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2 disease management or dh or dt or th fs or monitor or self monitor or manag or self manag or 17940. control or self control or self care or educat or self educat ti ab. 3 exp telemedicine or exp online systems or exp internet or exp cell phones or exp mobile 1269. applications or tele or mobile or mhealth or m health or ehealth or e health or digital or online or. Internet or web or web based or technology or app or apps or application or applet or SMS or text or text. messag or cellphone or cell phone or phone or smartphone or email or virtual or game or game or. gaming or social media or social network or Facebook or Skype or Twitter or Snapchat or Instagram or. LinkedIn ti,4 and 1 3 19,Search for Commercially Available Apps. Databases Searched EBM Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials May 2017. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 to June 20 2017. Health Technology Assessment 4th Quarter 2016,NHS Economic Evaluation Database 1st Quarter 2016. Date searched June 28 2017,Searched by Robin Paynter MLIS. Searches Results, 1 Diabetes Mellitus or Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 or Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or diabet or T2DM or 30897. 2 disease management or dh or dt or th fs or monitor or self monitor or manag or self manag or 591837. control or self control or self care or educat or self educat ti ab. 3 exp telemedicine or exp online systems or exp internet or exp cell phones or exp mobile 21949. applications or tele or mobile or mhealth or m health or ehealth or e health or digital or online. or Internet or web or web based or technology or app or apps or application or applet or SMS or text or. text messag or cellphone or cell phone or phone or smartphone or email or virtual or game or game. or gaming or social media or social network or Facebook or Skype or Twitter or Snapchat or. Instagram or LinkedIn ti,4 and 1 3 683, 5 Diabetes Under Control or DBEES or Glucose Buddy or Diabeo or Diabetes Manager or Mobile 535. Diab or mDiab or mySugr or OneTouch Reveal or Dexcom G5 Mobile or Diabetes Kit Blood Glucose. Logbook or GlucOracle or Glooko or Diabetes M or DiabetesConnect or Sugar Sense or Diabetes and. Blood Glucose Tracker or Diabetes in Check or One Drop for Diabetes Management or Glucose. Companion or Noom Coach or Omada or Diabetes Pal or Track3 or Dario or Glucose Wiz or. Glucose Blood Sugar Tracker Diabetes Companion or Open Diabetes or Health2Sync or Lazysugar or. DiaTouch or HeartSquare or myBG or Sugarmate or Sugar Streak ti ab. 6 or 4 5 1168,7 remove duplicates from 6 1118,8 limit 7 to yr 2008 Current 790. Updated Search,Databases Searched, Ovid MEDLINE R Epub Ahead of Print In Process Other Non Indexed Citations Ovid. MEDLINE R Daily and Ovid MEDLINE R 1946 to Present. Date Searched September 27 2017,Searched by Robin Paynter MLIS. Searches Results, 1 Diabetes Mellitus or Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 or Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or diabet or T2DM or 347211. T1DM or T2D or T1D or NIDDM or IDDM ti, 2 disease management or dh or dt or th fs or monitor or self monitor or manag or self manag or 7964501. control or self control or self care or educat or self educat ti ab. 3 exp telemedicine or exp online systems or exp internet or cell phones or smartphone or text 472541. messaging or exp mobile applications or tele or mobile or mhealth or m health or ehealth or e. health or digital or online or Internet or web or web based or technology or app or apps or. application or applet or SMS or text or text messag or cellphone or cell phone or phone or. smartphone or iphone or ipad or android or email or virtual or game or game or gaming or social. media or social network or Facebook or Skype or Twitter or Snapchat or Instagram or. LinkedIn ti, 4 Accu Check or BlueStar or DBEES or Dexcom or Dario or Diabeo or Diabetes M or Diabetes Me or 458. DiabetesConnect or Diabetes Diary or Diabetes Interactive Diary or Il Diario Interattivo per il. Diabete or Diabetes and Blood Glucose Tracker or Diabetes in Check or Diabetes Kit Blood Glucose. Logbook or Diabetes Manager or Diabetes Pal or Diabetes Under Control or DiaTouch or Gather. Health or Glooko or Glucose Blood Sugar Tracker Diabetes Companion or Glucose Buddy or. Glucose Companion or Glucose Wiz or GlucOracle or Health2Sync or HeartSquare or Health. Coach or Health Coach or Lazysugar or mDiab or Mobile Diab or myBG or mySugr or NexJ. Connected Wellness Platform or Noom Coach or Omada or OneTouch Reveal or One Drop for. Diabetes Management or Open Diabetes or Sugarmate or Sugar Sense or Sugar Streak or Track3 or. WellDoc or WellTang tw kf,5 and 1 3 3162,6 4 or 5 3573. 