www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. CONTENTS ,1 INTRODUCTION ,2 BELT CHARACTERISTICS . 3 BELT CONVEYORS BASIC CALCULATIONS ,4 CEMA BELT TENSION THEORY . 5 TROUGHED BELT CONVEYOR CAPACITIES ,6 BELT CARRYING IDLERS OR BELT TROUGHED ROLLERS . 7 CEMA TROUGHED IDLERS ,8 STANDARD BELT CONVEYOR PULLEYS . 9 BELT CONVEYORS ACCESSORIES ,10 BASIC DESIGN CRITERIA . 11 LOADING OF BELT AND IMPACT ROLLERS ,12 BELT CONVEYOR COVERS . 13 BELT FABRICATION TYPES ,14 INTERNATIONAL ISO STANDARDS . 15 EASY SPREADSHEET CALCULATION TABLE ,References . 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 2 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. BELT CONVEYORS FOR BULK MATERIALS,1 INTRODUCTION . Belt conveyors consist of two powered pulleys with a continuous loop of belting material used to convey. products Belt conveyors are the most economical powered conveyor and are typically used for conveying. products over long distances at high speeds or for incline decline applications This is done with endless. procession of hooks gears buckets and a wide rubber belt The belt is then supported by a series of. rollers along the path , Belt conveyors are an excellent choice for an inexpensive and simple method of moving products from. one point to another Because of the simplicity of the flat moving belt they can be used to move a variety. of product sizes shapes and weights effectively for long lengths with a single drive Belt Conveyors are. also a great option to move products through elevations Incline Belt Conveyors from low to high and. Decline Belt Conveyors from high to low , This manual is short with quick and easy reading paragraphs very practical for calculations of belt chain. conveyors and mechanical miscellaneous in the metric and imperial system The main function however . is to give more informative methods for both experienced professionals and beginners interested in. knowing the dynamics of Material Handling , Material handling equipment is mechanical equipment used for the movement storage control and. protection of materials goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing distribution . consumption and disposal , Material handling equipment include belt conveyors of several models and patterns horizontal vertical . inclined declined with chains or rollers tube type etc Works in warehousing distribution . manufacturing order fulfillment aerospace government military agency automotive parcel Handling . appliances cabinetry furniture food beverage , Note In recent years CEMA Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association and many member. companies have developed computer programs capable of engineering analysis of the most complex and. extensive process for belt and other material conveyor types These programs are more comprehensive. and include more extensive analysis and calculations not included in this short manual . 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 3 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. 2 BELT CHARACTERISTICS , There are a great range of belt conveyors specially manufactured to perform any carrying application and. to surpass since a simple unit loading to tough conveying industrial conditions See below some of the belt. characteristics and special applications ,a Standard Rubber Belts . Standard belts incorporate covers suitable for the handling of most abrasive materials. having a blend of natural and synthetic rubber ,b Cut Resistant Belts . Cut resistant belts have a high content of natural rubber recommended for belts operating. under extremely difficult conditions where cutting and gouging of covers may occur . c Heat Resistant Belts , Heat Resistant belts incorporate covers with styrene butadiene recommended for belts. handling materials with temperatures up to 1200 C . d Super Heat Resistant Belts , Super Heat Resistant belts have Chlorobutyl covers recommended for belts handling. materials with temperatures of up to 1700 C ,e Fire Resistant Belts . Fire resistant belts are manufactured with covers containing neoprene with multi ply. carcass constructions to meet the maximum standards of safety in underground mines . f Wood