And Poultry House Equipment-Books Pdf

and Poultry House Equipment
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Poultry Housing,And Poultry House Equipment,For Montana. Miss H E Cushman If Extension Poultry Specialist,INTRODUCTION. Money and effort spent on breed improvement and balanced. rations are wasted unless poultry is properly h oused and provided. with the proper equipment Plans and suggestions for the poultry. house and equipment recommended for Montana conditions are. contained in this publication, The proper poultry house is not expensive Local prices and. the kind of material used will determine the cost It is important. that the house be properly ventilated but not drafty dry well. insulated to be as little affected as possible by sudden outside. temperature changes well lighted roomy and convenient both. for the birds and for the operator The convenient house is apt to. be a sanitary house, Since the location can materially affect the proper functioning. of a house the situation of the building should be studied before. the foundation is laid No house however well built will remain. dry if the soil or air drainage is faulty A house should no more. be placed in a hollow where air pockets exist than it should be. put on wet soggy ground The ideal soil is a light sandy or. gravelly one Where the house must be placed on gumbo or heavy. soil it is wise to put in tile to provide propel drainage. If the house be built into the south slope of a bank drainage. ditches must be made to carry surface water away from the back. and sides The ideal spot for the house is on a knoll but protected. from wind and weather, The house should face the south to assure maximum sunlight.
a consideration which is particularly important during short. winter days, Professor H E Murdock Agricultural Engineer Montana State College. asslsted in the preparation of this bulletin,Ix f fo rs. Ion fJel l t,n 00 r t W,lt I tln j,o r P Fer M t d t t J. Fig 1 END ELEVf TlON,POULTRY HOUSING AND POULTRY HOUSE EQUIPMENT 5. TYPE OF HOUSE, The type of poultry house is largely determined by the manner.
in which the housing principles are applied For comfort and. warm th the house should be as deep as possible but if too deep. sunlight will not reach the back A distance of 20 feet from front. to back is best for all purposes It should never be more than 24. feet nor less than 16 feet from front to back Since squar. construction is cheaper than any other a 20 feet x 20 feet unit. is preferable for 100 birds This allows 4 square feet per bird If. more birds are to be kept additional units may be built on with. inexpensive partitions between them to break house drafts. II I II I II I II I,l S rro rt lurrort,i Ma sh oppeTS. Fig 2 fLOOR PL N,6 MONTANA EXTENSION SERVICE,POUI1l RY HOUSING AND POULTRY HOUSE EQUIPMENT 7. The height is determined by the height of the operator The. warmest house is one that is only a foot or so above the birds. backs when roosting Consequently 61h feet is about as high as. the front of the house should be This height gives the operator. head room and gives sunlight a chance to get well back into the. house during the winter when the sun slants low in Montana The. back wall should be not more than 4 feet high, To put a shed roof on such a house makes it exceedingly flat. Therefore the uneven or two thirds span roof is much more. serviceable and lends itself admirably to the straw loft method of. insulation so frequently used in Montana, Since light as well as air is needed a combination front of. windows and curtains on sliding frames proves most satisfactory. for the state a8 a whole A front that is made up entirely of sliding. curtains may be used in the western part of the state where. moisture is a greater problem during the winter and where. temperature does not go as low as in eastern counties In other. sections frames need to be provided with glass see paragraph. on front and air intakes page 7,Foundation, A concrete foundation is best for a permanent poultry house.
