Answer Key Chapter 1 Cengage-Books Pdf

ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1 Cengage
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ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,READING AND NOTE TAKING Section 2 continued. B gathered and also started growing plants,B began taming animals. F located areas around estuaries to live,F developed kilns to make clay pots and metal. IDENTIFY MAIN IDEAS AND DETAILS, Main Idea Archaeologists rely on other specialists to help them locate and. analyze evidence, Detail Geologists study rocks and fossils to understand the environment and.
they study bones to understand diet and health, Detail Radiologists study x ray images to see inside bones and other objects. they cannot see, Detail Geneticists study genes and DNA to relate human ancestry from. prehistoric eras to today, Main Idea Historians use many different kinds of historical sources to. study the past, Detail A primary source is a piece of writing or artifact created by someone. who witnessed or lived through the event, Detail A secondary source is created by someone from a different time than.
the one they are writing about, Detail Oral history is an account of the past in song or story form that is. passed on through spoken words and not written down. VOCABULARY PRACTICE Section 1,TOPIC TRIANGLE, Broad Topic Culture is the sharing of similar behavior ideas and customs. Middle An anthropologist studies cultural development. Narrow Topic An archaeologist analyzes fossils and artifacts. 2 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,VOCABULARY PRACTICE Section 1 continued. PICTURE DICTIONARY,drought a long period of dry hot weather. Illustration dead fish and boat on lake bottom,Sentence Drought may cause lakes to shrink.
land bridge a strip of land that connects two landmasses. Illustration two landmasses connected by a narrow strip of land. Sentence Trapped ice created land bridges, megafauna large animals of a particular region habitat or geological. Illustration a woolly mammoth or saber toothed tiger. Sentence Paleolithic people hunted megafauna for food. migration movement from one place to another, Illustration stick figures facing road sign on right labeled new land road. sign on left says destroyed village, Sentence Human migration has occurred for thousands of years. oasis a fertile place with water in a desert, Illustration palm trees around a small body of water. Sentence An oasis provides water for desert animals. technology application of knowledge tools and inventions to meet. people s needs,Illustration stick figures seated by a fire.
Sentence The control of fire was an early technology. VOCABULARY PRACTICE Section 2,CAUSE AND EFFECT PARAGRAPH. Students paragraphs will vary Students should incorporate the Key. Vocabulary for this activity and use the words correctly They should. conclude their paragraphs with a summarizing sentence. 3 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,VOCABULARY PRACTICE Section 2 continued. WORD CIRCLES, Compare All an account of events Primary Secondary an artifact or a piece of. Contrast Primary created by someone who witnessed or lived through the event. Secondary created by someone who did not witness or live through the event. Oral an unwritten account, Sentence Similar historical sources describe an event Different they may be. created at the time of the event or later and can be written or oral. ACTIVE HISTORY Lesson 1 4,COMPARE PAST AND PRESENT LAND AREAS.
1 Sumatra Java Bali and Borneo were linked Sulawesi and the Philippine Islands. were not linked The oceans separating unlinked islands were so deep that lower. sea levels did not create land bridges there, 2 Possible response Human cultures and plant and animal species could have. moved and spread easily throughout the areas that were connected by land. bridges which would have provided new sources of food and the sharing of ideas. 3 Possible response Island countries will become smaller and smaller in size until. they eventually disappear under the sea level,BIOGRAPHY Lesson 1 1. RICHARD LEAKEY, 1 Leakey decided to pursue a career in archaeology when he found stone tools at. the Koobi Fora site, 2 Students opinions will vary but students should provide reasons for their. opinions Some may suggest the initial finds of stone tools that set him on his. career path others may suggest the 300 skull fragments or Turkana Boy. BIOGRAPHY Lesson 2 3,DAME KATHLEEN KENYON, 1 Kenyon wanted to find out how the settlement started and how it ended.
2 Students answers will vary but might include that she. was meticulous inquisitive and determined, 4 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS,READING LESSON GRAPHIC ORGANIZER. m Sli eig Gro,am he ant t g h un,of eph ges woo htl ed d. ai lly sm to Slo,oo iv el lar U r m n th,W lat ern he 11 te sed ly h am alle s. Re od of t una and a,ar lo r m r t,lea ng mle ot ha.
m e fa 9 ix,t os ve cla ss h n,m tw ll up sa w,a up nd s to. Be et t hed s ba,fe ig sk g,e tu lon rk,ton rve feet. Large animals or megafauna,People migrated and hunted. Became extinct about 11 000,READING LESSON THINK DISCUSS. 1 Both the woolly mammoth and the giant ground sloth were large. animals Humans migrated to different places so they could hunt both. of these animals Because of overhunting or climate change the animals. became extinct 11 000 years ago, 2 Woolly mammoths were a relative of the modern elephant and one.
of the largest megafauna They were between 9 and 11 feet tall and. weighed up to six tons They had long curved tusks The giant sloths were. slightly smaller than the woolly mammoths at about five tons They used. long claws to tear leaves and bark, 3 Answers will vary but students might say that giant ground sloths were. easier to hunt because they were fairly harmless and only ate plants. 5 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS continued. WRITING LESSON THINK AND DISCUSS,Answers to Think and Discuss questions will vary. WRITING LESSON RUBRIC EXPLANATORY WRITING,Development Written. Scale Focus and Unity Organization Voice and Style. of Ideas Conventions,Grammar and,Structure Organizes Content Quality.
