Balkan Lynx Field Handbook Nina Naturforskning-Books Pdf

Balkan lynx Field handbook NINA naturforskning
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Supported by the Federal Agency of Nature Conservation with. nancial means of the Federal Ministry of Environment Nature Conservation and. Nuclear Safety Federal Republic of Germany The Balkan Lynx Field Handbook is. a part of the Balkan Green Belt project of EURONATUR 2005 KORA. Balkan Lynx Field Handbook, Urs Breitenmoser Christine Breitenmoser W rsten. Paolo Molinari Andreas Ryser Manuela von Arx, Anja Molinari Jobin Fridolin Zimmermann Adrian. Siegenthaler Christof Angst and Jean Marc Weber, 1 Introduction 7. 2 Species information 8, 3 Field signs, 3 1 Tracks movement patterns and associated signs. Roe deer 12, Chamois 14, Red deer 16, Wild boar 18.
Domestic goat 20, Domestic sheep 21, Birds and Lagomorphs 22. Carnivores, Eurasian lynx 24, Wildcat 26, Red fox 30. Golden jackal 32, Brown bear 34, 3 2 1 Assessing the cause of death 38. 3 2 2 Hunting and feeding behaviour of lynx 38, 3 2 3 Distinguishing lynx kills from other kills 42. 3 2 4 Checklist for kill identi cation 51, 4 Collecting documenting and storing lled observations and monitoring data.
4 1 Dead lynx 52, 4 2 Tracks and other eld signs 55. 4 3 Kills 57, 4 4 Chance and second hand observations 61. 5 Field techniques and technical equipment, 5 1 Track transects 62. 5 2 Camera trapping 64, 6 References 68, 7 Appendices. 7 1 Checklist Field material 70, 7 2 Report forms 72.
7 3 Addresses, 8 Empty pages for notes, 1 Introduction. The Field Handbook for the Monitoring information in the eld are skilled and. of Lynx compiles information relevant motivated But personal skills and moti. for the collection of data and observa vation is not enough all members of the. tions from free living lynx This hand monitoring network need to follow the. book was produced to facilitate the same principles and procedures. survey and monitoring of the lynx in The ecological and biological informa. the south western Balkans mainly in tion about the Balkan lynx are extremely. Albania and in the FYR of Macedonia scarce Most of the information on lynx. The lynx from this region is considered presented in this handbook is taken form. an own subspecies Lynx lynx martinoi studies on the lynx done elsewhere in. which is critically endangered The Scandinavia in Poland in the Alps or in. status of the Balkan lynx is not well the Carpathians We assume that the Bal. known but the total size of the popu kan lynx does not strongly differ from the. lation is most likely below 100 indivi Nordic or Carpathian lynx in its basic bi. duals with a decreasing tendency von ological features and in its ecology But. Arx et al 2004 For Albania Zoto it is important to emphasis that this is an. 2000 estimates that the lynx popula assumption and that sub speci c infor. tion had decreased by 50 during the mation on the Balkan lynx are urgently. past 50 years and is today as small as needed What does this mean Each user. 25 individuals Conservation measures of this handbook should remain critical. are urgent but targeted conservation and carefully compare the information. actions can only be implemented if the given in this manual with the observati. distribution and status of the Balkan on she or he makes in the eld and if. lynx is known If once a conservation they differ report back to the authors of. programme is established the monito this handbook, ring of the population must continue so The information presented in this ma. that we know whether the conservation nual were not speci cally produced for. actions are effective and can adjust the this purpose We have taken them from. programme whenever needed various works which are listed in the re. This handbook is not an instruction ferences chapter 6 For more detailed. on how to organise the monitoring information we refer to the original pu. monitoring concepts are outlined in blications which however are mainly in. a special document in the Guidelines English German or French. for the Monitoring of Lynx also pro The authors hope that this little hand. duced for the monitoring workshop for book is useful during the eldwork and. the Balkan lynx hold 15 17 November will eventually help to save the Balkan. 2005 in Mavrovo National Park FYR lynx from extinction Any feedback re. of Macedonia The handbook provi garding errors and completions is wel. des practical information useful in the come, eld A monitoring programme is only. successful if the people collecting the, 2 Species Information. Demography, Mating takes place from February to, mid April Balkan lynx January to Fe.
