Atomic Structure Homework Packet Honors Chemistry-Books Pdf

Atomic Structure Homework Packet Honors Chemistry
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Name Period Date WS 1,The Atomic model of atom, Complete the sentences using words from the word bank. More than thousand years ago A Greek philosopher named led a group. of scientists now known as atomists These early Greeks thought that the atom was the . possible piece of matter that could be obtained They guessed that the atom was a small . particle and that all the atoms were made of the same material They also thought that. different atoms were different shapes and sizes that the atoms were infinite in number always. and capable of joining together , In 1803 proposed an atomic theory The theory stated that all elements were made of. atoms and that the atoms were and indestructible particles Dalton s theory also said. that atoms of the same element were the same while atoms of different elements were . The theory also said that were made by joining the atoms of two or more elements. together In 1897 J J Thomson discovered a particle even smaller than the atom He named it the. but today we call it the As a result of his discovery Thomson proposed. a new atomic According to Thomson s model the atom was like a plum . it was mostly a thick positively charged material with negative electrons scattered about it like. in a pudding , In 1908 Ernest Rutherford took an extremely thin sheet of and bombarded it with. electrons Much to his surprise most of the electrons went right through the foil and the occasional. was seriously deflected To him this seemed as likely as a baseball going through a. brick wall He theorized that the gold foil must be mostly empty or else the electrons. would bounce off most of the time He figured that the atom was made up of a small dense positively. charged center called the , In1913 Neil Bohr narrowed down the actual location of the electrons Bohr s model was similar to. Rutherford s in that it had a made up of positively charged material Bohr went on to. propose that the negative particles orbited the nucleus much like the planets. the sun Today the atomic model is very similar to Bohr s model The modern atomic. model the Wave model does not have exact orbits like Bohr did Instead the modern model has a. scatter region surrounding the where an will probably but not certainly . be found , On the graphic organizer , summarize and illustrate the features of the atom for each model.
state the problem with each model , Democritus Model 2000 yrs ago Dalton Model 1803 Thomson Model 1897. Features Features Features ,Diagram , Diagram Diagram . Problem , Problem Problem , Rutherford Model 1908 Bohr Model 1913 Wave Model Modern. Features Features Features ,Diagram Diagram , Diagram . Problem Problem , Problem , Atomic Structure WS 2, 1 Complete the following table.
Sub atomic Particles Relative charge Relative mass Location in atom. Proton, Electron, Neutron, 2 Label the parts of an atom on the diagram below . a What type of charge does a proton have , b What type of charge does a neutron have . c What type of charge does an electron have , a Which two sub atomic particles are located in the nucleus . 3 What is the atomic number and mass number in the diagram above . 4 Which of the following statements are true, a Protons have about the same mass as neutrons. b Protons have about the same mass as electrons, c Protons have twice the mass as neutrons.
d Protons have the same magnitude of charge as electrons but are opposite in sign. 5 The atomic number tells you the number of in one atom of an. element It also tells you the number of in a neutral atom of that element . The atomic number gives the identity of an element as well as its location on the Periodic Table . No two different elements will have the atomic number . 6 Name the element which has the following numbers of particles Be specific Include charges and. mass numbers where possible , a 26 electrons 29 neutrons 26 protons. b 53 protons 74 neutrons, 7 What is the mass number of an atom with 3 protons 3 electrons and 4 neutrons . 8 Given the elements name and its mass number give the complete isotopic symbol and the number of. neutrons for the following , Lithium 6 , Iron 58 . mass number p n A, 9 Complete the table There is enough information given for. each element to determine all missing numbers , atomic number p Z.
X, The Atomic number is equal to the number of protons. In a neutral atom the number of protons number of electrons. Atomic Mass,Element Symbol Protons Neutrons Electrons. Number Number,Carbon 6 14, O 8 10,Potassium 19 20. 19 41, 197, 79 ,Tin Sn 50 68,Zinc 64 30, 66 30, 68 30. Cobalt Co 27 32,Boron 5 6, 10 5, 56, 26 Fe, 26 28, What is an ion An ion is a charged particle WS 3.
