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2 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 10 Superficial Nearer to the skin surface. 11 Deep Deeper from the skin surface, Physiology is the science of life which deals with. normal functions of the body It explains how various systems in. the body function together normally as a single unit . The subject matter of Physiology includes the study of various. systems like , 1 Central nervous system, 2 Cardiovascular system. 3 Digestive system, 4 Excretory system, 5 Respiratory system. 6 Reproductive system etc ,B SYSTEMS OF THE BODY,ORGANS OF THE BODY.
An organ is a group of tissues arranged in a certain. way to carry out a specific function e g stomach heart kidneys . The human body is a highly developed multicellular organism. containing various organs which perform different functions The. organs are again grouped together to form systems . ANATOMY 3, SYSTEMS OF THE BODY, A system is a group of organs which together carry out one. of the essential functions of the body The following are some. important systems ,1 Skeletal system , It is formed by bones It provides a frame work for the body . Also it protects the soft tissues and allows movements at joints . 2 Muscular system , It is made of numerous muscles It effects movements of the. body as a whole ,3 Circulatory system , It includes heart blood vessels and blood This system carries. oxygen and nutrients to various tissues of the body . 4 Respiratory system , It consists of air passages and the lungs It allows exchange.
of gases between the body and the environment ,5 Digestive system . It consists if alimentary canal It is concerned with digestion. and absorption of food and elimination of waste materials . 6 Endocrine system , It consists of ductless glands It is concerned with the. production of hormones which regulate a variety of function of the. 7 Urinary system , It is formed by kidneys ureter urinary bladder and urethra . It is concerned with the elimination of waste products of the body . 8 Nervous system , It consists of brain spinal cord and nerves This system creates. awareness of the environment such that the body can respond by. 9 Reproductive system , It consists of genital organs which are different in males and.
females This system is responsible for the survival of the species. by reproduction , The cell is the smallest unit of living tissues Cells of. different tissues perform different functions A cell is made up of. the following structures , 4 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 1 Cell wall , It is the external boundary of the living cell It is a three layered. structure made up of lipids and proteins It measures approximately. 70 A in thickness The cell wall allows the diffusion of substances. into and out of the cell ,2 Nucleus , It is the largest structure present almost in the centre of a cell It is. more or less spherical in shape It is bounded by nuclear membrane . The nucleus contains , a nucleolus b chromatin,a Nucleolus .
It is a highly coiled filamentous structure present in the. nucleus It is not surrounded by a membrane But it contains. numerous granules Nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA. ribonucleic acid synthesis ,b Chromatin , These are fibrous threads present in the nucleus They are. composed of DNA deoxy ribonucleic acid and proteins The. chromatin threads carry genetic information At the time of cell. division chromatin condenses into chromosomes The number of. chromosomes is constant for a particular species of organism In. man there are 23 pairs of 46 chromosomes ,3 Cytoplasm . It is the region lying between the cell membrane and nucleus . The cytoplasm contains cell organelles like endoplasmic reticulum . golgi apparatus mitochondria lysosomes and centrosome . Microsomes , They are extremely small bodies present in the cytoplasm . They can be separated by centrifuging a tissue homogenate at very. high speed 10000 rpm Microsomes contain 1 Ribosomes 2 . Granular matrix Ribosomes are concerned with protein synthesis . Granular matrix contains , i Oxidases which generate hydroygen peroxide . ii Catalase which converts hydrogen peroxide into water . ANATOMY 5, Organelles of cytoplasm Following are the important organalles.
present in the cytoplasm ,i Endoplasmic reticulum . It is the most extensive cell organelle present in cytoplasm . It consists of two membranes which are separated by a space . Endoplasmic reticulum is of two types They are, a Granular or rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum containing. ribosomes The ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis . b Agranular or smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum . This does not contain ribosomes This type of endoplasmic reticulum. is concerned with fatty acid and steroid synthesis Also they store. and release calcium ,ii Golgi apparatus , It is a cup shaped structure and contains vesicles It is situated. between the nucleus and the apex of the cell It is concerned with. concentration of proteins prior to their secretion . iii Mitochondria , They occur in the cytoplasm at variable numbers e g few. hundreds to few thousands The mitochondrion is composed of two. layers of membranes They are ,1 an outer layer which is smooth .
