non staining for the timber industry compounded to
provide resistance to oil and resin
g Concentrator Belts
Concentrator belts are uniquely applied at gold mine concentrators
h PVC Solid Woven Belts
PVC solid woven belts also known as Vinyplast are manufactured with polyester and
nylon with cotton soaked in armor of PVC and PVC coatings developed to withstand the
impact tear and abrasion as the requirements to meet the most stringent flame resistant
standards
i Food Quality Belts
Food quality belts are manufactured from non toxic materials resistant to oils fats and
staining to meet the hygiene requirements of the food processing industry
j Nitrile Covered PVC Belts
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 4 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Nitrile covered PVC belts were developed for application in mines where the danger of fire
exists and also have properties of flame retardant oil abrasion and heat resistance
k Steel cord Belts
Steel cord belts are generally manufactured for application in long distances conveyors
stiffened with a steel wire inserted within a high quality rubber in order to get exceptional
traction load and material high impact
l Fire Resistant Steel cord Belts
Fire resistant steel cords belts were developed with properties of self extinguishing fire to
offer advantages in free maintenance operations and long life for conveyors situated in fiery
mines
m Oil Resistant Belts
Oil resistant belts are manufactured to provide easily washable linings in nitrile neoprene
or synthetic rubber in all layers allowing ease application in handling of materials
containing vegetable oils and minerals
n Chevron Standard Belts
Chevron standard belts are manufactured with steel tyre cords in a V shape at intervals
over the belt length These belts are generally recommended for standard belting where
difficult conditions are applied i e slag transportation
o Corrugated Sidewall Belts
Corrugated sidewall belts are the most effective ways of elevating materials in a confined
space and less space requirements no transfer point low maintenance and big capacity
commonly used in cement plants coal fired power plants ports and chemical industry
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 5 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
3 BELT CONVEYORS BASIC CALCULATIONS
1 Mass of the Load per Unit Length
Load per unit length Given the production capacity Qt tph the weight of the load per unit length
kg m lbs per ft is calculated by
Wm 2000 Qt or Wm 33 333 Qt lb ft
60 x v v
Q 0 278 Qt or Q Qt Kg m
v 3 600 x v
2 Belt Tensions
In order to find the maximum tension is necessary to calculate the effective tension that is the force
required to move the conveyor and the load at a constant speed The calculation of the total tension is
based on a constant speed of the belt including the necessary basic conditions to overcome the frictional
resistance and tension forces In a basic way the effective tension is composed of
The tension to move with an empty belt Tx
The tension of move the load horizontally Ty
The tension to increase or decrease the load Tz
The tension to overcome the resistance of accessories Tus
The tension to overcome the resistance of scrapers Tuc
a The total tension is
Te T x Ty Tz Tus Tuc
b The tension to move the empty belt is
Tx G x fx x Lc
c The tension to move the load horizontally is
Ty Q Wm x fy x LC
d The tension to lift the load is
Tz Q Wm x H
e The tension needed to overcome the resistance of the skirtboards Tus
T us fs x Q Wm x Ls Kg or T us fs Ls hs lb
vxb
f The tension to overcome the resistance of scrapers Tuc
T uc A x x fc
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 6 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
g Moving trippers require additional pulleys in the system and therefore add a new tension Tut
T ut 0 01 do x T 1
Dt
3 Belt Length Correction Lc
Short belt conveyors require relatively more power to overcome the resistance to friction than long ones