Focus Introduces a Reader Engagement Usage Sentences are. the supporting facts Supports the topic, specific topic clearly Fully engages the complete and correct. logically with excellent details, Unity Provides reader with clear Fragments if present. Coherence Uses and relevant evidence logical language Tone is are used intentionally. a concluding,4 statement that, words phrases and using accurate consistent Mechanics. clauses to create credible sources and, follows from and demonstrates an Words and Sentences and Spelling. excellent cohesion, supports the topic understanding of the Establishes and maintains Demonstrates.
among supporting, sentence topic a formal style throughout consistent control with. few or no errors, Focus Introduces Content Quality Reader Engagement. a topic Structure Generally Supports the topic Grammar and Usage. Engages the reader, Unity Provides organizes the facts with adequate details Most sentences are. with some clear logical, a concluding Coherence Uses and relevant evidence complete and correct. language Tone is mostly, 3 statement that words phrases and using accurate consistent Mechanics.
follows from and clauses to create credible sources and and Spelling. demonstrates an Words and Sentences, supports most of good cohesion among Demonstrates control. understanding of the Establishes and mostly, the topic sentence supporting details with minor errors. topic maintains a formal style,Focus Introduces Structure Organizes. Content Quality Reader Engagement Grammar and Usage. a topic that is overly the writing but, Supports the topic Somewhat engages the Some sentences are. general not according to its, with minimal adequate reader with some clear complete and correct.
Unity Provides purpose, details and relevant logical language Tone is Mechanics. 2 a concluding Coherence Uses evidence few credible not consistent and Spelling. statement that some words phrases sources and minimal Words and Sentences Demonstrates little. follows somewhat and clauses to clarify a understanding of the Establishes and mostly control with frequent. from the topic few of the supporting topic maintains a formal style errors. sentence details,Focus Does not,introduce a topic Reader Engagement. Content Quality Grammar and Usage, Unity Does not Structure Lacks Does not engage the. Lacks supporting Errors create a barrier, provide a concluding organization reader with clear logical. details relevant to understanding,statement Coherence language.
1 or provides Supporting details if,evidence and credible. Words and Sentences,Mechanics and,sources Shows little Spelling Errors. a concluding present lack order and understanding of the Words are often vague. create a barrier to, statement that does transitions topic Sentences lack variety and. understanding,not follow from the do not flow together. topic sentence, 6 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning.
ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,FORMAL ASSESSMENT, 7 One way that Paleolithic people adapted was by learning to control. fire which provided warmth and light scared off enemies and allowed. them to cook meat They also developed more sophisticated tools. such as knives for skinning animals and fishhooks made of bone. 8 The paintings demonstrate what was important to particular groups. For example hunting images illustrate the importance of tracking. and killing wild animals for food Some paintings such as those of. the Australian Aborigines reflect the artists spiritual beliefs and the. importance of nature in their lives, 7 Hunter gatherers were nomads who followed herds and primarily. survived by killing wild animals and gathering fruits and nuts Early. farmers began to settle down in fertile areas grow crops and raise. domesticated animals to meet their food needs, 8 Student answers will vary Sample answer A historian might write a. textbook that discussed the migration of early humans throughout the. world This would be an example of a secondary source. CHAPTER TEST A,1 C 6 D 11 C, 7 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,FORMAL ASSESSMENT continued, 14 Beringia provided a land bridge that early people could use to migrate.
from Asia to North America, 18 Yes I think Cro Magnon 1 had developed a culture because he was. found with ornaments and had likely been buried both signs of human. 19 Leakey means that the fossil hunter must be able to recognize a fossil. even if it is only a small part of a bone or is at an odd angle. 20 Fossil hunters rarely find whole bones or skulls so they are looking for. small fragments that are often hidden in dirt,21 It becomes an inheritable genetic marker. 22 By finding out the locations of people with the same markers the. scientist can map early human migration routes, 23 CT scans allowed scientists to see the internal architecture or structure. of Lucy s bones, 24 They may have wanted to determine if Lucy had both characteristics of. earlier human like species and early Homo sapiens, 25 Fossil hunting helps scientists find evidence of early humans.