Determining the number of electrons , The number of electrons in an element can change For a neutral atom the number of protons is exactly equal to the number of. electrons So the number of electrons is the same as the atomic number However it is possible to remove electrons and not. change the identity of an element These are called ions The charge on the ion tells you the number of electrons . If the charge is positive subtract that number from the atomic number to get the number of electrons You have more protons . If the charge is negative add the amount of charge to the atomic number to get the number of electrons You have more electrons . Cations are because they electrons or become more Positive . Anions because they gain electrons or become more negative . Fill out the missing data below , Question Ion Mass Atomic of of p of n of e Lost or. Nucleons Gained, Electrons, 41 1 , 19K, 1, 80 1 , 2 35Br. 25 2 , 12Mg, 3, 22 19, 4 25, 138, 5 La 3 , 6, 127 53 54. 18, 7 15 16, 32, 8 S 2 , 36, 9 34 45, 135 1 , 10 55Cs.
43 36, 11 55, 92 41 36, 12, 6 10, 13 5, 113 3 , 14 49In. 56, 15 Fe 2 , Atomic Structure Bohr s model, Atoms can be represented by Bohr diagrams Bohr diagrams are useful for i better understanding the properties of an. element and for ii predicting how an atom can combine with others . In this model of the atom the electrons travel around the nucleus in well defined circular paths known as. or , Steps for Drawing Bohr Diagrams for use only with the first 20 elements . a Determine the number of electrons to be drawn electrons . b Draw a circle for the nucleus and write the inside. c Draw shells levels around the nucleus The of the element in the. Periodic Table is the number of levels , d Fill the levels with electrons according to the following pattern . e 1st level nearest to the nucleus filled first with a maximum of electrons . f 2nd level filled with a maximum of electrons , g 3rd level filled with a maximum of electrons .
1 Draw the Bohrs diagram for the following elements. a Magnesium, b Chlorine, c Nitrogen, d Calcium, e Silicon. f Flourine, g Argon, 2 Identify the elements whose Bohr model diagrams are represented below Write the names of the. elements in the space provided, a b c d e f , a b c d e f . Average Atomic Mass and abundance of Isotopes WS 4. The atomic mass for each element is reported on the periodic table This number is a weighted. average of the masses of each of the isotopes of an element For example the atomic mass of carbon is. reported as 12 011 amu Carbon is composed primarily of two isotopes carbon 12 and carbon 13 The. atomic mass is calculated from the relative abundance and the masses for these two isotopes Using the. equation below we can calculate the atomic mass for carbon . Atomic Mass isotope 1 mass isotope 1 isotope 2 mass isotope 2 . Sample problem , Carbon 12 makes up 98 93 of all of the carbon atoms while carbon 13 is about 1 07 abundant . Since the carbon 12 isotope is more abundant its mass is weighted more in the calculation of. carbon s atomic mass An example calculation is done below . Isotope Abundance Mass,Carbon 12 98 93 12 000 amu,Carbon 13 1 07 1 3 003 amu.
85 87, 1 Rubidium is a soft silvery white metal that has two common isotopes Rb and Rb If the. 85 87, abundance of Rb is 72 2 and the abundance of Rb is 27 8 what is the average atomic mass of. rubidium Ans 85 56 amu , 2 Uranium is used in nuclear reactors and is a rare element on earth Uranium has three common. 234 235, isotopes If the abundance of U is 0 01 the abundance of U is 0 71 and the abundance of. 238, U is 99 28 what is the average atomic mass of uranium Ans 237 98 amu .
3 The four isotopes of lead are shown below each with its percent by mass abundance and the composition of. its nucleus Using the following data first calculate the mass number of each isotope Then using that as. your mass calculate the average atomic mass of lead . 82p 82p 82p 82p, 122n 124n 125n 126n, 1 37 26 26 20 82 51 55 . Mass , 4 Argon has three naturally occurring isotopes argon 36 argon 38 and argon 40 Based on argon s reported. atomic mass which isotope exist as the most abundant in nature Explain . 5 Calculate the atomic mass of silicon The three silicon isotopes have atomic masses and relative abundances. of 27 9769 amu 92 2297 28 9765 amu 4 6832 and 29 9738 amu 3 0872 . 63 65 63, 6 Copper used in electric wires comes in two flavors isotopes Cu and Cu Cu has an atomic. 65, mass of 62 9298 amu and an abundance of 69 09 The other isotope Cu has an abundance of. 30 91 The average atomic mass between these two isotopes is 63 546 amu Calculate the actual. 65, atomic mass of Cu Ans 64 9278 amu ,4 , Complete the table Isotope Mass amu Relative Abundance .
