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Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Ari Bnb Rsini G Rent And The Housing Crisis In Los Angeles
AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. Table of Contents,Executive Summary 2,Who is AirBnB 4. Early growth and Silicon Valley roots 4,Regulatory uncertainty threatens IPO 5. AirBnB s Political Playbook 6,The AirBnB Ecosystem 8. Hosts and listing types 8,Whole unit listings dominate key AirBnB markets 8. The Los Angeles AirBnB Market 9,High intensity use indicates hotel conversion 10. Hosts with multiple units may be professional management companies 10. The bottom of the AirBnB economy 13,AirBnB s job costs 15. AirBnB and the Housing Market 16, AirBnB creates incentives to take units off the rental market 16. High AirBnB density overlaps with higher rents and lower rental vacancy 18. AirBnB in Los Angeles Neighborhoods 21,Who Can You Trust 22. Public health and safety in hotels 22,ADA compliance and enforcement 23. Strained relations between AirBnB and its hosts 25. Assumption of risk and liability 25, Host guarantee and Peers homesharing liability insurance 27. The Promise of Tax Revenue 28, AirBnB revenue is clustered in established tourist districts 29. Policy and Regulatory Intervention 30,Portland Oregon 30. San Francisco California 32,New York City New York 33. Southern California Cities 34,Principles for Regulating AirBnB 35. Appendix A Revenue Calculation 36,Appendix B Occupancy Rates 36. Endnotes 37,laane a new economy for all 1, AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. Executive Summary, Sharing our homes has been commonplace for If there were negative effects arising from the. as long as there have been spare rooms and transaction they were largely limited to the buyers. comfortable couches Whether through word of and sellers. mouth ads in newspapers or flyers on community, bulletin boards renters and homeowners alike AirBnB changes this basic formula By incentivizing. have always managed to rent out or share rooms the large scale conversion of residential units. in their living spaces These transactions were into tourist accommodations AirBnB forces. decidedly analog but they represented a genuine neighborhoods and cities to bear the costs of its. peer to peer marketplace Websites like Craigslist business model Residents must adapt to a tighter. eventually made connecting sellers to buyers housing market Increased tourist traffic alters. far more common Companies like HomeAway neighborhood character while introducing new. applied the same principle to the vacation home safety risks Cities lose out on revenue that could. rental market allowing owners of vacant homes have been invested in improving the basic quality. to connect with vacationers In all these cases of life for its residents Jobs are lost and wages are. transactions were limited to the buyers and sellers lowered in the hospitality industry. 2 laane a new economy for all, AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. This report seeks to explore the history of AirBnB is twice as fast in AirBnB s nine top neighborhoods. understand how its public pronouncements as in the rest of the city The UCLA Anderson. deviate from observed facts and identify the School of Business considers L A s high cost of. tangible and intangible effects that the company housing a significant drag on job creation. is having on our housing market neighborhood, cohesion and public revenues In Venice as many as 12 5 percent of all housing. units have become AirBnB units all without public, A key component of this report is its analysis of approval There are 360 AirBnB units per square. the AirBnB market in Los Angeles based on a mile in Venice and longtime residents who never. snapshot of AirBnB listings on October 17 2014 intended to live next to hotels now find themselves. Through the application of freely available code dealing with noise and safety concerns that. we have collected a comprehensive set of data negatively impact their quality of life. that includes information on AirBnB hosts prices, listing locations and listing types These data Over 80 percent of the taxes and economic. provide a great deal of insight into the contours activity AirBnB claims to generate likely would. of the company s operations in and effects on Los have come to Los Angeles anyway resulting in. Angeles taxes being paid higher wages being earned and. more money being spent by visitors, First AirBnB s impact on Los Angeles is far larger. than previously understood We identified 8 400 In short AirBnB has become a major player in. hosts and 11 401 AirBnB units listed for rent in Los Los Angeles and is having major impacts often. Angeles negative But Los Angeles is a key market for. AirBnB as well AirBnB is moving toward an Initial, Second