including fragments of skeletons These finds can be analyzed. visually and by using technologies such as CT scans CT scans show. the inner architecture of bones Scientists can analyze these scans. to gain information such as how early humans walked and the kinds. of activities they may have performed The study of DNA can help. determine people s ancestors and establish the migration patterns of. early humans,CHAPTER TEST B,1 B 6 A 11 A, 8 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1,FORMAL ASSESSMENT continued, 14 According to the map early humans went from Africa to the Arabian. Peninsula across southern Asia to Southwest Asia and then across water. to Australia, 18 Scientists found ornaments made of shells and animal teeth and. indications that Cro Magnons had been purposely buried all of which. indicate the development of a culture, 19 A good fossil hunter has sharp eyes and has a clear image of what a fossil. might look like even if it is only a fragment of a skull or larger bone and. is positioned at an odd angle, 20 Fossils can be hard to spot because they are often only small fragments.
of bone and they may be buried in dirt of the same color and positioned. at odd angles,21 They carry the marker with them, 22 It tells scientists where a person s ancient ancestors lived and what their. migration pattern was, 23 They can tell the internal architecture of the bone. 24 They wanted to learn if she could climb about in trees as well as walk on. two legs on the ground, 25 Fossil hunting helps scientists find evidence of early humans including. fragments of skeletons These finds can be analyzed visually and by using. technologies such as CT scans CT scans show the inner architecture. of bones Scientists can analyze these scans to gain information such. as how early humans walked and the kinds of activities they may have. performed The study of DNA can help determine people s ancestors and. establish the migration patterns of early humans, 9 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 2,READING AND NOTE TAKING Section 1.
SUMMARIZE CULTURAL HEARTHS, A cultural hearth is a place where new ideas technologies and practices. develop and spread,Date from 7400 b c 9 000 years ago. Location Southwest Asia, Housing houses were packed together with flat roofs that served as. walkways connected by ladders to one another people had doors in the. roof of their homes, Food farming livestock and grains hunting and fishing. Religion Art some religious practice existed people created symbolic clay. figures and buried their dead people created pots cloth cups and bone. Technological Advance metallurgy lead and copper, Unusual Fact This community was earliest known settled community of its.
kind in the world,Date 5000 b c 3000 b c,Location China. Housing small houses facing a central square and community center building. Food farming pigs chicken dogs millet hunting and fishing. Religion Art buried their dead with goods such as pottery suggesting. religious beliefs of some kind,Technological Advance pottery silk. Unusual Fact Banpo was a matrilineal society, 1 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 2,READING AND NOTE TAKING Section 1 continued. Date c 4250 b c 2000 b c,Location Mesoamerica, Housing moved from place to place seasonally not in settled communities.
or housing until the later period,Food farming maize. Technological Advance stone tools domesticating maize. Unusual Fact Corn originated from a grass called teosinte and after. hundreds of years of domestication came to look like modern corn. Date from 5200 b c,Location North Africa, Housing postholes for building foundations clay floors and fireplaces. Food farming products borrowed from neighboring cultures wheat and. barley sheep and pigs, Technological Advance borrowing practices from many other widespread. cultures establishing the Nile River Valley as an important cultural hearth. Unusual Fact The Sahara was a tropical grassland 10 000 years ago. READING AND NOTE TAKING Section 2,CATEGORIZE TRAITS OF CIVILIZATION. Cities large population centers that were centers of cultural political and. economic development Ur one of the busiest cities and trading posts in the world. Complex Institutions a way of organizing societies and ways of behaving. government religion, Specialized Workers the creation because of food surpluses of other jobs.
than farming weaving toolmaking teacher soldier, Record Keeping a way of managing and keeping track of information. scribes writing and calendar creations, Improved Technology more complex societies develop more complex tools. the plow wheel metalworking, 2 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 2,READING AND NOTE TAKING Section 2 continued. FORM AND SUPPORT OPINIONS, Farming need for food belief that gods impact good harvests religion.
Religion need for a place for people to gather need to feed a lot of. people farming, Answers will vary but students should support opinions with evidence from. VOCABULARY PRACTICE Section 1,COMPARISON CHART, clan a group of families that shares a common ancestor. matrilineal relating to descendants traced through the mother. How related Matrilineal describes a clan whose members are related. through their mothers,DEFINITION CHART, cultural diffusion the process by which cultures interact and ideas spread. from one area to another,Sample the spread of ideas from place to place. cultural hearth a place from which new ideas practices and technology. Sample New ideas come from a cultural hearth, maize a type of corn first domesticated by early Mesoamericans.