2 an inner layer folded into sheets of tubules called cristae . Both these layers enclose a central cavity called matrix . 6 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, The mitochondria are made up of proteins phospholipids and. some ribonucleic acid They also contain some important enzyme. systems The mitochondria are chiefly concerned with cellular. oxidation ,iv Lysosomes , They are small spherical or oval bodies surrounded by a. single membrane They vary in number and contain a variety of. hydrolytic enzymes The lysosomes breakdown bacteria and cell. debris engulfed by the cell The damaged intracellular organelles. are also broken down and digested by lysosomes ,v Centrosome . It is a small rod shaped body found near the nucleus It plays. an important role during cell division The centrosome is surrounded. by a radiating thread like structure It contains two centrioles . vi Microtubules , They are straight hollow cylinders with a diameter of about. 200 A They are concerned with the maintenance of cell shape . They are also associated with movements of cilia flagella and. mitotic spindles , Functions of a cell The following are the important.
functions performed by a cell ,1 Ingestion and assimilation . The cell ingests chemical sub stances like amino acids from. intercellular or interstial fluid These substances are used to build. up complicated sub stances like proteins ,2 Growth and repair . The ingested and assimilated materials are used to synthesise. new protoplasm This leads to increase in size and growth of the. cell Also worn out parts of the cell are replaced by this process . 3 Metabolism This involves two processes , i Anabolism in which the ingested and assimilated food. material is used for growth and repair , ii Catabolism in which food material is broken down to. ANATOMY 7, release energy for various functions of the cell .
4 Respiration , It involves transport of oxygen from lungs through blood to the. tissues and removal of waste products like carbon dioxide This is. essential for the survival and functions of a cell . 5 Excretion , The cell eliminates waste products resulting from catabolism. into the interstitial fluid These products are carried by blood for. elimination though lungs and kidneys ,6 Irritability and contractility . The cell is active by means of these two functions The cell. responds to any stimulus like physical chemical thermal electrical. and mechanical by contracting Or the impulse is conducted as that. occurs in a nerve cell ,7 Reproduction , After growing to an optimum size the cell divides into. daughter cells Reproduction of cells occurs by mistosis or meiosis . This occurs in four stages namely prophase meta phase . anaphase and telophase ,1 Prophase , Initially the centrosome divides into two Ihese two new.
centrosomes move away from each other to the two ends of the. nucleus forming two poles ,2 Metaphase , Now the nuclear membrane disappears The chromosomes. arrange themselves around the centre of the cell They get attached. to thread like structures of the centrosomes which are now at the. two poles of the cell ,3 Irregular bones , They do not fall in any category e g vertebrae and bones of. 8 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY,5 Sesasmoid bones , These are small bones which develop in the tendons of. muscles e g patella of knee Joint ,3 Anaphase , The chromosomes now divide longitudinally into two equal. parts The two groups of chromosomes move away to the poles and. get arranged around the centrosomes ,4 Telophase , The cell becomes narrower at the centre to facilitate division .
The thread like structures disappear The nuclear membrane appears. again At the end of telophase the cell divides Also the. chromosomes disappear into the nucleus The daughter cells grow. and in turn reproduce by mitosis During mitosis each chromosome. duplicates So the daughter cell contains forty six chromosomes . It is a process of reproduction which occurs in higher animals. including man It involves the fusion of , 1 Spermatozoon from the male which contains 23 chromosomes. and ii Ovum from the female which also contains 23. Chromosomes The spermatozoon and ovum are also called as. gametes The fusion of these two male and female gametes results. ANATOMY 9, in the formation of a zygote which has the normal number of 46. chromosomes 23 pairs This leads to mixing of the hereditary. determinants or genes from the male and female , Determination of sex One pair of chromosomes from the. father and one pair from the mother are sex chromosomes These. sex chromosomes determine the sex of the child In the female the. sex chromosomes are the same and are called XX In the male they. are different and are called XY One chromosome from each pair. determines the sex of the child , If the child has X chromosomes from the mother and X. chromosome from the father it is a female XX If the child has X. chromosome from the mother and Y chromosome from the father it. is a male XY , 10 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 2 OSTEOLOGY.
TERMS USED FOR DESCRIBING THE POSITION OF THE,a Anatomical Position. In this position the body is erect the eyes look straight to. the front the upper limbs hang by the side of the trunk with thepalms. directed forwards and the lower limb are parallel with the toes. pointing forwards , All structures are described presuming the body in. anatomical position although during study the body may be placed. in any position ,b Supine Position , Lying down Recumbent position with the face directed. c Prone position , Lying down Recumbent position with the face directed. downwards ,d Lithotomy position, Lying supine with the buttocks at the edge of the table the.
hips and knees fully flexed and the feet strapped in position . Terms of Relation Commonly used in Gross Anatomy,a Anterior Towards the front. b Posterior Towards the back,c Superior Towards the head. d Inferior Towards the feet,e Medial Towards the median plane. f Lateral Away from the median plane, Terms of R elation C o m m only use d in Em br yology and. Comparative Anatomy but sometimes in Gross Anatomy. a Ventral Towards the belly like anterior , b Dorsal Towards the back like posterior .
c Cranial or Rostral Towards the head like superior . OSTEOLOGY 11, d Caudal Towards the tail,Special Terms for Limbs. a Proximal Nearer to the trunk, b Distal Away from the trunk. c Radial The outer border in the upper limb, d Ulnar The inner border in the upper limb. e Tibial The inner border in the lower, f Fibular The outer border in the lower. g Preaxial border The outer border in the upper, limb and the inner border in the.
lower limb , h Postaxial border The inner border in the upper. limb and the outer border in, thelower limb , i Flexor surface The anterior surface in the upper. and the posterior surface in the, j Extesor surface The posterior surace in the upper. limb and the anterior surface in, the lower limb . h Palmar or Volar Pertaining to towards the palm, of the hand .
l Plantar Pertaining to towards the sole, of the foot0. Certain Other Terms,A Terms used for hollow organs. a Interior or inner, b Exterior or outer, c Invagination or inward protrusion and. d Evagination or outward protrusion,B Terms used for solid organs. a Superficial towards the surface and, b Deep inner to the surface.