7 limit 6 to english language 3348,8 limit 7 to yr 2008 Current 2534. 9 limit 8 to comment or editorial or letter or news 140. 10 8 not 9 2394, 11 comprehensive or integrative or systematic adj3 bibliographic or review or literature or meta 350580. analy or metaanaly or research synthesis or information or data adj3 synthesis or data adj2. extract ti ab or cinahl or cochrane adj3 trial or embase or medline or psyclit or psycinfo not. psycinfo database or pubmed or scopus or sociological abstracts or web of science ab or. cochrane database of systematic reviews or evidence report technology assessment or evidence report. technology assessment summary jn or Evidence Report Technology Assessment jn or review adj5. rationale or evidence ti ab and review pt or meta analysis as topic or Meta Analysis pt. 12 and 10 11 161,13 201706 or 201707 or 201708 or 201709 dc 390896. 14 and 12 13 8,15 10 not 12 2233, 16 limit 15 to all adult 19 plus years or young adult 19 to 24 years or adult 19 to 44 years or 918. young adult and adult 19 24 and 19 44 or middle age 45 to 64 years or middle aged 45 plus. years or all aged 65 and over or aged 80 and over,17 remove duplicates from 16 760. 18 201706 or 201707 or 201708 or 201709 dc 390896,19 17 and 18 0. Appendix B Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for,Primary Research Studies. Study Designs INCLUDE Randomized controlled trials nonrandomized controlled trials or other observational. study with a comparator or a registry study,EXCLUDE Pre post studies without a comparator. Populations INCLUDE Entire included population are adults 18 years old diagnosed with type 1 or type 2. diabetes or effects for this population can be distinguished ie through a subgroup analysis. EXCLUDE Children adolescents pregnant women those with pre diabetes or risk factors for. diabetes or gestational diabetes, Interventions INCLUDE Commercially available Web site program or app delivered through a mobile device ie. phone tablet or watch for the purpose of diabetes self management Interventions must include at least. one of the following components,1 Education,2 Data tracking. 3 User provider communication,4 Social support social media. 5 Reminders with the exception of appointment reminders. EXCLUDE Medical devices that do not connect to a mobile phone or tablet ie Glucometer artificial. pancreas texting interventions, Comparators INCLUDE Usual care or other mobile or nonmobile program for diabetes self management no. comparator but part of a registry study,Outcomes INCLUDE All patient outcomes. EXCLUDE Provider outcomes health care system outcomes technology performance outcomes eg. bugs and crash statistics, Timing Setting INCLUDE Any setting any study length only studies published after 2008. Appendix C Study Details, Table C 1 Study details for apps for type 1 diabetes. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome effect size 95 Outcome Measurement. Author Year improvement in CI P value Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator, Glucose Buddy Number 72 With Glucose Buddy Usual care HbA1C Yes p 0 001 from baseline to 9 NA. Kirwan 20131 Age Mean 35 2 ppts manually enter BG which but significant months 6 months of. 6 months Diabetes severity levels insulin dosages includes visit differences at intervention with 3 months. Moderate quality Duration of diabetes years other medications diet to primary baseline so interpret follow up. Australia 18 94 food item in grams and care diabetes with caution I group from 9 08 to 7 80. Mean HbA1c 8 78 physical activity health care vs C group from 8 47 to 8 58. Insulin pump 38 minutes Ppts view data practitioner Diabetes related No p 0 05 Diabetes Empowerment. Key I E criteria on customizable graph every 3 self efficacy questionnaire DES SF. Treated with multiple daily