Sample corn that Mesoamericans first grew, metallurgy the science of obtaining metals in their natural form and. preparing them for use,Sample preparing metals for use. staple a main crop produced in a specific place,Sample a basic crop. surplus more than is required or necessary extra,Sample something extra. 3 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 2,VOCABULARY PRACTICE Section 2.
DEFINITION TREE, civilization a society with a highly developed culture and technology. Sentence Agriculture is a characteristic of civilization. religion the belief in and worship of one or more gods and goddesses. Sentence Religion is an important part of civilization. temple a place of worship,Sentence Some people go to a temple to pray. EXPOSITORY PARAGRAPH, Students paragraphs will vary Students paragraphs should incorporate the. Key Vocabulary for this activity and use the words correctly Students. paragraphs should conclude with a summarizing sentence. ACTIVE HISTORY Lesson 2 2,ANALYZE AN ANCIENT CALENDAR. 1 The sun rises from the northeast on the summer solstice The sun sets in. the southwest on the winter solstice, 2 The winter solstice sunset is directly opposite the summer solstice.
sunrise because Earth is in directly opposite positions in its path around. the sun on those two days, 3 Possible response People lived by farming and relied on the weather By. keeping track of the seasons they would have a good idea of when to. plant crops,BIOGRAPHY Lesson 1 2,JAMES MELLAART, 1 Mellaart s work with ancient artifacts in the National Museum of. Antiquities sparked his interest in archaeology, 2 Students answers will vary but might indicate that the findings provide. people with knowledge about early people and the way they lived and. the advancements that were made over the years, 4 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 2,SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS,READING LESSON TAKING NOTES.
The agricultural practices used at Faiyum were not. native to the Nile River Valley,People from neighboring cultures introduced. new farming practices,Grains of wheat and barley found at Faiyum came. from across the Mediterranean Sea or Sinai Desert,People from these areas probably brought the. domesticated grains to the Nile River Valley,READING LESSON THINK DISCUSS. 1 The main idea is in the first sentence,2 The supporting details follow the main idea.
3 The details support the idea that the agricultural practices used at. Faiyum were not native to the Nile River Valley, 5 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning. ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 2,SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS continued. WRITING LESSON THINK AND DISCUSS,Answers to Think and Discuss questions will vary. WRITING LESSON RUBRIC EXPLANATORY WRITING,Development Written. Scale Focus and Unity Organization Voice and Style. of Ideas Conventions, Focus Provides a Structure Organizes Content Quality Reader Engagement Grammar and.
clear thesis statement the information about Supports thesis Fully engages the Usage Sentences are. that completely the topic logically with excellent reader with clear complete and correct. covers the topic Coherence Uses words supportive details logical language Tone is Fragments if present. Unity Provides a phrases and clauses using accurate consistent are used intentionally. 4 concluding statement to create excellent credible sources and Words and Sentences Mechanics. or section that follows cohesion and clarify the demonstrating an Establishes and maintains and Spelling. from and supports the relationships among understanding of a formal style throughout Demonstrates. thesis presented claim s reasons and the topic or text consistent control with. evidence few or no errors, Focus Provides a Structure Generally Content Quality Reader Engagement Grammar and Usage. thesis statement that organizes the Supports thesis Engages the reader Most sentences are. covers the topic information with adequate with some clear logical complete and correct. Unity Provides a Coherence Uses words supportive details language Tone is mostly Mechanics. concluding statement phrases and clauses to using accurate consistent and Spelling. 3 or section that follows create good cohesion credible sources and Words and Sentences Demonstrates control. from and supports and clarify most of the demonstrating an Establishes and mostly with minor errors. most of the thesis relationships among understanding of maintains a formal style. presented claim s reasons and the topic or text, Focus Provides a Structure Organizes Content Quality Reader Engagement Grammar and Usage. thesis statement that the writing but not Supports thesis Somewhat engages the Some sentences are. does not cover the according to its thesis with minimal reader with some logical complete and correct. entire topic Coherence Uses some supportive language Tone is not Mechanics. Unity Provides a words phrases and details few consistent and Spelling. 2 concluding statement clauses to organize the credible sources Words and Sentences Demonstrates little. or section that follows information about the and minimal Establishes and mostly control with frequent. somewhat from the topic understanding of maintains a formal style errors. thesis presented the topic or text, Focus Does not Structure Lacks Content Quality Reader Engagement Grammar and Usage. provide a thesis organization Lacks supportive Does not engage the Errors create a barrier. statement Coherence Information details Shows little reader with clear logical to understanding. Unity Does not and support if understanding of language Mechanics and. provide a concluding present lack order and the topic or text Words and Sentences Spelling Errors. 1 statement or provides transitions Words are often vague create a barrier to. a concluding statement Sentences lack variety and understanding. that does not follow do not flow together,from the thesis. 6 of 9 National Geographic Learning Cengage Learning.

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