and therefore an adjustment is made to calculate the effective tension
LC L 70 m metric
LC L 230 ft imperial
Therefore the belt length correction is
C Lc
L
All conveyors require an additional belt tension in order to allow the pulley to drive forward an effective
tension without slipping In a case of a simple horizontal conveyor T1 is the sum of the effective tension Te
and the slack side the tension T2
T1 T e T2
For the inclined conveyor additional tensions are induced due
to the mass of the belt on the slope
T 1 T e T 2 Th
Minimum tension to prevent slipping Tm
The relations between T 1 and T 2 are
T1 e
T2
So
T2 1 T e
e 1
The fundamental equation is given by
The Euler s equation T1 T2 e
where
T1 and T2 tight side and slack side tensions at the driving pulley
wrap angle of the belt in radiation
e natural logarithmic Naperian base 2 718
Friction factor
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 7 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Considering the factor K to prevent slipping T m is
T m k x Te
The minimum tension to prevent belt sag between two rolls T s is
Ts Sf x B Q x ld
The slope tension T h is
Th B x H
Table 1 Coefficient of friction between driving pulley and belt of pulley lag
Table 2 Wrap factor k
The final driving power P is calculated with the following formulas
P T e x v metric and P Te x v imperial
75 33 000
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 8 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Table 3 Symbols
Symbol Description Unit Symbol Description Unit
A Contact area of scraper m ft Sf Sag factor See Table
kg m lb ft
B Belt mass per unit length T Unit tension kg m lb ft
See Table
Maximum belt tension
b Width between skirt plates m ft T1 kg lbs
across full belt width
Bc Edge Distance mm in T2 Slack side tension kg lbs
Length correction
C Te Effective tension kg lbs
coefficient
D Material Density kg m lb ft Th Slope tension kg lbs
Minimum tension to
Dt Diameter of pulley mm in Tm kg lbs
prevent slipping
Minimum tension to
do Diameter of pulley bearings mm in Ts kg lbs
limit sag
Tension to overcome
Friction coefficient for
fc See Table Tu resistance of kg lbs
scrapers
accessories
Friction coefficient for Tension to overcome
fs See Table T uc kg lbs
skirtboards resistance of scrapers
Tension to overcome
Friction coefficient for
fx See Table T us resistance of kg lbs
empty belt
skirtboards
Friction coefficient for Tension to move the
fy See Table Tx kg lbs
loaded belt empty belt
G Mass of moving parts kg m lb ft Ty Tension to move the kg lbs
See Table load horizontally
Change in elevation along Tension to lift or lower
H m ft Tz kg lbs
conveyor length the load
depth of the material Wm Mass of load per unit kg m lb ft
hs in
touching the skirt board length
ld Idler spacing carry idlers m ft W Belt width mm in
Belt mass per unit kg m lb ft
k Drive factor See Table Wb
length
Horizontal length of Angle of wrap on the
L m ft radians
conveyor drive radians
Corrected length of Pressure of scraper on
Lc m ft kg m2 lb ft
conveyor the belt
Belt capacity in ton per
Ls Length of skirt board m ft t hr tph
hour
P Absorbed power kW HP Trough angle degree
Material surcharge
Q Mass of load per unit length kg m lb ft degree
angle
Qt Belt Capacity tph v Belt Speed m s fpm
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 9 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Table 4 Material Characteristics
Max
Angle of
Suggested Bulk Density Bulk Density Conveyor
Material Type Surcharge
Grade t m lb ft Slope
degrees
degrees
Aluminium sulphate NA N 0 90 56 20 17
Ammonium sulphate MA N 0 80 50 10 10
Asbestos ore or rock VA N M 1 30 81 20 18
Ashes coal dry MA N 0 60 37 25 23
Ashes coal wet MA N 0 75 47 25 25
75
Ashes gas producer MA N 1 20 30 28
Bark wood NA N 0 24 15 30 27
Bauxite ground dry VA N M 1 10 68 20 18
Bauxite mine run VA N M 1 36 85 20 17
Brick VA N M 1 76 110 30 27
Calcium carbide MA N 1 20 75 20 18
Carbon black pelletized MA N 0 35 22 5 5
Cement Portland NA N PHR 1 50 94 25 20