Handling Belts , These belts were especially developed non staining for the timber industry compounded to. provide resistance to oil and resin ,g Concentrator Belts . Concentrator belts are uniquely applied at gold mine concentrators . h PVC Solid Woven Belts , PVC solid woven belts also known as Vinyplast are manufactured with polyester and. nylon with cotton soaked in armor of PVC and PVC coatings developed to withstand the. impact tear and abrasion as the requirements to meet the most stringent flame resistant. standards ,i Food Quality Belts , Food quality belts are manufactured from non toxic materials resistant to oils fats and. staining to meet the hygiene requirements of the food processing industry . j Nitrile Covered PVC Belts , 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 4 of 47. www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Nitrile covered PVC belts were developed for application in mines where the danger of fire. exists and also have properties of flame retardant oil abrasion and heat resistance . k Steel cord Belts , Steel cord belts are generally manufactured for application in long distances conveyors. stiffened with a steel wire inserted within a high quality rubber in order to get exceptional. traction load and material high impact ,l Fire Resistant Steel cord Belts . Fire resistant steel cords belts were developed with properties of self extinguishing fire to. offer advantages in free maintenance operations and long life for conveyors situated in fiery. mines ,m Oil Resistant Belts , Oil resistant belts are manufactured to provide easily washable linings in nitrile neoprene. or synthetic rubber in all layers allowing ease application in handling of materials. containing vegetable oils and minerals ,n Chevron Standard Belts . Chevron standard belts are manufactured with steel tyre cords in a V shape at intervals. over the belt length These belts are generally recommended for standard belting where. difficult conditions are applied i e slag transportation . o Corrugated Sidewall Belts , Corrugated sidewall belts are the most effective ways of elevating materials in a confined. space and less space requirements no transfer point low maintenance and big capacity . commonly used in cement plants coal fired power plants ports and chemical industry . 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 5 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. 3 BELT CONVEYORS BASIC CALCULATIONS ,1 Mass of the Load per Unit Length . Load per unit length Given the production capacity Qt tph the weight of the load per unit length. kg m lbs per ft is calculated by ,Wm 2000 Qt or Wm 33 333 Qt lb ft . 60 x v v,Q 0 278 Qt or Q Qt Kg m , v 3 600 x v,2 Belt Tensions . In order to find the maximum tension is necessary to calculate the effective tension that is the force. required to move the conveyor and the load at a constant speed The calculation of the total tension is. based on a constant speed of the belt including the necessary basic conditions to overcome the frictional. resistance and tension forces In a basic way the effective tension is composed of . The tension to move with an empty belt Tx , The tension of move the load horizontally Ty . The tension to increase or decrease the load Tz , The tension to overcome the resistance of accessories Tus . The tension to overcome the resistance of scrapers Tuc . a The total tension is ,Te T x Ty Tz Tus Tuc ,b The tension to move the empty belt is . Tx G x fx x Lc ,c The tension to move the load horizontally is . Ty Q Wm x fy x LC ,d The tension to lift the load is . Tz Q Wm x H , e The tension needed to overcome the resistance of the skirtboards Tus . T us fs x Q Wm x Ls Kg or T us fs Ls hs lb , vxb, f The tension to overcome the resistance of scrapers Tuc . T uc A x x fc , 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 6 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. g Moving trippers require additional pulleys in the system and therefore add a new tension Tut. T ut 0 01 do x T 1 , Dt,3 Belt Length Correction Lc . Short belt conveyors require relatively more power to overcome the resistance to friction than long ones. and therefore an