and information reviewed months Self care No p 0 05 Summary of Diabetes Self. injections or insulin pump weekly by certified behaviors Care Activities 6 item. diabetes educator CDE measured which authors,Ppts sent minimum of one included 4 items general. personalized text message diet specific diet exercise. per week by CDE and glucose testing, Quality of Life No p 0 05 Diabetes Quality of Life. Diabetes Number 100 The iBGStar system is a Self HbA1C Yes 0 51 in intervention vs 0 16 NA. Manager Age Mean I group 38 C group BG meter that attaches to monitoring of in control p 0 04. Garg 20172 39 an iPhone as a peripheral blood glucose Hypoglycemic No 21 5 15 5 in intervention Not defined. 6 months Diabetes severity device Using the iBGStar with Accu events vs 25 5 31 0 in control. Low quality Duration of diabetes years with the Diabetes Chek Nano p 0 48. United States I group 25 C group 22 Manager App a user s Training on Hypoglycemia No 1 37 9 9 in intervention hypoglycemia fear score. Mean HbA1c I group 8 0 iPhone can function as a their use was fear vs. C group 7 7 glucometer The Diabetes provided at 3 9 12 5 in control. Comorbidities Manager App provides baseline and p 0 32. BMI I group 27 1 C group personal feedback on reinforced at. 27 3 both overweight SMBG by allowing ppts week 1,Key I E criteria to filter and dynamically. Excluded ppts with history of interact with log book Ppts. severe hypoglycemia in last 6 data graph trends and encouraged to. months view statistics contact,Provider communicated provider as. every 7 14 days needed,throughout study email,All subjects I and C. groups had similar clinic,and phone visits for 3,months with a 3 month. extension for a total of 8,required visits a,screening visit 4 in clinic. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome effect size 95 Outcome Measurement. Author Year improvement in CI P value Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator,visits and 3 phone calls. Dbees Number 63 Intervention was offered Standard HbA1C No median between group NA. Drion 20153 Age Median 33 as an application and a paper diary mmol mol differences IQR 2 6 5. 3 months Diabetes severity personal web portal Usability Yes int only I group rated as 77 out of 100 SUS. Moderate quality Duration of diabetes years 17 linked to application and Quality of Life No median between group RAND 36 health survey. Netherlands Mean HbA1c mmol mol 62 consisted of a digital differences IQR. Insulin pump 66 diabetes diary which Physical component 0 1 1. Comorbidities could manually enter Mental component 1 7 5. retinopathy 25 diabetes related self care Diabetes No median between group Problem Areas in Diabetes. nephropathy 2 data blood glucose emotional distress differences IQR 1 4 2 PAID questionnaire. neuropathy 19 values carbohydrate,Key I E criteria intake medication. Treated with multiple daily physical exercise and,injections continuous notes into the application. subcutaneous insulin infusion,or continuous intraperitoneal. insulin infusion, Diabetes Diary Number 30 This intervention was Diabetes HbA1C CND 0 60 from baseline to 8 NA. Skrovseth 20154 Age Mean 39 70 Diabetes Diary with an Diary app weeks p 0 001 no between. 8 weeks 1st Diabetes severity additional data driven without the group difference in. intervention Mean HbA1c 8 2 feedback module for BG Diastat differences reported. group 10 weeks Key I E criteria self management Diastat feedback. 2nd intervention T1DM 1 year insulin pumps Bluetooth enabled phone module. group were included connected to BG meter, Low quality Excluded if had severe Diastat included last BG. Norway complications attributed to their measurement last insulin Combined Yes Median out of range OOR OOR events combine. diabetes that would render recording and last hypoglycemic and events over 2 weeks 14 5 BGs outside range 72 270. participation unethical or carbohydrate registration hyperglycemic 95 CI 18 0 to 9 0 p mg dl. medically challenging events 0 001, Diabetes Number 130 The Diabetes Interactive Standard HbA1C No 0 4 0 9 in intervention vs NA. Interactive Diary Age Mean I group 35 4 mean Diary DID is a education 0 5 1 in control p 0 68. Rossi 20105 C group 36 1 carbohydrate insulin Lipids Triglycerides Triglycerides NA. 6 months Diabetes severity bolus calculator