Basic Amp English Amp Grammar Amp Module Amp Unit Amp 3b Independent Amp Learning-Books Pdf

Basic amp English amp Grammar amp Module amp Unit amp 3B Independent amp Learning
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Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. References, Collins Cobuild English Grammar 1990 London. Freeborn D A 1987 A Course Book in English Grammar London Palgrave Macmillan. Garner M 1983 Grammar warts and all River Seine Publications Melbourne. Halliday Matthiessen 2004 An Introduction to Functional Grammar 3rd edn. London Hodder, Leech G Svartvik J 1975 A Communicative Grammar of English Longman. Group Ltd Essex, Murphy R 1991 English Grammar in Use Cambridge University Press. Quirk R S Greenbaum G Leech J Svartvik 1972 A Grammar of. Contemporary English Longman Group UK Ltd Essex, Thompson R A 1991 Sense and System in English Sentences CR Press. Thompson A J A V Martinet 1979 A Practical English Grammar 2nd Edition Oxford. University Press Oxford, Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources.
Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. Introduction, In written academic English we need to be able to show connections between various. sized pieces of text between whole stages of text between paragraphs between. sentences between clauses in a sentence and within clauses. In Unit 3A we looked at Logical Relationships between clauses in a sentence and. between sentences In this Unit we will be concerned with Interdependency. Relationships between clauses in a sentence, You may find this unit helpful if you have been making errors like the following when. you write sentences with more than one clause, Example 1 They have little disposable income Because they are unemployed. Example 2 Changing our lifestyle by doing some exercises and trying to decrease our. bad habits such as smoking, Example 3 There are two aims to the programme That is to do more exercise and. improve our lifestyle, Example 4 Which was a problem in motivation.
Objectives of Unit 3B, After you have completed this section you should be able to. understand the difference between dependent and independent clauses. identify dependent and independent clauses in a sentence. identify when a sentence is not correct because of a dependency problem. recognise and correct this type of problem in a longer text. These are marked with the icon and you should try to complete them before. checking your work in the Answer Key marked, Answer Key to all Exercises. This can be found at the end of the Unit, Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. 1 0 Introduction, In academic writing students need to make statements that are too complex or too. detailed to be expressed in a single clause To do this they need to combine clauses. together in one sentence When they do they set up relationships between the clauses. One of these relationships is a logical one We looked at this relationship in the last Unit. The other is an interdependency relationship It is this relationship we want to examine. in this unit, 1 1 Independent and dependent clauses.
The diagram below illustrates the relationship between sentences and clauses and the. dependency relationships between clauses, Simple Independent. Clause or Main Clause, Subject finite verb, SENTENCE Subordinate or. Dependent clause, finite non finite verb, Complex Independent. Co ordinate Independent and but or, Clause Subject finite. Let s look at each branch of the system in turn so examples can be given. 1 1 1 The independent or main clause, The first branch we will look at is highlighted in bold below.
Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. Simple Independent, Clause or Main Clause, Subject finite verb. SENTENCE Subordinate or, Dependent clause, finite non finite verb. Complex Independent, Co ordinate Independent and but or. Clause Subject finite, A simple sentence contains only one clause and it is an independent clause It is. sometimes called a main clause An independent clause generally must have a subject. and a finite verb, The following is an example of a sentence consisting of only one independent clause.
Coal provides thirty per cent of the world s energy requirements. Subject Finite, If you are not familiar with these terms and need practice in identifying Subjects and. finite verbs refer to Unit 2A, Exercise 1, The following are all simple sentences consisting of one independent clause Underline. the subject with one line and the finite verb with two lines. 1 The country town of Harden is four hundred kilometres from Sydney. 2 These people do not know the rules, 3 The parents ought to be responsible. 4 I see addiction as a psycho social disease, Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. You can now check the answers in the Answer Key at the back of the unit. 1 2 The dependent or subordinate clauses, The second branch we will look at is highlighted in bold below.
Simple Independent, Clause or Main Clause, Subject finite verb. SENTENCE Subordinate or, Dependent clause, finite non finite verb. Complex Independent, Co ordinate Independent and but or. Clause Subject finite, In a complex sentence there is always an independent clause There may also be one or. more subordinate or dependent clauses They are called dependent clauses because. they depend on the main or independent clause to complete their meaning or argument. A finite or a non finite verb can be the main verb in a dependent clause There may or. may not be a subject, The following is an example of a complex sentence consisting of a dependent clause and.
an independent clause, Because the gas lasts for a long time it usually outlives its purpose. Dependent Subject Finite, Because the gas lasts for a long time the gas lasts. Independent, it usually outlives its purpose it outlives. In the above example even though the dependent clause has a subject and a finite verb it. is not independent because it is related to the independent clause by the subordinating. conjunction because Therefore it is dependent on the main clause. Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. Other examples of subordinating conjunctions are summarised in Table 1 below. This is another example of a sentence with an independent and dependent clause In this. example the dependent clause has a non finite verb and no subject. More women are now working to supplement the family income. Independent Clause Subject Finite Non Finite, More women are now working more women are working. Dependent Clause, to supplement the family income to supplement.