bruary according to Miric 1981 Males, follow the females to check their repro. ductive status Oestrus lasts about three, days The male accompanies the female. all that time and they copulate often, During this period they also often feed. together on a prey mostly killed by the, female It is occasionally possible to ob. serve the female with the kittens from Female lynx with young just before separa. the last year and the male together du tion in the Swiss Jura Mts. ring the mating season, Birth takes place 67 74 days after con.
ception usually late May early June if, Miric s observation regarding the early. mating season is correct Balkan lynx, could give birth already in April Lit. ter size varies from 1 5 but most often, 2 3 kittens are born A newborn lynx cub. weighs about 300 g Kittens are born in a, well sheltered den that is dry and has only. one to few entrances Kittens are moved, several times to different dens before they.
Five days old lynx kitten in a den well pro start following the mother at their own. tected from weather and predators in a rock, Dens can be found in a rock heap a rock. lair in the Swiss Jura Mountains, lair a rootstock or an earth lair. The female does not bring food to the den, The kittens only start eating meat when. they can follow the female to the kill at, about the age of three months Kittens. stay with the mother until the next mating, season They leave the mother at the age.
of about 10 months in March or April, when they have a weight of 9 14 kg. Young lynx feeding on a kill in September, Land tenure system. The lynx inhabits forested areas in most, of its range Only the Central Asian sub. species L l isabellinus lives in an al, most treeless environment In Europe. the lynx used to live in all types of forest, from the Mediterranean hard leaved fo.
rest to the northern boreal forest Today, the lynx is restricted to the remaining Carpathian lynx resting on a rock in dense. large forest complexes of the continent cover during daytime. Reasons for the recovery of the species, in Europe during the 20th century were. the expansion of forest and the recovery lynx in Europe 180 2780 km for males. of prey roe deer and 98 759 km for females The high. est values were found in the northern or, Lynx are solitarily living animals except mountainous regions of Scandinavia. for females and the young of the year Miric s 1981 estimate of 18 38 km. Both males and females occupy indivi mean 30 km for a Balkan lynx home. dual home ranges territories which range is rather small and needs veri ca. they mark with gland secretion urine tion by means of monitoring methods. and maybe faeces The females choose like radio telemetry. their territories according to prey and ha, bitat resources needed to rise the kittens There is little seasonal variation in the. the males set up their territories to grant home range size of males but females. access to females The home ranges of occupy very small home ranges while. males are larger than those of females nursing kittens late spring to summer. they monopolize one or two rarely more In Scandinavia female lynx roamed. females Consequently home ranges of over 33 100 km during the rst eight. males overlap to a certain extent whe weeks following birth and then exten. reas ranges of females overlap only ded their home ranges gradually until. slightly and sometimes hardly touch winter Mean distances travelled by lynx. In Scandinavia some mothers were ob per night ranged from 1 45 km The. served to have totally overlapping home highest movement activities are obser. ranges with their daughters ved in males during the mating season. Females with kittens usually travel over, Home range sizes vary considerably de short distances When a lynx has a fresh.
pending on habitat type composition of kill it stays in its proximity for several. prey community and availability of prey days The activity pattern is determined. According to the literature individual by sunrise and sunset Lynx are main. home range size ranges from 25 2000 ly active at dusk and at night and rest. km but old estimates were too low during daytime except for the rutting. Studies based on telemetry have brought period when lynx are active also during. precise estimates of home range size of daytime, Feeding ecology. Prey of lynx range from mouse to moo, se Staple prey are small ungulates and. hares The genus Lynx is generally spe, cialised in hunting lagomorphs the Eu. rasian lynx however has evolved into a, hunter of small ungulates in many parts. of its range most prominently in Euro, pe Only in north eastern Europe and.