these units are not by and large the Public Offering IPO and can only capture the. shared space implied by terms like host or billions of dollars it hopes to if it can address. sharing economy Instead nearly 90 percent of one fundamental fact AirBnB rentals in L A and. AirBnB s Los Angeles revenues are generated by elsewhere are largely illegal. lessors with whole units and leasing companies, who rent out two or more whole units This report argues that as the city begins the. process of crafting a regulatory regime to address. Third AirBnB has created a nexus between tourism the company s proliferation into residential. and housing that hurts renters The 7 316 units neighborhoods any potential policy ought to be. taken off the rental market by AirBnB is equivalent assessed by four key criteria. to seven years of affordable housing construction,in Los Angeles 1 Housing must be protected. 2 Systematic approval requirements must be,AirBnB density overlaps with high median rents. 3 AirBnB must share the burden of, and lower rental vacancy The top nine AirBnB enforcement. neighborhoods have a vacancy rate below the 4 Only true sharing should be allowed. threshold the city uses to deny conversion of,apartments to condominiums. As a whole Los Angeles has seen rental rates grow, three times faster than San Francisco while growth. laane a new economy for all 3, AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. Who is AirBnB, AirBnB sells itself as a platform akin to a community Early growth and Silicon Valley roots. bulletin board However unlike most community, bulletin boards the company takes a percentage AirBnB s early growth focused mainly on large. out of every transaction has centralized control events like the 2008 Democratic National. over all listings and maintains a global scope Convention in Denver and South by Southwest. of operations In other words AirBnB is a hotel in Austin With hotels in these markets at full. company It may be deregulated and decentralized occupancy AirBnB provided a listing service. embedded within countless apartment buildings for individuals with surplus space in their. bungalow courts and leafy suburban streets but homes or apartments to rent out to like minded. the company s primary function is to make a profit travelers After successfully completing these. accommodating guests proof of concept trials Chesky and the other. AirBnB cofounders were invited to participate, According to the story AirBnB tells about its in Y Combinator a Silicon Valley tech start. founding CEO Brian Chesky was unemployed up incubator program that connects budding. when he moved to San Francisco in 2007 A large entrepreneurs with major venture capital investors 2. design conference came to town and Chesky saw, an opportunity to generate a bit of income by The company emerged as a favorite of. renting out an air mattress in his San Francisco loft Y Combinator founder Paul Graham who worked. to conference attendees who could not find an to connect the AirBnB team to his contacts in the. affordable hotel room Chesky and his roommates venture capital world An email exchange published. accommodated three guests and provided them on Graham s personal website with full knowledge. with breakfast Thus AirBed Breakfast now and permission of all parties involved shows that. known as AirBnB was born 1 from a very early stage AirBnB sold itself as both. a hotel competitor and as the foundation of a new, AirBnB s three co founders Nathan Blecharczyk left Brian Chesky center and Joe Gebbia right were added to. Forbes list of billionaires in 2015,4 laane a new economy for all. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. kind of peer to peer marketplace the eBay of major chains like Hilton and Intercontinental The. spaces as Graham wrote to a potential funder company generates revenue by charging hosts a. three percent commission on each booking and, The company touted its revenue stream as by charging travelers a commission of between six. counter cyclical arguing that when the economy and 12 percent thus generating a yield of anywhere. declined as it did while AirBnB pursued its initial between nine and 15 percent in commission for. rounds of financing in 2009 more users would be every booking 6. drawn to the site since they had to pay the rent 3. In other words people would want to rent out Market observers expect AirBnB s successive. rounds of fundraising are a prelude to an Initial,Public Offering IPO However renting out. residentially zoned units as accommodation for, Renting out residentially travelers runs counter to land use regulations and. zoning codes 7 For example a March 2014 memo, zoned units as distributed by Los Angeles Deputy Planning. accommodation for travelers Director Alan Bell states that short term rentals are. runs counter to land