Neon 20 19 992 90 51, Neon 21 20 994, Neon 22 9 22. Avg Atomic Mass Total , 5 Silver Atomic weight 107 868 has two naturally occurring isotopes with isotopic weights of. 106 90509 and 108 90470 What is the percentage abundance of the lighter isotope . 6 Chlorine is made up of two isotopes Cl 35 34 969 amu and Cl 37 36 966 amu Given chlorine s. atomic weight of 35 453 amu what is the percent abundance of each isotope . 7 Nitrogen is made up of two isotopes N 14 and N 15 Given nitrogen s atomic weight of 14 007 . what is the percent abundance of each isotope , Calculating Frequency Wavelength and Energy WS 5. Wavelength length of a single wave cycle horizontal arrow double sided arrow . Frequency of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time. Speed wavelength x frequency,Equations and constants . E h and E hc E energy of one photon with a frequency of . c c c speed of light 3 0 x 108 m s meters per second . h Planck s constant 6 63 x 10 34 J s, wavelength in meters.
frequency in Hz waves s or 1 s or s 1 , 1 Draw a wave of light with high frequency Draw a wave of light with low frequency. 2 If an X ray machine emits E M R with a wavelength of 1 00 x 10 10 meters what is the frequency . 3 A photon has a frequency of 2 68 x 106 Hz Calculate its energy . 4 A helium laser emits light with a wavelength of 633 nm What is the frequency of the light Hint Convert. nanometers nm to meters by multiplying by 10 9 , 5 A very bright yellow line in the emission spectrum of sodium has a frequency of 5 10 x 1014s 1 Calculate the. wavelength of this yellow light 5 88 x 10 7m, 6 The blue color of the sky results from the scattering of sunlight by air molecules The blue light has a. frequency of about 7 5 x 1014 Hz , a Calculate the wavelength in nm associated with this radiation. b Calculate the energy in joules of a single photon associated with this frequency . 7 A certain electromagnetic wave has a wavelength of 625m a What is the frequency of the wave . What region of the electromagnetic spectrum is it found . 8 The laser used to read information from a compact disk has a wavelength of 780 nm What is the wavelength. of this light Hint Convert nanometers nm to meters by multiplying by 10 9 . 9 A mercury lamp emits radiation with a wavelength of 4 36 x 10 7m . a What is the color of the light from the mercury lamp. b Calculate the frequency of this radiation, 10 Calculate the energy E and wavelength of a photon of light with a frequency of 6 165 x 1014 Hz .
11 Calculate the frequency and the energy of blue light that has a wavelength of 400 nm. 12 Calculate the wavelength and energy of light that has a frequency of 1 5 x 1015 Hz . 13 Rank these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest energy to highest. Gamma Infrared Microwave Radio Visible Ultraviolet X ray. 14 Rank these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest frequency to highest. Gamma Infrared Microwave Radio Visible Ultraviolet X ray. 15 Rank these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum from shortest wavelength to longest. Gamma Infrared Microwave Radio Visible Ultraviolet X ray. 16 What is the relationship between frequency and wavelength Direct or Inverse . 17 What is the relationship between frequency and energy Direct or Inverse . Answers 2 3 00x1018 s 1 3 1 78 x 10 27 J 4 6 00 Hz 5 5 88 x 10 7m 6 4 0 x 102 nm 5 0 x 10 19 J. 7 4 8 x 105 radio 8 3 85 x1014s 1 10 Violet 6 88 x1014s 1 10 4 1x10 19J 4 87 x 10 7m 11 7 5 x 1014 Hz . 4 97 x 10 19 J 12 2 0 x 10 7 m 9 95 x 10 19 J 13 Radio wave Microwave Infrared visible UV Gamma. 14 Radio Microwave Infrared Visible UV ray Gamma 15 Radio Microwave X ray Infrared Visible UV. 16 Wavelength and frequency are inversely Proportional 17 As the frequency increases energy increases . Electron Energy Level and Electron configuration notes WS 6. Bohr s Model , In 1913 Bohr introduced his atomic model based on the simplest atom hydrogen only 1 electron Bohr. proposed that an electron is found only in specific circular paths or orbits around the nucleus . Each electron has a fixed energy an energy level . Electrons can jump from one energy level to another . Electrons can not be or exist between energy levels . A quantum of energy is the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another energy level . The degree to which they move from level to level determines the frequency of light they give off To move from one. level to another the electron must gain or lose the right amount of energy . The Bohr model was tested with the hydrogen element but failed to explain the energies absorbed and emitted by atoms. with more than one electron , Atomic Orbitals , An atomic orbital is often thought of as a region of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron . Region in space where there is 90 probability of finding an electron . Different atomic orbitals are denoted by letters . s orbitals are spherically shaped , p orbitals are dumbell shaped . The number of electrons allowed in each of the first four energy levels are shown here . A maximum of 2 electrons per orbital, Electron Configuration . The ways in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms are called electron. configurations Three rules the Aufbau principle the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund s rule tell you how to find. the electron configurations of atoms , Aufbau Principle According to the Aufbau principle electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first .