This should be deep enough to prevent heaving from frost 12 to. 18 inc hes and should extend six inches to one foot above ground. A foundation that is about six inches wide will carry a 20 x 20. feet unit Bolts which aid in anchoring the sills should be set. into the foundation while the concrete is still wet. While a great many people try to worry along with dirt floors. the labor of keepin them sanitary is so reat that the only. practical floor is one of either concrete or wood To keep a dirt. floor safe at lea8t 6 inches of dirt must be removed annually This. fouled dirt must th en be hauled to some distant part of the ranch. where hens never range then a new top dressing of dirt or gravel. is added and thoroughly tamped down, The concrete floor is the most permanent and sanitary It. should be built with a drain to facilitate cleaning If conditions. 8 MONTANA EXTENSION SERVICE, are such as to cause a concrete floor to be damp the difficulty. can be overcome as follows Put in a layer of crushed rock and. gravel cover with a coat of coarse concrete place on this a layer. of tar paper and finish with fine cement about one to two inches. thick on top of the tar paper, If a wood floor is preferred it is well to have a double floor. with building paper between,Under Floor Heat, In parts of Montana where cloudy days prevail at certain. seasons and keeping dry litter becomes a real problem many flock. owners have installed under floor heat If the floor temperature. is raised only 7 degrees the moisture laden air will start rising. and active ventilation is assured With a board floor the heat is. provided by a heater under one end of the house with a ventilator. chimney at the other end causing a flow of warm air under the. floor This ventilator has absolutely no connection with the venti. lating system inside the house To obtain this under floor flow. of warm air the foundation must be absolutely tight See figure. With a cement floor both the heat and smoke from the under. floor heater may be conducted through hollow tile to a chimney. at the opposite end of the fhouse The final cement coat for the. floor is laid over the hollow tile,POUIiI RY HOUSING AND POULTRY HOUSE EQUIPMENT 9.
The under floor heater may be made from an oil or gasoline. barrel or may be a fire box of cement construction. Since any scrap material may be used for fuel in these heaters. the cost of operation decidedly overbalances litter costs alone. Maintaining health of the birds and controlling winter molt are. other reasons for using under floor heat, For several years housing tours have been conducted in the. state on sub zero days It was found that houses wlhich had. adequate provisions for ventilation and removing moisture coupled. with well insulated walls and roofs were functioning properly. even at the lowest temperatures, The ideal insulation is still air But merely boarding on. either side of studs does not provide still air unless the materials. so used are air tight, Ohio Extension Bulletin 94 gives a good comparison of the. insulating value of different commonly used materials See. The drawback to using many of the commercial insulating. materials on the market is that the birds are apt to pick and eat. them Therefore it is well to paint the walls as high as the birds. can reach with gray cement paint This may be made by mixing. equal parts by volume of Portland cement and fine clean and. sifted sand which is free from loam add sour milk until a thick. paint is obtained Do not use any water in the mix mix only the. amount to be used at once Two coats of the paint should be used. Approximately 12 pounds of Portland cement 12 pounds of sand. 1 gallon of sour milk will cover with two coats a surface of 80. square feet,10 MONTANA EXTENSION SERVICE,IDEAL ill5ULAT Oli sTILL All NO lA TI01Ii. I I I I I I I I I,LOO t 01 QUILTLD FI5110U5 I1ATt IAL5.
O KJ OAl D,f l L12 0U5 m5ULATIllG J QAI D5,I I I I I I I. 0l1V i551D 0rIPO f OA12 DS,I I I I I I,50FT fOOD 30 LflS PEl D FT. I 1 1 I I I I I,D lOOD S LbJ PEQ cu FT,I I mt LAyt. THICKNESS REQUIRED TO EQUAL ONE INCH IDEAL INSULATION. Fig 5 This chart shows the t11ickness of various materials having. equivalent heat insulating values The horizontal scale gives approximately. the thickness in inches required to fUl llish insulation equivalent to 1 inch of. the best possible practical insulation called ideal in the figure. This chart also indicates that it takes 6 inches of hard wood to equal 2. inches of fibrous insulating board in insulating value in other WQl ds that. insulating board has the same insulating value as three times its thickness. of hard wood Courtesy of Ohio Experiment Station,POULTRY HOUSING AND POULTRY HOUSE EQUIPMENT 11. Front and Air Intakes, As already indicated the combination front of windows and.