adjustment is made to calculate the effective tension . LC L 70 m metric , LC L 230 ft imperial ,Therefore the belt length correction is . C Lc, L, All conveyors require an additional belt tension in order to allow the pulley to drive forward an effective. tension without slipping In a case of a simple horizontal conveyor T1 is the sum of the effective tension Te. and the slack side the tension T2 ,T1 T e T2 , For the inclined conveyor additional tensions are induced due. to the mass of the belt on the slope ,T 1 T e T 2 Th . Minimum tension to prevent slipping Tm ,The relations between T 1 and T 2 are . T1 e ,T2,So ,T2 1 T e , e 1,The fundamental equation is given by . The Euler s equation T1 T2 e ,where , T1 and T2 tight side and slack side tensions at the driving pulley . wrap angle of the belt in radiation ,e natural logarithmic Naperian base 2 718 . Friction factor , 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 7 of 47. www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Considering the factor K to prevent slipping T m is . T m k x Te , The minimum tension to prevent belt sag between two rolls T s is . Ts Sf x B Q x ld ,The slope tension T h is ,Th B x H . Table 1 Coefficient of friction between driving pulley and belt of pulley lag . Table 2 Wrap factor k , The final driving power P is calculated with the following formulas . P T e x v metric and P Te x v imperial , 75 33 000. 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 8 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Table 3 Symbols ,Symbol Description Unit Symbol Description Unit. A Contact area of scraper m ft Sf Sag factor See Table . kg m lb ft, B Belt mass per unit length T Unit tension kg m lb ft. See Table , Maximum belt tension, b Width between skirt plates m ft T1 kg lbs. across full belt width, Bc Edge Distance mm in T2 Slack side tension kg lbs. Length correction, C Te Effective tension kg lbs, coefficient. D Material Density kg m lb ft Th Slope tension kg lbs. Minimum tension to, Dt Diameter of pulley mm in Tm kg lbs. prevent slipping, Minimum tension to, do Diameter of pulley bearings mm in Ts kg lbs. limit sag, Tension to overcome, Friction coefficient for. fc See Table Tu resistance of kg lbs, scrapers, accessories. Friction coefficient for Tension to overcome, fs See Table T uc kg lbs. skirtboards resistance of scrapers, Tension to overcome. Friction coefficient for, fx See Table T us resistance of kg lbs. empty belt, skirtboards, Friction coefficient for Tension to move the. fy See Table Tx kg lbs, loaded belt empty belt, G Mass of moving parts kg m lb ft Ty Tension to move the kg lbs. See Table load horizontally, Change in elevation along Tension to lift or lower . H m ft Tz kg lbs, conveyor length the load, depth of the material Wm Mass of load per unit kg m lb ft. hs in, touching the skirt board length, ld Idler spacing carry idlers m ft W Belt width mm in. Belt mass per unit kg m lb ft, k Drive factor See Table Wb. length, Horizontal length of Angle of wrap on the. L m ft radians, conveyor drive radians, Corrected length of Pressure of scraper on. Lc m ft kg m2 lb ft , conveyor the belt, Belt capacity in ton per. Ls Length of skirt board m ft t hr tph, hour, P Absorbed power kW HP Trough angle degree. Material surcharge, Q Mass of load per unit length kg m lb ft degree. angle, Qt Belt Capacity tph v Belt Speed m s fpm, 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 9 of 47. www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Table 4 Material Characteristics , Max , Angle of. Suggested Bulk Density Bulk Density Conveyor, Material Type Surcharge. Grade t m lb ft Slope, degrees , degrees,Aluminium sulphate NA N 0 90 56 20 17. Ammonium sulphate MA N 0 80 50 10 10,Asbestos ore or rock VA N M 1 30 81 20 18. Ashes coal dry MA N 0 60 37 25 23,Ashes coal wet MA N 0 75 47 25 25. 