Cement clinker MA N DHR 1 36 85 25 18
Chalk lumpy MA N 1 30 81 10 15
Chalk 100 mesh and 68
MA N 1 10 25 28
under
Charcoal MA N 0 35 22 25 22
Clay calcined MA N 1 44 90 25 22
Clay fines MA N 1 76 110 20 22
Coal anthracite sized NA N PVC 0 90 56 10 16
Coal bituminous sized NA N PVC 0 80 50 20 16
Coke petroleum calcined VA N M 0 64 40 20 20
Concrete wet VA N M 2 20 137 24 18
Copper ore VA N M 2 17 135 20 20
Copper sulphate VA N M 1 30 81 20 17
Dolomite VA N M 1 60 100 18 20
Earth as dug dry VA N M 1 20 75 20 20
Earth wet with clay MA N 1 70 106 30 23
Feldspar VA N M 1 44 90 25 17
Foundry sand old sand VA M PHR 1 36 85 25 20
cores
Granite broken 75mm
VA N M 1 44 90 10 18
lumps
Graphite NA N 0 65 40 10 15
Gravel pebbles VA N M 1 52 95 10 12
Gypsum dust MA N 1 50 94 20 20
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 10 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Iron ore coarse crushed VA N M 3 00 187 20 18
Iron ore crushed fine VA N M 3 50 218 20 18
Kaolin clay 75mm and
MA N 1 00 62 20 19
under
Lead ores MA N 3 80 237 10 15
Lime hydrated NA N 0 60 37 25 21
Lime pebble MA N 0 90 56 10 17
Limestone agricultural
MA N 1 10 68 10 20
3mm and under
Magnesium sulphate MA N 1 10 68 10 15
Manganese ore VA N M 2 15 134 25 20
Mica ground MA N 0 22 14 20 23
Phosphate ground 50
MA N OR PVC 0 80 20 18
fertilizer
Phosphate rock broken 125
VA N M 2 00 20 18
dry
Phosphate rock 131
VA N M 2 10 25 18
pulverized
Phosphate triple super MA N OR PVC 0 80 50 20 18
Pyrites pellets VA N M 2 00 125 10 15
Potash ore MA N 1 30 81 10 15
Quartz HA S N M 1 36 85 10 15
Rock crushed HA S N M 2 15 134 20 18
Rubber pellets MA N 0 80 50 20 22
Sand bank dry VA N M 1 60 100 20 18
Sand foundry prepared VA N M 1 36 85 30 24
Sawdust NA N OR PVC W 0 20 12 25 22
Sinter VA N M PHR 1 80 112 10 15
Slag blast furnace 85
VA M PHR DHR 1 36 10 10
crushed
Sodium phosphate MA N 0 90 56 10 16
Sugar granulated NA GF 0 83 52 10 15
Sugar raw cane MA N 0 96 60 20 22
Talc powdered NA N 0 90 56 10 12
Titanium ore VA N M 2 40 150 10 18
Vermiculite ore MA N 1 20 75 20 20
Woodchips NA OR W 0 32 20 30 27
Zinc ore crushed HA S M 2 60 162 25 22
Obs Consider point where is the comma Example 0 20 consider 0 20
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 11 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Table 5 Standard Trough Angle and Surcharge Angle Characteristics
Belt Cover Types Typical Flowability
N NH Polyisoprene
Std Surcharge
M Higher natural rubber content Material
Trough or Repose
Characteristics
OR Oil resistant Angle Angle
GF Grey Food 5 0 19 Uniform size
PHR Heat Resistant Round dry medium
10 20 29
weight
SPHR Super heat resistant
Granular lumpy Coal
W Wood master 20 30 34
Clay
DHR Delta Hete heat resistant 25 35 39 Coal stone ores
PVC Polyvinylchloride 30 40 45 Irregular wood chips
FR Fire resistant
Material
abrasiveness
HA S Highly
abrasive sharp
MA Mildly
abrasive
NA Non abrasive
VA Very abrasive
4 CEMA BELT TENSION THEORY
The CEMA procedure can be applied to any conventional troughed conveyor belt However it is advised
that this analysis must be verified by a competent and experienced conveyor designer The general
factors and terms can be used by the following formula
Q 2000 x Qt Kg m or Wm 33 333 x Qt lb ft
V m s v fpm
Wb Belt mass measured in kg m lb ft
Q Wm Material mass on the belt also measured in kg m lb ft
Qt Capacity of conveyor in tons hour t h
Obs The metric formula gives difference in lb ft direct conversion
The tension or force required to move the load horizontally over the conveyor length will depend on the
length of the conveyor the rate of loading and the calculation selection of the factors listed above
a Tension required to carry the load horizontally T hor
T hor L Kt Kx Ky Wb Wm 0 015 Wb
Where
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 12 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
L Conveyor length m ft
Kt Factor Normally this factor is set at 1 0 however a note of caution is required at extreme low