Exercise 2, Identify the clauses in the following sentences and then label them either dependent D. or independent clauses I, 1 Exercise induced asthma is particularly troublesome in children because of their high. level of their high level of physical activity, 2 When people stand in the water the flatworms can penetrate the skin. 3 The temperature is reduced so that heat is lost, 4 When a febrile patient receives a tepid sponge their temperature is reduced. 5 If people identify too strongly with their ethnic groups they may not wish to. You can now check the answers in the Answer Key at the back of the unit. 1 3 The co ordinate clauses, Now look at the third branch of the system highlighted in bold below.
Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. Simple Independent, Clause or Main Clause, Subject finite verb. SENTENCE Subordinate or, Dependent clause, finite non finite verb. Complex Independent, Co ordinate Independent and but or. Clause Subject finite, Co ordinate clauses are clauses which are linked to other clauses by one of the co. ordinating conjunctions and but or or They must have a subject and finite verb. The following is an example of a sentence consisting of two co ordinating clauses. They could reduce costs and increase productivity, Independent Subject Finite.
They could reduce costs They could reduce, Independent Co ordinate. and increase productivity They could increase, Notice in this example that the independent co ordinate clause begins with one of the. co ordinating conjunctions and It has a subject which is understood to be they and. a finite verb The possession of a subject and a finite is what makes this clause. independent, Exercise 3, Look at the following complex sentences Do they have co ordinating or subordinating. 1 Factory outwork exploited female workers but during the Depression it was the. only work available, Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. Co ordination Subordination, 2 When girls undertook domestic employment prior to marriage they were.
considered well trained for their major roles in life as a wife and mother. Co ordination Subordination, 3 The findings of the Report disapproved of married women working at all and only. grudgingly gave single women the option to work in factories. Co ordination Subordination, 4 Because people are identifying more strongly with their ethnic groups they are now. more effective politically, Co ordination Subordination. You can now check the answers in the Answer Key at the back of the unit. 2 0 Indicators of a dependency relationship, It is very important in academic writing to be able to recognise a dependent clause so. that when you read over what you have written you can check that you have not written. a dependent clause as if it were a single sentence This is a very common mistake. Recognising a dependent clause is not too difficult because there is usually a signal in. the clause The signal may be any one of the following. 1 Subordinating Conjunctions Simple one word, after al though as because before if once since.
until unless whenever whereas whereby, whereupon while whilst so. Compound more than one word, in that so that in order that. such that except that now that providing that, now that providing that provided that supposing. considering that granting that granted that, given that. Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. assuming that seeing that, as long as as far as as soon as so long as insofar as.
inasmuch as so as so as to, sooner than rather than. as if as though in case, 2 Relative clauses using a wh word where what why how whom when. whether which whose, 3 that e g It is thought that all men are equal. 4 a non finite verb form e g a participle or infinitive. Let s look at each of these indicators in more detail. 2 1 Indicator 1 Subordinating conjunctions, These are summarised in the Table above. You will remember in Unit 3A we showed you that some conjunctions are used to. connect ideas between sentences and some are used to connect ideas between clauses. The conjunctions listed in the Table above are used only to connect ideas between. clauses If they begin a clause they place the clause in a subordinate or dependent. relationship to another clause If a reader sees one of these conjunctions at the. beginning of a clause they immediately look for the independent clause that this clause. depends on, Exercise 4, Some of the following clauses are independent I and can stand by themselves as.
sentences Some are dependent clauses D and cannot stand alone They need to have. the sentence completed by the addition of the main clause that they depend on Identify. the dependent clauses and then correct them by thinking of an independent clause to. complete them, 1 in case the experiment is not completed in time. 2 children imitate their parents in most things, Basic English Grammar Module Unit 3B Independent Learning Resources. Learning Centre University of Sydney This Unit may be copied for individual student use. 3 a dysfunctional family may manifest violent tendencies. 4 as the alcohol tolerance increases over time, 5 before entering the first year of university. 6 the Council should provide a certain portion of capital investment. You can now check the answers in the Answer Key at the back of the unit. 2 2 Indicator 2 Relative clauses, a wh word where what why how whom when whether which whose. These are dependent clauses which begin with one of so called wh words Their very. name relative clause should suggest to you that that they cannot stand by. themselves as independent clauses The information that is contained in a relative. clause is related to the information contained in another clause and can only be. understood in relation to that other piece of information. Relative clauses are a very frequently used type of dependent clause in academic writing. because they are a means of packing more information into one complex sentence For. clauses Ifthey beginaclause they place the clause inasubordinate or dependent relationship to another clause If a reader sees one of these conjunctions at the

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