an mg dl Yes 10 7 56 1 in intervention. Moderate quality Duration of diabetes years information technology vs 8 2 43 4 in control. Italy I group 17 1 C group 15 8 device and a Total cholesterol p 0 04. Mean HbA1c I group 8 2 telemedicine system mg dl No. C group 8 4 based on the Total cholesterol, Insulin pump I group 19 C communication between a HDL mg dl No 3 6 32 3 in intervention vs. group 19 health care professional 2 7 28 9 in control p 0 33. Comorbidities physician or dietitian LDL mg dl No, retinopathy I group 29 C and a participant via text HDL 1 6 8 5 in. group 21 messages It supports intervention vs 4 8 10 3 in. nephropathy I group 5 C participants in managing control p 0 14. group 3 the CHO counting, symptomatic neuropathy I through a food atlas and LDL 3 4 29 1 in. group 9 C group 3 in recording the self intervention vs 0 3 27 6 in. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome effect size 95 Outcome Measurement. Author Year improvement in CI P value Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator, lower limb complications I monitoring blood glucose control p 0 79. group 0 C group 3 SMBG measurements Blood pressure No SBP 0 8 8 6 in NA. Key I E criteria DID suggests the daily mmHg intervention vs 0 7 11 5 in. Multiple daily injections of carbohydrate intake and control p 0 71. short and long acting insulin automatically calculates DBP 1 3 6 5 in. analogs or continuous the most appropriate intervention vs 1 1 7 6 in. subcutaneous insulin infusion insulin dose to be injected control p 0 89. self monitoring BG minimum 3 at each meal All the,times day recorded data are sent to. the physician via SMS,and clinic sends,personalized. recommendations insulin Diabetes Yes 3 4 4 2 in intervention vs World Health. doses activity to treatment 1 4 in control p 0 04 Organization Diabetes. participant s mobile satisfaction Treatment Satisfaction. phone Questionnaire,Weight kg No 0 7 3 6 in intervention vs NA. 1 5 2 3 in control p 0 22,Quality of Life No Physical component score SF 36. Mental component score,Severe No No episodes Requiring assistance. hypoglycemic, Self reported mild No 2 episodes I group 2 No definition provided. hypoglycemia episodes C group p 0 93, Diabetes Number 127 Same as above Standard HbA1C No 0 49 0 11 in intervention NA. Interactive Diary Age Mean I group 38 4 mean education vs 0 48 0 11 in control. Rossi 20136 C group 34 3 p 0 73, 6 months Diabetes severity Fasting Blood No 1 66 12 26 in intervention NA. Moderate quality Duration of diabetes years Glucose mg dl vs 32 28 11 76 in control. Italy I group 16 2 C group 15 0 p 0 07, Mean HbA1c I group 8 4 Glucose No 5 36 6 60 in intervention vs Mean Amplitude of. C group 8 5 variability 5 47 6 40 in control Glucose Excursions. Comorbidities p 0 24, retinopathy I group 16 C Blood pressure No SBP 0 72 1 51 in NA. group 19 mmHg intervention vs 2 00 1 45,symptomatic neuropathy I in control p 0 54. group 2 C group 2 DBP 2 00 0 94 in, other chronic complications I intervention vs 0 16 0 91 in. group 17 C group 16 control p 0 47, Key I E criteria Lipids No Total cholesterol mg dl NA. basal bolus regimen with 3 74 4 36 in intervention. insulin analogs self monitored vs 0 63 4 21 in control. BG measurements at least 3 p 0 47, App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome effect size 95 Outcome Measurement. Author Year improvement in CI P value Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator,times a day, Excluded ppts treated with NPH HDL mg dl 1 09 1 60 in. insulin or soluble regular intervention vs 0 25 1 57. insulin insulin pump or insulin in control p 0 71,regimens other than basal bolus. LDL mg dl 8 27 4 39 in,intervention vs 5 08 4 37 in. control p 0 61,Triglycerides mg dl 0 39,3 82 in intervention vs 6 23. 3 73 in control p 0 22,Weight kg No 0 38 0 38 in intervention NA. vs 0 28 0 36 in control, Diabetes No 0 89 0 89 in intervention vs Diabetes Treatment. treatment 1 97 0 88 in control Satisfaction Questionnaire. satisfaction p 0 39, Grade 1 No Incidence Risk Ratio 1 08 Symptomatic or. hypoglycemia 1 00 1 16 asymptomatic BG 60,mg dl not requiring. medical assistance, Grade 2 Yes Incidence Risk Ratio 0 14 Coma seizure or. hypoglycemia 0 07 0 29 significant neurologic,impairment or required. assistance, Quality of Life No 1 30 1 36 in intervention vs Diabetes Specific Quality. 