use prohibited in single family and lower density multi. family residential zones The memo notes that the, regulations and zoning status of short term rentals in higher density multi. codes family and commercial zones is complex 8,Uncertainty around the legality of AirBnB s core. business model is further compounded by the, their homes because rising housing costs made it fact that the company has not collected the hotel. harder to afford the rent or mortgage As we will related taxes mandated by most jurisdictions. see AirBnB returns to this claim time and time Municipalities have explored a range of regulatory. again to sell its service to residents regulators and options to address the proliferation of illegal hotels. the public As we shall also see the claim is at once in residential neighborhoods Consequently every. misleading and even ironic since AirBnB itself may municipality represents a proving ground for. contribute to those rising costs AirBnB Each time a city normalizes the company s. activities AirBnB becomes a more stable secure, Regulatory uncertainty threatens IPO investment Receiving legitimacy from major. markets like Los Angeles is a critical precondition. Since April 2014 AirBnB has raised nearly 800 to moving into the IPO phase of the company s. million from global investment firms including TPG growth cycle. Capital T Rowe Price and Dragoneer Investment,Group AirBnB has been valued at 13 billion. placing the company in the upper echelons of, the hospitality industry 4 At this valuation AirBnB. has a higher market value than both Hyatt 8 4 Each time a city normalizes. billion and Wyndham 9 3 billion 5 According to the company s activities. media reports the company has been responsible,AirBnB becomes a more. for booking 10 million guest nights since 2008, and its own estimates indicate the company may stable secure investment. have booked more room nights in 2014 than,laane a new economy for all 5. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. AirBnB s Political Playbook, AirBnB has marshaled a sophisticated political Culting s author is Doug Atkin who also happens. operation any time the company has faced even to be AirBnB s Global Head of Community 11 The. symbolic regulatory action 9 This generally involves book is pitched as a way to teach marketers how. packing a room with dozens of hosts Armed with to align themselves with a specific segment of the. compelling stories these hosts detail the ways in population how to attract and keep new members. which renting out their spare rooms has enriched how to establish a mythology about the company. their lives and saved them from economic ruin and how to manage a workforce filled with true. The hosts seem motivated by a combination of believers 12 The central thesis is that companies like. financial self interest and a sincere belief that they Apple Think Different and Nike Just do it. compose a beleaguered community This gives share many characteristics common to cults like the. AirBnB a group of personal heartfelt and therefore Unification Church or the Hare Krishna in that these. effective spokespeople that most corporations can companies form a strong emotional connection. only dream of This is no accident but rather the to their customers and these customers view. result of a sophisticated operation based on a well themselves as a part of a broader community. articulated marketing philosophy laid out in the,book The Culting of Brands How to Turn Customers. into True Believers 10, This picture taken from AirBnB s website highlights the company s core principle of creating a sense of belonging. through its service,6 laane a new economy for all, AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. As Atkin puts it in the conclusion of Culting, We have reached a unique intersection in society that favors marketers. On one side established institutions are becoming increasingly inadequate. sources of meaning and community On the other there has been a growth. of a very sophisticated kind of consumerism Alongside alternative religions. brands are now serious contenders for belief and community A s long as. traditional institutions fail and marketers remain sophisticated then brands. can become credible sources of community and meaning 13. The Culting philosophy is evident in much of,AirBnB s marketing from its founding myth about. the air mattress to its use of hosts as spokespeople. To build up this base AirBnB has hired political,field operatives in addition to contracting with. traditional PR firms A simple LinkedIn search shows. that AirBnB s preference has been for hiring staffers. with experience managing political campaigns,A December 2014 job posting for an AirBnB. community organizer position for example listed,r ecruiting training and managing advocates of. home sharing as the primary job responsibility and. community organizing in political campaign s as, the top desired qualification for the position As is. the case with most jobs on a political campaign the. job listing also notes that the community organizer. will be a temporary position 14,laane a new economy for all 7. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. The AirBnB Ecosystem, AirBnB s success is based on a revenue generating Whole unit listings dominate key. model marked by externalized labor and overhead, costs and centralized low risk control over a proprietary. AirBnB markets, marketplace Exploring the key elements of this AirBnB s marketing and political outreach may center. marketplace sheds light on how the AirBnB system on private and shared room listings but an examination. functions and where the company s internal workings of AirBnB listings in three key markets shows that the. deviate from its public pronouncements company s marketplace is dominated by whole unit. listings 15,Hosts and listing types Figure 1, AirBnB s business model is composed of three elements Percent of Listing Types by City. hosts listings and guests Understanding the variations. among these categories is a necessary step to unraveling. how AirBnB generates revenue AirBnB lists three,different types of units as follows. 1 Whole units An entire home apartment or,other accommodation Host is not present in. the unit during the guest s stay,2 Private rooms A space within a host s home. or apartment with the expectation of some,degree of privacy Host is present in the. unit during the guest s stay In this listing 59,type the guest is essentially a short term. 3 Shared room Guest and host occupy,the same living space with a reduced. expectation of privacy This is the original NEW YORK CITY LOS ANGELES SAN FRANCISCO. airbed or couch surfing model described by the,Whole Units Private Room Shared Room. In all the major markets for which data are available the. number of whole unit listings outweighs the other types. Renting out whole units of listings by a nearly two to one margin and shared. rooms make up an almost negligible portion of the, exacerbates Los Angeles market 16 A breakdown by listing type appears in Figure 1. existing shortfall of rental, options while also creating Understanding the market mix of AirBnB s listings is a. necessary step to gauging the effect the company has. safety hazards and quality of, on residential neighborhoods Renting out whole units. life concerns for Los Angeles exacerbates Los Angeles existing shortfall of rental. neighborhoods options while also creating safety hazards and quality of. life concerns for Los Angeles neighborhoods,8 laane a new economy for all. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. The Los Angeles AirBnB Market, In a recent front page Los Angeles Times article These categories are. exploring AirBnB s effects on neighborhoods, AirBnB reportedly claimed there were roughly o Leasing Companies Lessors listing two or. 4 500 hosts in L A 17 The story did not indicate how more whole units. o Single Lessors Lessors listing a single whole,many units AirBnB claimed to have in Los Angeles. o On Site Hosts Hosts listing private rooms or, In fact this significantly understates the size shared rooms. and scope of AirBnB s operations in the region, According to our data as of October 17 2014 there Figure 2 based on the company s data shows. were more than 8 400 hosts in the Los Angeles that while those who actually share the on site. area nearly twice what AirBnB claimed Even that hosts are in the majority they generate just 11. number understates AirBnB s size We found 11 401 percent of the company s Los Angeles revenue 19. AirBnB lodging units in the Los Angeles hospitality. market 18 single lessors and leasing companies combine. to generate 89 percent of AirBnB s Los Angeles, The categories AirBnB uses to describe its different revenue A full 35 percent of revenue is generated. types of lodgings are somewhat misleading Terms by the six percent of the market that meets our. like host and sharing economy imply a shared definition of leasing companies. space and the presence of the person renting, out the space in all three listing types To better On site hosts listing shared rooms accounted for. understand how the market actually works we have less than one quarter of one percent of AirBnB s Los. developed a different system of categorization to Angeles revenue In terms of revenue generation. more accurately reflect the size type and scope of the spaces which most closely approximate AirBnB s. AirBnB s tourist serving operations earliest days are almost completely eclipsed by the. listings which most closely resemble traditional hotels. Revenue Generation by Listing Agent Type,laane a new economy for all 9. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. High intensity use indicates hotel,conversion,Commercial entities the combination of leasing. companies and individual lessors are responsible, for the most intensively used AirBnB units in the city. Rather than representing surplus capacity in the,housing market listings with hundreds of reviews. present the clearest evidence of the conversion of. residential uses into hotels,For example the most reviewed listing in our. dataset is a Venice Beach guest home with 326,reviews and a minimum stay of two nights 20. In Appendix B we describe how we estimate, This rent controlled Venice apartment building has an. occupancy based on this information AirBnB unit with a 93 percent occupancy rate. These adjusted booking data show this Venice The top 10 most highly reviewed AirBnB units had. guest house was likely to have been booked for average occupancy rates of 66 percent in line with. 1 231 days or 3 4 years 22 The listing s hosts have industry rates While not the most reviewed unit in. been AirBnB members since 2009 meaning this our database one Venice studio had an occupancy. unit had an occupancy rate of 69 percent The rate of 93 percent indicating this rent controlled. average occupancy rate for a limited service hotel unit is a near constantly occupied hotel 24. is 67 8 percent according to PKF Hospitality, Research s 2014 Trends in the Hotel Industry 23 Hosts with multiple units may be. professional management companies,As our category name suggests leasing. companies are not individuals Instead listing,agencies have consolidated AirBnB listings under. an assumed AirBnB host A host going by the name,Ghc is the most prolific host in our Los Angeles. AirBnB database with 78 whole units in a dense,cluster spanning the border between Santa Monica. and Venice Ghc s host page is pictured in Figure,3 25 Ghc is in fact the AirBnB page for Globe. Homes and Condos a company that describes, itself as a full service vacation rental management. company 26,F IGURE reviewed,3 T AirBnBREVIEWED,HE MOST HIGHLY listing in A. IR BAngeles is this,N B LISTING IN L OS,Venice Beach V ENICE. IS THIS B EACH GUEST HOUSE,10 laane a new economy for all. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. Globe Homes owner is Sebastian de Kleer who co market in Los Angeles has become 30 In spite of. founded the Los Angeles Short term Rental Alliance the fact that Danielle and Lexi received a verified. LA STRA with Ari Eryorulmaz of AE Hospitality ID badge on their profile page we have no way of. another leasing company 27 Given its co founders knowing if they had any role in the properties other. it is not surprising that LA STRA is unambiguous than having their photo taken All the listings featured. about supporting the rights of professionals in the on Danielle and Lexi s AirBnB host page were actually. short term vacation rental industry LA STRA s managed by Globe Homes and Condos The Danielle. mission is to to organize and unify the vacation and Lexi host page is pictured in Figure 4. and corporate rental community with the purpose, of being able to influence new developments in Ownership obscured. laws and regulations regarding short term furnished Globe Homes works with property owners to. rentals 28 However in a New York Times piece convert their properties into de facto hotels. profiling the proliferation of illegal hotels in New Tracking down ownership information for these. York City de Kleer was far more succinct saying I units is difficult as AirBnB only releases exact unit. need to be able to compete with the hotels 29 addresses once a booking has been confirmed. However we were able to determine the exact, Before listing themselves as Ghc de Kleer s company address of one of the Globe managed AirBnB. maintained its AirBnB presence under the name properties A search of public records showed the. Danielle and Lexi The case of Danielle and Lexi apartment building located a few blocks off Abbot. is especially instructive in how complex the AirBnB Kinney is owned by Michael Tatum Tatum also. Figure 3 The profile page4forTGlobe,HE H OST P AGE. Homes andFOR G LOBE H OMES AND C ONDOS,laane a new economy for all 11. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. 