temperatures below freezing because the lubrication selection of the idler bearing becomes critical and
has resulted in failure of some installations
Table 6 Kx Factor Idler resistance and the belt sliding resistance over the idler
Kx 0 00068 Wb Wm Ai lb ft belt length
Si
Ai 1 5 for 6 diameter idler rolls CEMA C6 D6
Ai 1 8 for 5 diameter idler rolls CEMA B5 C5 D5
Ai 2 3 for 4 diameter idler rolls CEMA B4 C4
Ai 2 4 for 7 diameter idler rolls CEMA E7
Ai 2 8 for 6 diameter idler rolls CEMA E6
Ky Factor Is considered to vary between 0 016 and 0 035 The normal selection is 0 022 For the return
belt use a Ky factor of 0 015 throughout Ky factor is a function of belt tension material characteristic
and load shape
b Tension required to lift or lower the load T lift
The tension or force necessary to raise or lower the load through the vertical distance required This
component can be positive or negative according to whether the load is raised or lowered
T lift H x Wm
Where
H Top height or down height of belt conveyor vertical distance m ft
Wm Mass of load per unit length Kg m lb ft
CEMA empirical factors Some of these factors include Idler roller friction Kx belt and load flexure
resistance Ky and skirtboard friction Tsb
c Required HP
To determine the required HP first calculate the belt tension or belt effective pull at specified belt
speed Belt tension Te required to overcome gravity friction momentum and conveyor components
Calculate the using the following formula
Te L Kt Kx Ky Wb 0 015Wb Wm L Ky H Tx Ty T z T us
The final formula components indicated above are
T X Tension to move the empty belt
Ty Tension to move the load horizontally
Tz Tension to lift the load
T us Tension to overcome friction
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 13 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Calculate the power required to drive the belt using
HP Te lb x v fpm imperial or CV Te Kg x v m s metric
33 000 75
Table 7 Sag Factor
Percentage Sag Factor
Sag Sf
3 4 2
2 6 3
1 5 8 4
Table 8 Recommended Sag Percent
Lumps up to
Trough Angle Fine Max Lump
max lump
degree Material Size
size
20 3 3 3
35 3 2 2
45 3 2 1 5
Table 9 Friction Factors
Value of the friction factor
Very well
Normal Normal
aligned
operating operating
structure
conditions conditions
Symbol
No
Description tilted idlers
Horizontal Horizontal
Horizontal
length length
length
up to more than
more than
250 m 250 m
500 m
820 ft 820 ft
1640 ft
Friction coefficient for
fC 0 600 0 600 0 600
scrapers
Friction coefficient for
fS 0 650 0 650 0 650
skirtboards
Friction coefficient for empty
fX 0 022 0 020 0 020
belt
Friction coefficient for loaded
fY 0 027 0 022 0 020
belt
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 14 of 47
www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org
Table 10 Estimated Belt Mass B Wb kg m lb ft
Operating Conditions
Belt Width
Belt Width Light Duty Medium Duty Heavy Duty
mm
in kg m kg m kg m
lb ft lb ft lb ft
500 20 4 1 2 75 6 2 4 16 10 3 6 92
600 24 5 0 3 36 7 4 4 97 12 3 8 26
750 30 6 2 4 16 9 3 6 25 15 5 10 41
900 36 7 4 4 97 11 1 7 46 18 5 12 43
1050 42 8 6 5 78 13 0 8 73 21 6 14 51
1200 48 9 8 6 58 14 8 9 94 24 7 16 60
1350 54 11 0 7 39 16 7 11 22 27 8 18 68
1500 60 12 3 8 26 18 6 12 50 30 9 20 76
1650 66 13 5 9 07 20 5 13 77 33 9 22 78
1800 72 14 7 9 88 22 3 14 98 37 0 24 86
Table 11 Mass of Moving Parts G
Mass of Moving Parts kg m lb ft
Medium Extra Heavy
Light Duty Duty Heavy Duty Duty
Belt Width Belt Width 4 Idlers 5 Idlers 6 Idlers 6 Idlers
mm in Light Belt Moderate Heavy Belt Steel Cord
Belt Belt
450 18 23 15 4 25 16 8 33 22 2
600 20 29 19 5 36 24 2 45 30 2 49 33 0
750 24 37 25 0 46 31 0 57 38 3 63 42 3
900 30 45 30 0 55 37 0 70 47 0 79 53 0
1050 36 52 35 0 64 43 0 82 55 0 94 63 2
1200 42 63 42 3 71 47 7 95 63 8 110 74 0
1350 48 70 47 0 82 55 0 107 72 0 127 85 3
1500 54 91 61 2 121 81 3 143 96 0
1650 60 100 67 2 132 88 7 160 107 5
1800 66 144 96 7 178 119 6
2100 72 168 112 8 205 137 7
2200 84 177 119 0 219 147 2
2012 Jurandir Primo Page 15 of 47