0 91 1 35 in control of Life Scale, Diabeo Number 180 Diabeo software on Group 1 HbA1C Yes Group 1 vs Group 2 0 67 NA. Charpentier 20117 Age Mean 33 8 smartphone includes control ppts 0 35 0 99 p 0 001. 6 months Diabetes severity prandial insulin dose kept paper Group 1 vs Group 3 0 91. Moderate quality Duration of diabetes 16 4 years advisor which accounts logbooks and 0 60 1 21 p 0 001. France Insulin pump 37 for self monitored BG attended two Group 2 vs Group 3 0 24. Comorbidities carbohydrate counts and follow up 0 08 0 56 p 0 417. retinopathy 30 planned physical activity hospital clinic Quality of life No NR p 0 1271 Diabetes Quality of Life. nephropathy 12 Software recommends visits 3 and 6 Quality of life No Disinhibited eating subset Diabetes Health Profile. clinical neuropathy 11 adjustments in months NR p 0 7872 Questionnaire. Key I E criteria carbohydrate to insulin Psychological distress subset. HbA1c 8 and treated with ratio long acting insulin NR p 0 2447. basal bolus insulin for minimum dose or pump basal rate Barriers to activity subset. 6 months Smartphone with Diabeo NR p 0 5906, software automatically Major CND G1 3 episodes Requiring third party. uploads from phone to hypoglycemic G2 3 episodes assistance. secure Web Site available episodes G3 1 episode, to providers and ppts Minor CND Intervention group did not Symptomatic non severe. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome effect size 95 Outcome Measurement. Author Year improvement in CI P value Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator, 2 intervention groups hypoglycemic differ from control at study self reported by ppt within. Group 2 Diabeo software episodes end 4 6 4 0 14 days before baseline. alone and Group 3 and endpoint visits,Diabeo software and. teleconsultations, Diabeo Ppts of Charpentier study same as above same as HbA1C No High system users decrease NA. Franc 20138 divided into Diabeo system high above HbA1C of 0 5 for both. subgroup users and system low users intervention groups Group 1. analysis of based on median percentage of vs Group 2 and Group 3. Charpentier 20117 informed meals informed meal, which is Moderate defined as meal which Diabeo Low system users decrease. quality system proposed an insulin dose in HbA1C of 0 8 for both. France based on pre prandial BG or intervention groups Group 1. fasting BG physical activity vs Group 2 and Group 3. and expected carbohydrate,consumption,Age median 25 75th. percentile high user 33 vs low,Diabetes severity,Duration of diabetes median. 25 75th percentile high user,17 vs low user 14,Insulin pump NR. Comorbidities NR, BG blood glucose C control CND could not determine DBP diastolic blood pressure HDL high density lipoprotein I intervention I E inclusion exclusion LDL low density lipoprotein. NA not applicable NR not reported PHQ patient health questionnaire ppts participants SBP systolic blood pressure SMBG self monitored blood glucose SUS System Usability Scale. Table C 2 Study Details for apps for type 2 diabetes. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome results Outcome. Author Year improvement in Measurement Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator, mDiab Number 40 Ppts can input data using Conventional therapy HbA1c CND Intervention group NA. Takenga 20149 Age Mean 53 3 in their mobile devices without the use of decreased from 8 67. 2 months intervention mean 53 35 in Android iPhone and telemedicine system to 6 89 Control. Low quality control iPads and or web based group increased from. Democratic Diabetes severity applications App collects 8 59 to 8 6. Republic of Diabetes duration NR information on blood Usability and design Yes intervention Mean 7 out of 10 5 questions assessing. Congo Insulin pump NR glucose insulin intake only intervention only ppt perceptions how. Baseline HbA1c Mean 8 67 sports done with duration often they successfully. for intervention vs 8 59 for BP measurements body used the system how. control weight and size via easy it was to use the. Comorbidities NR manual entry or syncing system and how they. with glucometer Doctors would evaluate the,send therapy plans input output. instructions and visualization and,recommendations to design of