C Terms used to indicate the side, 12 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. a Ipsilateral of the same side and, b Contralateral of the opposite side. Terms used for Describing Muscles, a OriginThe end of a muscle which is relatively fixed during. its contraction , b Insertion The end of a muscle which moves during its. contraction , The two terms origin and insertion are sometimes.
interchangeable when the origin moves and the insertion is fixed . c Belly The fleshy and contractile part of a muscle. d Tendon The fibrous noncontractile and cord like part of a. e Aponeurosis The flattened tendon , f Raphe The fibrous band made up of Interdigitating fibres. of the tendons or aponeuroses Unlike a ligament it is stretchable . Ligaments are fibrous inelastic bands which connect two segments. of a joint ,TERMS USED FOR DESCRIBING MOVEMENTS, a Flexion. Approximation of the flexor surfaces whereby the angle. of the joint is reduced , b Extension, Approximation of the extensor surfaces whereby the angle. of the joint is increased It is opposite to flexon. c Adduction, Movement towards the central axis, d Abduction. Movement away from the central axis It is opposite to. e Medial rotation, Inward rotation, f Lateral rotation.
Outword rotation, g Circumduction, Various combinations of the forgoing movemnets a to d . h Pronation, Rotation of the forearm so tha the palm is turned. OSTEOLOGY 13, i Supination, Rotation of the forearm so that the palm is turned forwards. j Protraction, Forwards protrusion, k Retraction, Movement reverse of protraction. Terms used for Describing Vessles, a Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart .
with the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical arteries which. carry deoxygenated blood Arteries resemble trees beause they have. branches arterioles , b Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart with. the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical veins which carry. oxygenated blood veins resemble rivers because they have. tributaries venules , c Capillaries are networks of microscopic vessles. connecting arterioles to venules, d Anastomosis is a precapillary or postcapillary. communciation between the neighbouring vessles ,SKELETAL SYSTEM. SKELETAL SYSTEM , Bones and joints form the skeletal system of the body .
Functions of the skeletal system are , 1 Support and protection of soft tissues and vital organs . 2 To give attachment to muscles , 3 Formation of red blood corpuscles in the bone marrow . 4 Storage of mineral salts like phosphorus and calcium . CLASSIFICATION OF BONES Bones of the skeleton are,classified as . 1 Long bones , They are found in the limbs A long bone contains a shaft. 14 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, and two extremities The long bones act a levers and help in various.
movements of the body ,2 Short bones , These have no shaft But they contain a spongy substance. covered by a shell of compact bone e g small bones of wrist and. 3 FIat bones , They contain two layers of compact bone with a spongy. substance in between e g pelvic bones and scapula . These are small bones which develop in the tendons of. muscles e g patella of knee Joint ,STRUCTURE OF BONE . Bone is the hardest of the connective tissues It consists of. two kinds of connective tissues 1 Compact bone 2 Cancellous. Compact bone , It is hard and dense It is found in flat bones in the shafts of. long bones and as a thin covering of all bones ,Cancellous bone .
It is spongy in appearance It is found in the ends of long. bones in short bones and in between two layers of compact tissue. of flat bones , OSTEOLOGY 15,Gross structure of a long bone . A long bone has two ends epiphysis connected by a shaft. diaphysis The outer membrane covering the bone is periosteum . It is followed by a thick layer of compact bone Inside this is a. central medullary canal Nutrient foramen is the opening through. which arteries pierce the medullary canal ,Microscopic structure of bone . Cross section of a bone under the microscope shows the. following structures , 1 Haversian canal which lies at the centre It contains blood. vessels nerves and lymphatics , 2 Lamellae which are plates of bone arranged concentrically. around the Haversian canal , 3 Lacunae which are spaces between the lamellae and they.
contain bone cells , 4 Canaliculi which are fine channels They radiate between. the lacunae and the central Haversian canal , All the structures together form a unit This unit is called as. the Haversian system , DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF BONES. Formation of the bone is called is ossification Bones of the. skeleton are developed in two ways , 1 Some bones develop in sheets of fibrous tissue intra . membranous ossification , 2 Other bones develop in bars of cartilage intracartilagenous.
ossification In both cases bone cells called osteoblasts.

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