75,Ashes gas producer MA N 1 20 30 28,Bark wood NA N 0 24 15 30 27. Bauxite ground dry VA N M 1 10 68 20 18,Bauxite mine run VA N M 1 36 85 20 17. Brick VA N M 1 76 110 30 27,Calcium carbide MA N 1 20 75 20 18. Carbon black pelletized MA N 0 35 22 5 5,Cement Portland NA N PHR 1 50 94 25 20. Cement clinker MA N DHR 1 36 85 25 18,Chalk lumpy MA N 1 30 81 10 15. Chalk 100 mesh and 68, MA N 1 10 25 28,under,Charcoal MA N 0 35 22 25 22. Clay calcined MA N 1 44 90 25 22,Clay fines MA N 1 76 110 20 22. Coal anthracite sized NA N PVC 0 90 56 10 16,Coal bituminous sized NA N PVC 0 80 50 20 16. Coke petroleum calcined VA N M 0 64 40 20 20,Concrete wet VA N M 2 20 137 24 18. Copper ore VA N M 2 17 135 20 20,Copper sulphate VA N M 1 30 81 20 17. Dolomite VA N M 1 60 100 18 20,Earth as dug dry VA N M 1 20 75 20 20. Earth wet with clay MA N 1 70 106 30 23,Feldspar VA N M 1 44 90 25 17. Foundry sand old sand VA M PHR 1 36 85 25 20, cores. Granite broken 75mm, VA N M 1 44 90 10 18,lumps,Graphite NA N 0 65 40 10 15. Gravel pebbles VA N M 1 52 95 10 12,Gypsum dust MA N 1 50 94 20 20. 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 10 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Iron ore coarse crushed VA N M 3 00 187 20 18, Iron ore crushed fine VA N M 3 50 218 20 18. Kaolin clay 75mm and, MA N 1 00 62 20 19, under, Lead ores MA N 3 80 237 10 15. Lime hydrated NA N 0 60 37 25 21, Lime pebble MA N 0 90 56 10 17. Limestone agricultural, MA N 1 10 68 10 20, 3mm and under. Magnesium sulphate MA N 1 10 68 10 15, Manganese ore VA N M 2 15 134 25 20. Mica ground MA N 0 22 14 20 23, Phosphate ground 50. MA N OR PVC 0 80 20 18, fertilizer, Phosphate rock broken 125. VA N M 2 00 20 18, dry, Phosphate rock 131, VA N M 2 10 25 18. pulverized, Phosphate triple super MA N OR PVC 0 80 50 20 18. Pyrites pellets VA N M 2 00 125 10 15, Potash ore MA N 1 30 81 10 15. Quartz HA S N M 1 36 85 10 15, Rock crushed HA S N M 2 15 134 20 18. Rubber pellets MA N 0 80 50 20 22, Sand bank dry VA N M 1 60 100 20 18. Sand foundry prepared VA N M 1 36 85 30 24, Sawdust NA N OR PVC W 0 20 12 25 22. Sinter VA N M PHR 1 80 112 10 15, Slag blast furnace 85. VA M PHR DHR 1 36 10 10, crushed, Sodium phosphate MA N 0 90 56 10 16. Sugar granulated NA GF 0 83 52 10 15, Sugar raw cane MA N 0 96 60 20 22. Talc powdered NA N 0 90 56 10 12, Titanium ore VA N M 2 40 150 10 18. Vermiculite ore MA N 1 20 75 20 20, Woodchips NA OR W 0 32 20 30 27. Zinc ore crushed HA S M 2 60 162 25 22, Obs Consider point where is the comma Example 0 20 consider 0 20 . 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 11 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Table 5 Standard Trough Angle and Surcharge Angle Characteristics . Belt Cover Types Typical Flowability , N NH Polyisoprene. Std Surcharge, M Higher natural rubber content Material. Trough or Repose, Characteristics, OR Oil resistant Angle Angle. GF Grey Food 5 0 19 Uniform size, PHR Heat Resistant Round dry medium. 10 20 29 , weight, SPHR Super heat resistant, Granular lumpy Coal . W Wood master 20 30 34 , Clay , DHR Delta Hete heat resistant 25 35 39 Coal stone ores. PVC Polyvinylchloride 30 40 45 Irregular wood chips . FR Fire resistant, Material, abrasiveness , HA S Highly. abrasive sharp, MA Mildly, abrasive, NA Non abrasive. VA Very abrasive,4 CEMA BELT TENSION THEORY , The CEMA procedure can be applied to any conventional troughed conveyor belt However it is advised. that this analysis must be verified by a competent and experienced conveyor designer The general. factors and terms can be used by the following formula . Q 2000 x Qt Kg m or Wm 33 333 x Qt lb ft , V m s v fpm . Wb Belt mass measured in kg m lb ft , Q Wm Material mass on the belt also measured in kg m lb ft . Qt Capacity of conveyor in tons hour t h , Obs The metric formula gives difference in lb ft direct conversion . The tension or force required to move the load horizontally over the conveyor length will depend on the. length of the conveyor the rate of loading and the calculation selection of the factors listed above . a Tension required to carry the load horizontally T hor . T hor L Kt Kx Ky Wb Wm 0 015 Wb ,Where , 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 12 of 47. www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. L Conveyor length m ft , Kt Factor Normally this factor is set at 1 0 however a note of caution is required at extreme low. temperatures below freezing because the lubrication selection of the idler bearing becomes critical and. has resulted in failure of some