the. mobile app or application, email SMS App connects Efficiency and Yes intervention Mean 7 43 out of 10 2 questions assessing. to a web based health therapy satisfaction only intervention only ppt perceptions on. portal which can be whether app motivated,accessed by users them to control BG. doctors and hospital and levels and whether,system administrators feedback from doctors. Acceptance and Yes intervention Mean 8 65 out of 10 NR article says this. appreciation only intervention only measurement was. based on 2 questions,but doesn t say what,those were. Glucose variability CND Standard deviation at Standard deviation of. mg dL follow up was 33 in mean BG,intervention and 48 l6. in control, Connected Number 138 ppts App supports ppts in Ppts received health coach HbA1c No Intent to treat NA. Wellness Age mean 53 2 health related goal setting support in selecting and analysis Intervention. Platform Diabetes severity Diabetes and progress monitoring progressing toward goals control difference of. Wayne 201510 duration NR Ppts manually enter data without access to a study 0 152 P 0 48. 6 months Insulin pump NR communicate with health provided mobile phone or Per protocol analysis. Moderate quality Baseline HbA1c 8 69 in coach at any time via software Intervention control. Canada intervention vs 8 89 in secure messaging and Ppts received health coach difference of 055. control schedule phone contact support in selecting and p 83. Comorbidities NR and or in person meetings progressing toward goals Weight kg CND Intervention group NA. through app without access to a study lost 1 22 35 2 08. provided mobile phone or kg control group,software gained 45 1 33 to. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome results Outcome. Author Year improvement in Measurement Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator,Waist circumference CND Intervention group NA. cm lost 2 23 53 3 93,cm control group,gained 122 1 89 to. BMI kg m2 CND Intervention group NA,lost 21 24 to 66. control group lost 21,68 to 25 kg m2, Life satisfaction CND Intervention group Satisfaction with Life. increased by 3 72 Scale,1 50 5 94 and,control group. increased by 3 77,Depression CND Depression Hospital anxiety and. anxiety Intervention group depression scale,decreased by 1 81. 2 81 to 82 and,control group,decreased by 1 7,2 73 to 67. Anxiety Intervention,group decreased by,1 12 2 29 to 05 and. control group,decreased by 1 5,2 73 to 27,Quality of life CND Physical Intervention SF 12. group increased by,2 69 21 to 5 17 and,control group. increased by 2 92 24,Mental Intervention,group increased by. 2 48 1 1 to 6 05 and,control group,increased 2 82 1 05. Affect CND Negative affect Positive and Negative,Intervention group Affect Schedule. decreased by 2 03 PANAS,4 87 to 8 Control,group decreased by. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome results Outcome. Author Year improvement in Measurement Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator,57 3 55 to 2 41,Positive affect. Intervention group,increased by 1 6 1 to,4 2 Control group. increased by 44 2 3, Gather Health Number 91 ppts System supports self Usual care consisting of HbA1c Yes Using only ppts who NA. Kleinman 201611 Age Mean 48 4 management facilitates free visits laboratory tests had follow up data. 6 months Diabetes severity participant provider and test strips and lancets intervention group. Low quality Diabetes duration Median 10 communication and decreased 1 5 and. India years enables treatment changes control group. Insulin pump NR between visits using decreased 0 8. Baseline HbA1c Mean 9 3 particpant s mobile phone P 0 02 Using all. Comorbidities NR apps and provider web participants and last. portals and mobile phone observation carried,apps forward the. difference was still,significant P 0 045,Using all participants. and imputation from,treatment arm means,the difference was not. significant P 0 06, BlueStar Number 163 ppts Intervention ppts were Usual care UC providers HbA1c Yes for CPDS and CPDS UC favors NA. Quinn 201112 Age mean 52 8 split into 3 groups coach reviewed ppts blood CO No for CPP intervention. 