5 Danielle,D ANIELLEand Lexi,ANDwereLthe,EXIprevious. WEREavatars,THE of Globe Homes,PREVIOUS and Condos on G. AVATARSOF LOBE H OMES,AirBnB AND,C ONDOS ON A IR B N B. owns 19 other properties throughout Los Angeles Michael Tatum is presumably well aware of. and Santa Monica Many of these properties also the limitations the RSO places on Los Angeles. happen to be apartment buildings although to landlords His father Thomas Tatum donated. the best of our knowledge these buildings have 125 000 in support of Proposition 98 a 2008. not been converted into tourist accommodations initiative which would have allowed rent control. Tatum purchased the building on Santa Clara Street units to become permanently market rate after. a low density residential zone in 2009 being vacated by a tenant 32 Thomas Tatum was. also a major backer of Proposition 199 in 1996,Tatum has a contract with Globe Homes and Globe. Homes under the guise of Danielle and Lexi listed,the units within the apartment building through. In spite of the fact that, AirBnB The building has at least five units all of. which are covered by the City of Los Angeles Rent Danielle and Lexi received a. Stabilization Ordinance RSO also called rent verified ID badge on their. control 31 profile page we have no, Renting these units out to transient visitors allows. way of knowing if they had, Michael Tatum to sidestep the tenant protections any role in the properties. bars on eviction and limited rent increases built other than having their photo. into the RSO while collecting a predictable income. stream from tourists,12 laane a new economy for all. AIRBNB RISING RENT AND THE HOUSING CRISIS IN LOS ANGELES. along with his business partner Jeffrey Kaplan The company does not monitor lodgings in any way. Tatum and Kaplan who owned several hundred and relies exclusively on these ratings to determine. mobile home units in California would have the quality of the accommodation on offer 35. benefited greatly from the passage of Prop 199, which was intended to phase out rent control The bottom of the AirBnB economy. protections in mobile home parks 33 By renting, their units out on AirBnB the Tatums have finally AirBnB has argued that its service should be. bypassed the RSO while also providing an legalized on the grounds that it can help ordinary. instructive example of the relationship between people supplement their incomes or remain in their. AirBnB and rising housing costs described later in homes The company has also taken the position. this report that outdated zoning codes are ill suited to. regulate the new tech driven sharing economy,Globe Homes recently retired Danielle and Lexi. as their avatars Nonetheless the Danielle and In this economy AirBnB is a clear winner As of. Lexi case underscores the regulatory complexity October 17 2014 there were 11 401 listings in the. that cities face when trying to enforce zoning and L A region as defined by AirBnB Based on an. housing ordinances at AirBnB units Danielle and analysis of AirBnB listing data and data provided by. Lexi were not ultimately responsible for following the company to the New York Attorney General s. city laws The actual owners of a property need office we estimate the total revenue generated by. never interact directly with the traveling public these units to be 80 million in 2014 alone 36. and AirBnB provides no way to directly contact, a property s owner as opposed to its agents or However our data show the very individuals who. lessees are meant to benefit the most from AirBnB s. service ordinary citizens are more than three, This case also undermines one of the cornerstones times as likely to generate no revenue than hosts. of AirBnB s business model namely that the with multiple listings Analyzing listing data from. company s ratings and identity verification system AirBnB s public facing site shows that 38 percent. are a viable means by which travelers can vet of hosts with a single listing of any type generated. their prospective hosts Danielle and Lexi had a no income whatsoever These hosts have essentially. badge prominently featured on their profile page failed to generate any benefit from listing their. indicating that they had a verified ID but they homes on AirBnB. were at least two degrees of separation away from,the property s actual ownership. Our data show that the very,A recent Boston University study suggests that. AirBnB s ratings are nearly worthless According to individuals who are meant. this study nearly 95 percent of AirBnB properties to benefit the most from. boast an average user generated rating of either AirBnB s service ordinary. 4 5 or 5 out of 5 stars These inflated ratings are. believed to be caused in part by having hosts and,citizens are more than. guests review each other As the New York Times three times more likely to. coverage of this study noted AirBnB guests that generate no revenue than. seem too critical worry they might get turned,hosts with multiple listings. down by future hosts who worry guests will be,too demanding 34.
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Lineare Algebra 2 Sommersemester 2019 Prof. Dr. Annette Huber-Klawitter Fassung vom 20. Juli 2019 Dies ist ein Vorlesungsskript und kein Lehrbuch. Mit Fehlern muss gerechnet werden! Math. Institut 0761-203-5560 Ernst-Zermelo-Str. 1 firstname.lastname@example.org 79104 Freiburg
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