parts of Siberia mountain hares are the Roe deer is the lynx main prey in most of. main prey From the ungulate guild lynx, select the smallest species roe deer cha. mois or musk deer In northern Scan, dinavia semi domestic reindeer are in. some areas the most frequent prey Red, deer will occasionally moose or wild. boar seldom fall prey to lynx In areas, with low ungulate availability lago. morphs foxes birds and rodents can be, essential prey Lynx diet varies seasonal.
In mountaineous regions chamois is a very, ly small prey and young ungulates are important lynx prey. killed mostly in late spring and summer, The composition of the Balkan lynx. diet is not known some observer howe, ver suppose that hares are an important. A lynx consumes on average 1 2 5 kg, of meat per day Wherever lynx prey on. large ungulates red deer wild boar the, youngest prey category is selected In roe Red fox is the 3rd most important prey in.
deer however which has the same body Switzerland, mass as the predator all age and sex ca. tegories are preyed upon The impact of, lynx on prey populations can strongly. differ from region to region and over, time Lynx do not eradicate their prey. but in marginal habitat or in speci c situ, ations the predation impact can be con. siderably high An increasing number of, scienti c studies on lynx prey relation.
ships show how complex varying and Where ungulates are scarce hares play an. dynamic the system is important role in the lynx diet. At the edge of the roe deer s range in nort, hern Europe lynx killed 30 of the roe. deer population on a yearly basis In Swit, zerland re introduced lynx considerably. reduced roe deer or chamois abundance, in some situations The impact however. changes over time In the north western, Swiss Alps lynx killed only 6 9 of the. estimated roe deer population in the mid, 1980s about ten years later the predation.
impact in the same area was estimated to, be 36 39 In Poland up to 36 of roe Lynx on a killed sheep In countries where. deer and 13 of red deer were taken by the tradition to coexist with large carnivores. was never lost lynx depredation is not consi, lynx The in uence of lynx predation on dered a problem. a local ungulate community depends on, the structure of the prey community age husbandry is typical for regions whe. and sex structure of the ungulate popula re large predators were absent or scar. tion number and social structure of the ce for a long time In the re introduced. lynx population other causes of mortality lynx populations in the Swiss Alps or in. and abiotic factors Lynx show a numeri the French Jura Mountains depredation. cal and functional response to changes in caused severe public con icts although. prey abundance and availability and con the number of sheep killed by lynx was. sequently lynx predation is an important low compared to the total losses to other. factor shaping the density the distributi causes The problem was more psycho. on and the behaviour of the main prey logical farmers had lost the tradition of. species coexistence with large predators and did, not accept the lynx as part of the natural. All reviews of depredation by lynx con system, cluded that livestock losses sheep goats.
poultry to lynx are relatively low com In all European countries were depredati. pared with those to other large predators on by lynx occurs compensation sche. and that in most European countries the mes have been implemented to mitigate. lynx is not regarded as a major problem the con ict with livestock breeders This. to livestock husbandry see Kaczensky is a measure not only meant to support. 1996 1998 1999 This seems also to the acceptance of lynx but also because. be true for the Balkan lynx range coun there is today a general agreement that. tries The exception is Norway where those who live with the large carnivore. the number of sheep killed by lynx has protected by national laws and interna. steadily increased over the past years tional treaties should not need to suffer. and reached some 7 000 10 000 from nancial losses A compensation system. 1996 2001 Depredation on sheep is a with a mandatory examination of cases. Balkan Lynx Field Handbook Urs Breitenmoser Christine Breitenmoser W rsten the lynx used to live in all types of forest from the Mediterranean hard leaved fo rest to the northern boreal forest Today the lynx is restricted to the remaining large forest complexes of the continent Reasons for the recovery of the species in Europe during the 20th century were the expansion of forest and

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