12 months Diabetes severity Diabetes only CO coach PCP glucometer readings and difference of 1 2. Low quality duration 8 2 years portal CPP and coach BG logbooks when made 5 to 1 9 P 001. United States Insulin pump None PCP portal with decision available by ppts and CO UC favors. Baseline HbA1c 9 4 support CPDS All ppts providing care intervention p 027. Comorbidities 76 1 of ppts used mobile phones to accordingly CPP UC no. obese BMI 30 kg m2 record BG difference p 40,Mean PHQ 9 of 5 2 indicating carbohydrates. minimal to mild depression medications and received Blood pressure No SBP NR p 05 NA. 63 2 hypertension algorithm derived DBP NR p 05, 58 3 hypercholesterolemia educational and Lipid profile No LDL NR p 05 NA. motivational messages HDL NR p 05,Virtual case managers Triglycerides NR. intermittently reviewed p 05,data and provided Total cholesterol NR. feedback and participants p 05, could reach out to case Hypoglycemic CND Infrequent in all Not defined. managers In the CO events groups, group providers could Health care CND Hospitalizations NA. receive data from utilization Infrequent in all,participants if they shared groups 1 ppt. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome results Outcome. Author Year improvement in Measurement Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator,it In the CPP and CPDS hospitalized twice in. group providers were for reasons not,trained on accessing data reported in the study. through an online portal ER visits Infrequent,and in the CPDS group in all groups. providers also received Death No No deaths in either NA. quarterly reports group, summarizing participants Diabetes Distress No NR p 05 Diabetes Distress Scale. progress and relevant Diabetes symptoms No NR p 05 Self Completion. evidence based Patient Outcome,guidelines Instrument. Depression No NR p 05 PHQ 9,Adverse events No None reported NA. App Name Participants Intervention Comparator Outcome Significant Outcome results Outcome. Author Year improvement in Measurement Details,Length of Study intervention vs. ROB Assessment comparator, BlueStar Number 118 ppts CPDS above Same as above HbA1c Yes for younger Younger 55 years NA. Quinn 201413 Age 60 of intervention vs and older ppts 1 0 1 8 0 2. subgroup 52 of control were 55 years P 02,analysis for Quinn old. 2011 which is low Diabetes severity Diabetes Older 55 years. quality duration For those 55 years 1 4, 12 months old mean diabetes duration 2 3 0 6 P 001. United States was lower in intervention than,control 6 8 vs 8 9 years For. those 55 years old mean,diabetes duration was higher in. intervention than control 10 3,vs 9 2 years,Insulin pump none. HbA1c For those 55 years,old HbA1c was 9 9 for both. intervention and control For,those 55 years old HbA1c. was 9 8 in intervention vs,8 4 in control,Comorbidities. 61 hypertension,59 hypercholesterolemia,8 coronary artery disease. 12 microvascular,complication, WellTang Number 100 ppts including App provided information Physicians reviewed blood Satisfaction Yes intervention 84 satisfaction rate 1 item where 1 means. Zhou 201614 18 with type 1 and 82 with on diet exercise glucose readings only satisfied and 0 means. 3 months type 2 diabetes medicine blood glucose logbooks and adjusted not satisfied with the. Moderate quality Age mean 55 years in monitoring and medication regimens to use of the application. China intervention vs 53 5 in control summaries of the latest targeted goals once a HbA1c Yes Intervention group NA. Diabetes severity Diabetes guidelines knowledge month changed 1 95 and. duration mean of 6 65 years in Participants could enter control group changed. intervention vs 6 63 in control their self care data blood 79 from baseline. Insulin pump NR glucose values P 0 001, Baseline HbA1c 9 86 in carbohydrate intake Fasting blood Yes 1 89 2 61 in NA. intervention vs 9 76 in medications and other glucose mmol L intervention vs 0 95. control diabetes management 1 54 in control P,Comorbidities information which was 0 01. 40 Hypertension transferred to secure 2 hour post Yes 4 39 4 43 in NA. 20 Hyperlipidemia servers to generate into breakfast blood intervention vs 2 81. 12 Coronary artery disease computer generated glucose mmol L 2 69 control P. logbooks self 0 01,management Blood pressure No SBP Intervention NA. Participants could ask mmHg group decreased from,questions and receive 134 2 19 7 to 132 2.
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