Pauli Exclusion Principle According to the Pauli exclusion principle an atomic orbital may describe at most. two electrons To occupy the same orbital two electrons must have opposite spins that is the electron spins. must be paired , Hund s Rule Hund s rule states that electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the. number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible . Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table, The periodic table can be used as a guide for electron configurations . The period number is the value of n i e n 1 n 2 n 3 n 7. Groups 1A and 2A have the s orbital filled , Groups 3A 8A have the p orbital filled . Groups 3B 2B have the d orbital filled , The lanthanides and actinides have the f orbital filled . Energy Levels and Electron Configuration Worksheet WS 6. 1 Explain the difference between a Bohr orbit and a quantum mechanical orbital . 2 What is the difference between the ground state of an atom and an excited state of an atom . 3 List the four possible subshells in the quantum mechanical model the number of orbitals in each subshell and. the maximum number of electrons that can be contained in each subshell . Subshell Orbitals Electrons, s, p, d, f, 4 What is the Pauli exclusion principle Why is it important when writing electron configurations .
5 What is Hund s rule Why is it important when writing orbital diagrams . 6 Write full electron configurations for each of the following elements . Element e Long hand Electron Configuration, Ar, Ge. Kr, Sr, Fr, Po, Pb, Cf, Rn, In, Fm, 7 Draw the full orbital diagrams for each of the following elements and indicate the number of unpaired. electrons in each , Element e Orbital notation, N. O, Ar, Ga, Ca, Zr, 8 Write the short hand noble gas configuration for the following elements . Element e Orbital notation, N, Ba, Zn, Co, I, Cf, Th.
Os, 9 Write electron configurations for each of the following ions What do all of the electron configurations have. in common , F , P3 , Li , Al3 , 9 Explain what is wrong with each of the following electron configurations and write the correct configuration based. on the number of electrons , a 1s42s42p12, b 1s22s22p63s23p63d10. c 1s22p63s2, d 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p3, Review Atomic Structure. 1 Identify the main points of John Dalton s Atomic Theory . 2 Which one of his points was later proven incorrect . 3 Explain illustrate his Plum Pudding Model of the atom . 4 What did Ernest Rutherford contribute to the atomic model . 5 State the law of definite and multiple proportion . 6 What did Bohr contribute to the atom , 7 Illustrate Bohr s model of the atom Draw an example of Bohr s model.
8 What did Schrodinger contribute to the current atom . 9 Which two subatomic particles contribute charge . 10 Which two subatomic particles contribute mass , 11 Do these subatomic particles contribute mass equally . 12 What is an atom s atomic number ,13 What would happen if gold Au lost an electron . 14 What is an atom s mass number ,15 Complete the table below these neutral atoms . Element of protons of neutrons of electrons, Fe 58. Zn 38, Ca 42 20, Mn 25,16 What is an isotope , 17 For each of the following ions indicate the total number of protons and electrons in the ion .
Ion Protons Electrons Neutons Atomic Mass , , Cu 2. 13, 35, 1, Rb 37, O 2, 56 138, 3, P 15 31, 18 How many protons neutrons and electrons are present in the 91Zr 4 ion. 40, 19 How many protons neutrons and electrons are present in the 140Ce 3 ion . 58, 20 How many protons neutrons and electrons are present in the 79Se 2 ion . 34, 21 The abundance of bromine 79 78 9183 amu is equal to 50 69 and the abundance of bromine 81 80 9163.
amu is equal to 49 31 What is the average atomic mass of bromine .

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