sliding curtains is accepted in most parts of the state. Either heavy muslin or,glass substitutes may be used. in the curtain frames,However in parts of the,state high winds necessitate II. closed windows a greater part Ij 1 i,of the winter Under these I. conditions other provisions,must be made for fresh air I. intakes A number of poultry,men construct their cold iI.
air intakes at the sill between,two studs on the outside of. the house The air then enters,the house through an opening. near the plate,Cornell Massachusetts,and Maine universities have. probably accomplished more,than other universities in re. search on ventilation Cornell,Fig 6 Cross section of.
suggests an intake by set window inlet Note that the. window sill extends clear to, ting the curtain out 1 inch the baffle board so that wind. cannot blow down to nor,from the front of the house across the floor. Courtesy N Y State College,12 MONTANA EXTENSION SERVICE. j This may be done by putting,11 1 by 3 inch vertical strips un. der the side guides and renail 1,ing the guides through these.
strips The fresh incoming 1,air moves up vertically. through the slot thus provided,at the bottom of the curtain. Cornell also suggests built in,Fig 7 A built in intake Built. in intakes should extend entirely intakE s They state that the. inside the frame,frame of the built in intakes,should be entirely inside the. building so that the incoming,air will be directed straight.
upward without interference,from any part of the frame. See Figures 6 and 7 Cor,nell Bulletin 315 also suggests. an air intake plan for build,ings with side sliding win. Fig 8 Window inlet in a window, that slides horizontally Note the dows See Figure 8. wind baffle The arrows indicate,the course of the incoming air.
Ceiling and Air Outlets, When using a straw loft the ceiling over the roosts should. be sealed and insulated regardless of the fact that the rest of the. room is provided with a straw loft About six inches to a foot. of straw is sufficient, When framing the house every other rafter should be tied. with a 2x4 Although the principal use of these ties is to. strengthen the building they do provide an excellent means for. attaching the strips or wire which support the straw loft. POULTRY HOUSING AND POULTRY HOUSE EQUIPMENT 13,The wire or strip should. be nailed to the underside,of the 2x4 in order to,lower the ceiling This pro. vides a warmer house and fa,cilitates changing the straw.
When using strips to support,the straw at least two inch. spaces should be allowed be,tween each strip to aid venti. With the straw loft,method of ventilation provi, sions must be made for re Figul e 9 Constl Uction de. tails of a single outlet flue, movmg moisture from the Notice the double boarding with. house gable Otherwise it paper between, will condense then later rain down onto the floor The simplest.
method of accomplishing this is by making gable end doors The. cross draft above the straw forces the moisture laden air out of. the gable before condensation,takes place The common. error is to make these doors,too small They should be. 18 to 20 inches square Add,ing baffles will keep out snow. and rain Covering the open,ings with wire eliminates. While the straw loft is,the simplest means of provid.
ing air outlets there are those,who prefer sealing the entire. house Then tower ventila Fig 10 The outtake flue, tors must be provided This head for a single flue chimney. form of air outlets is especial The flat insulated ceiling in this. head is essential For height of, ly necessary where the house opening H see columns Band C. has more than two 20 feet x in tabl e 1 on page 15 The board. A prevents wind blowin,20 feet units through the top of the head. 14 MONTANA EXTENSION SERVICE, Warm moisture laden air is light rises and passes out.
the flue at the ceiling However the Cornell experiments. show that if the flues are not properly constructed the air. cools against the sides of the outlet contracts and there. fore does not permit upflow of foul air Consequently the outlet. flues must not only be adequate in size but must be properly. insulated A flue should be double boarded with paper between. see Fig 9 and have a cap see Fig 10, Fig ll The flue system of ventilation for multi story poultry. houses The ceiling of the top floor pen is insulated . house and equipment recommended for Montana conditions are contained in this publication The proper poultry house is not expensive Local prices and the kind of material used will determine the cost It is important that the house be properly ventilated but not drafty dry well insulated to be as little affected as possible by sudden outside

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