Related Books

Biological Evolution - Astronomy

Biological Evolution Astronomy

Biological Evolution Darwinian Evolution and Natural Selection Major Concepts 1.Linnaean Classification 2.Fossils 3.Radioactive Dating 4.Fossil Record and Genetic Analysis 5.Theory of Evolution Random, Inheritable Variations Natural Selection. 2 6. Examples of Evolution 7. Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium 8. Mass Extinctions 9. Sex and Evolution 10.Timescales 11. Estimate of fi Major ...

Black Anti-Semitism in Twentieth-Century America ...

Black Anti Semitism in Twentieth Century America

Black Anti-Semitism in Twentieth-Century America: Historical Myth or Reality? NICHOLAS C. POLOS There is an old joke about three men asked to write an essay about the elephant. The Englishman writes on "The Elephant and the Brit- ish Empire," the Frenchman on "The Elephant and Love-Making," and the Jew on "The Elephant and the Jewish Question ...

TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: SOME BASIC ISSUES

TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SOME BASIC ISSUES

inventions some centuries later. (P452) The point being that although technological ideas and concepts may exist they may not materialise due to the absence of any of the three conditions mentioned above. Social resources, institution, services, ethos, etc. determine and in time are determined by the development of technology. For instance ...

SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS - Britannica

SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS Britannica

The Britannica Guide to Inventions That Changed the Modern World The Britannica Guide to Theories and Ideas That Changed the Modern World The 100 Most Influential Inventors of All Times The 100 Most Influential Scientists of All Times The Politics of Saving the Environment The Science of Nutrition Spy Agencies, Intelligence Operations, and the People Behind Them Unmanned Space Missions ...

Introduction: Apartheid and American Jews

Introduction Apartheid and American Jews

Notes Introduction: Apartheid and American Jews 1. Dr Martin Luther King stated these ideas in his acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

The Jews of Latin America - Lynne Rienner Publishers

The Jews of Latin America Lynne Rienner Publishers

Jewish life in Latin America began. Iberia Jews lived in the Iberian peninsula when it was a remote province of the Roman Empire. Before 1492, they functioned as a separate caste under Visigoths, Chris-1 1 The Jews of Latin America: The Historical Context

Broken Alliance: The Turbulent Times Between Blacks and ...

Broken Alliance The Turbulent Times Between Blacks and

BROKEN ALLIANCE: THE TURBULENT TIMES BETWEEN BLACKS AND JEWS IN AMERICA. By JONATHAN KAUFMAN. New York, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1988. Pp. 311. When Jesse Jackson first ran for president in 1984, he created hope and a renewed interest in the electoral process for Blacks and disenfranchised people across the nation. At the same time ...

PATIKRINIMO KONTROLINIS KLAUSIMYNAS BENDRINIS

PATIKRINIMO KONTROLINIS KLAUSIMYNAS BENDRINIS

valstybinio darbo inspektoriaus 2012 m. sausio 13 d. ?sakymu Nr. V-12 LIETUVOS RESPUBLIKOS VALSTYBIN? DARBO INSPEKCIJA PRIE SOCIALIN?S APSAUGOS IR DARBO MINISTERIJOS ?KIO SUBJEKTO PATIKRINIMO KONTROLINIS KLAUSIMYNAS BENDRINIS Teritorinis skyrius_____

DDC 23 Summaries History and Current Use

DDC 23 Summaries History and Current Use

DDC 23 Summaries History and Current Use The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is a general knowledge organization tool that is continuously revised to keep pace with knowledge.

Politics and Power in the Multinational Corporation

Politics and Power in the Multinational Corporation

Politics and Power in the Multinational Corporation The current financial and economic crisis has negatively underlined the vital role of multinational companies (MNCs) in our daily lives.