installations , Table 6 Kx Factor Idler resistance and the belt sliding resistance over the idler . Kx 0 00068 Wb Wm Ai lb ft belt length , Si,Ai 1 5 for 6 diameter idler rolls CEMA C6 D6 . Ai 1 8 for 5 diameter idler rolls CEMA B5 C5 D5 ,Ai 2 3 for 4 diameter idler rolls CEMA B4 C4 . Ai 2 4 for 7 diameter idler rolls CEMA E7 ,Ai 2 8 for 6 diameter idler rolls CEMA E6 . Ky Factor Is considered to vary between 0 016 and 0 035 The normal selection is 0 022 For the return. belt use a Ky factor of 0 015 throughout Ky factor is a function of belt tension material characteristic. and load shape , b Tension required to lift or lower the load T lift . The tension or force necessary to raise or lower the load through the vertical distance required This. component can be positive or negative according to whether the load is raised or lowered . T lift H x Wm ,Where , H Top height or down height of belt conveyor vertical distance m ft . Wm Mass of load per unit length Kg m lb ft , CEMA empirical factors Some of these factors include Idler roller friction Kx belt and load flexure. resistance Ky and skirtboard friction Tsb ,c Required HP . To determine the required HP first calculate the belt tension or belt effective pull at specified belt. speed Belt tension Te required to overcome gravity friction momentum and conveyor components . Calculate the using the following formula , Te L Kt Kx Ky Wb 0 015Wb Wm L Ky H Tx Ty T z T us . The final formula components indicated above are ,T X Tension to move the empty belt. Ty Tension to move the load horizontally,Tz Tension to lift the load. T us Tension to overcome friction, 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 13 of 47. www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Calculate the power required to drive the belt using . HP Te lb x v fpm imperial or CV Te Kg x v m s metric . 33 000 75, Table 7 Sag Factor , Percentage Sag Factor. Sag Sf, 3 4 2, 2 6 3, 1 5 8 4, Table 8 Recommended Sag Percent . Lumps up to, Trough Angle Fine Max Lump, max lump. degree Material Size, size, 20 3 3 3 , 35 3 2 2 , 45 3 2 1 5 . Table 9 Friction Factors , Value of the friction factor. Very well, Normal Normal, aligned, operating operating. structure , conditions conditions , Symbol, No, Description tilted idlers . Horizontal Horizontal, Horizontal, length length, length. up to more than, more than, 250 m 250 m, 500 m, 820 ft 820 ft . 1640 ft , Friction coefficient for, fC 0 600 0 600 0 600. scrapers, Friction coefficient for, fS 0 650 0 650 0 650. skirtboards, Friction coefficient for empty, fX 0 022 0 020 0 020. belt, Friction coefficient for loaded, fY 0 027 0 022 0 020. belt, 2012 Jurandir Primo Page 14 of 47, www PDHcenter com PDH Course M344 www PDHonline org. Table 10 Estimated Belt Mass B Wb kg m lb ft , Operating Conditions. Belt Width, Belt Width Light Duty Medium Duty Heavy Duty. mm , in kg m kg m kg m, lb ft lb ft lb ft , 500 20 4 1 2 75 6 2 4 16 10 3 6 92 . 600 24 5 0 3 36 7 4 4 97 12 3 8 26 , 750 30 6 2 4 16 9 3 6 25 15 5 10 41 . 900 36 7 4 4 97 11 1 7 46 18 5 12 43 , 1050 42 8 6 5 78 13 0 8 73 21 6 14 51 . 1200 48 9 8 6 58 14 8 9 94 24 7 16 60 , 1350 54 11 0 7 39 16 7 11 22 27 8 18 68 . 1500 60 12 3 8 26 18 6 12 50 30 9 20 76 , 1650 66 13 5 9 07 20 5 13 77 33 9 22 78 . 1800 72 14 7 9 88 22 3 14 98 37 0 24 86 , Table 11 Mass of Moving Parts G . Mass of Moving Parts kg m lb ft , Medium Extra Heavy. Light Duty Duty Heavy Duty Duty, Belt Width Belt Width 4 Idlers 5 Idlers 6 Idlers 6 Idlers. mm in Light Belt Moderate Heavy Belt Steel Cord, Belt Belt. 450 18 23 15 4 25 16 8 33 22 2 , 600 20 29 19 5 36 24 2 45 30 2 49 33 0 . 750 24 37 25 0 46 31 0 57 38 3 63 42 3 , 900 30 45 30 0 55 37 0 70 47 0 79 53 0 . 1050 36 52 35 0 64 43 0 82 55 0 94 63 2 , 1200 42 63 42 3 71 47 7 95 63 8 110 74 0 . 1350 48 70 47 0 82 55 0 107 72 0 127 85 3 , 1500 54 91 61 2 121 81 3 143 96 0 . 1650 60 100 67 2 132 88 7 160 107 5 , 1800 66 144 96 7 178 119 6 . 2100 72 168 112 8 205 137 7 , 2200 84 177 119 0 219 147 2 .

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For their assistance providing data, background information and expertise, the authors are grateful to members of the PIN Panel and Steering Group.