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An Introduction to GCC TFE Times
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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. First printing March 2004 7 3 2004,Published by Network Theory Limited. 15 Royal Park,United Kingdom,Email info network theory co uk. ISBN 0 9541617 9 3, Further information about this book is available from. http www network theory co uk gcc intro, Cover Image From a layout of a fast energy efficient hardware stack 1. Image created with the free Electric VLSI design system by Steven Rubin. of Static Free Software www staticfreesoft com Static Free Software. provides support for Electric to the electronics design industry. Copyright c 2004 Network Theory Ltd, Permission is granted to copy distribute and or modify this document.
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License Version 1 2. or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation with no. Invariant Sections with the Front Cover Texts being A Network Theory. Manual and with the Back Cover Texts as in a below A copy of. the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation. a The Back Cover Text is The development of this manual was funded. entirely by Network Theory Ltd Copies published by Network Theory. Ltd raise money for more free documentation, The Texinfo source for this manual may be obtained from. http www network theory co uk gcc intro src, A Fast and Energy Efficient Stack by J Ebergen D Finchelstein R Kao. J Lexau and R Hopkins,Table of Contents,Foreword 1. 1 Introduction 3,1 1 A brief history of GCC 3,1 2 Major features of GCC 4. 1 3 Programming in C and C 4,1 4 Conventions used in this manual 5.
2 Compiling a C program 7,2 1 Compiling a simple C program 7. 2 2 Finding errors in a simple program 8,2 3 Compiling multiple source files 9. 2 4 Compiling files independently 10,2 4 1 Creating object files from source files 11. 2 4 2 Creating executables from object files 11,2 4 3 Link order of object files 12. 2 5 Recompiling and relinking 13,2 6 Linking with external libraries 14.
2 6 1 Link order of libraries 15,2 7 Using library header files 16. 3 Compilation options 19,3 1 Setting search paths 19. 3 1 1 Search path example 20,3 1 2 Environment variables 21. 3 1 3 Extended search paths 22,3 2 Shared libraries and static libraries 23. 3 3 C language standards 25,3 3 1 ANSI ISO 26,3 3 2 Strict ANSI ISO 28.
3 3 3 Selecting specific standards 28,3 4 Warning options in Wall 29. 3 5 Additional warning options 30,ii An Introduction to GCC. 4 Using the preprocessor 35,4 1 Defining macros 35. 4 2 Macros with values 36,4 3 Preprocessing source files 38. 5 Compiling for debugging 41,5 1 Examining core files 41.
5 2 Displaying a backtrace 43,6 Compiling with optimization 45. 6 1 Source level optimization 45,6 1 1 Common subexpression elimination 45. 6 1 2 Function inlining 46,6 2 Speed space tradeoffs 47. 6 2 1 Loop unrolling 47,6 3 Scheduling 49,6 4 Optimization levels 49. 6 5 Examples 50,6 6 Optimization and debugging 52,6 7 Optimization and compiler warnings 53.
7 Compiling a C program 55,7 1 Compiling a simple C program 55. 7 2 Using the C standard library 56,7 3 Templates 57. 7 3 1 Using C standard library templates 57,7 3 2 Providing your own templates 58. 7 3 3 Explicit template instantiation 60,7 3 4 The export keyword 61. 8 Platform specific options 63,8 1 Intel and AMD x86 options 63.
8 2 DEC Alpha options 64,8 3 SPARC options 65,8 4 POWER PowerPC options 65. 8 5 Multi architecture support 66,9 Troubleshooting 69. 9 1 Help for command line options 69,9 2 Version numbers 69. 9 3 Verbose compilation 70,10 Compiler related tools 73. 10 1 Creating a library with the GNU archiver 73,10 2 Using the profiler gprof 75.
10 3 Coverage testing with gcov 77,11 How the compiler works 81. 11 1 An overview of the compilation process 81,11 2 The preprocessor 81. 11 3 The compiler 82,11 4 The assembler 83,11 5 The linker 83. 12 Examining compiled files 85,12 1 Identifying files 85. 12 2 Examining the symbol table 86,12 3 Finding dynamically linked libraries 86.
13 Getting help 89,Further reading 91,Acknowledgements 93. Other books from the publisher 95,Free software organizations 97. GNU Free Documentation License 99,ADDENDUM How to use this License for your. documents 104,iv An Introduction to GCC,Foreword 1. This foreword has been kindly contributed by Richard M Stallman the. principal author of GCC and founder of the GNU Project. This book is a guide to getting started with GCC the GNU Compiler. Collection It will tell you how to use GCC as a programming tool GCC. is a programming tool that s true but it is also something more It is. part of a 20 year campaign for freedom for computer users. We all want good software but what does it mean for software to. be good Convenient features and reliability are what it means to be. technically good but that is not enough Good software must also be. ethically good it has to respect the users freedom. As a user of software you should have the right to run it as you see. fit the right to study the source code and then change it as you see fit. the right to redistribute copies of it to others and the right to publish a. modified version so that you can contribute to building the community. When a program respects your freedom in this way we call it free software. Before GCC there were other compilers for C Fortran Ada etc But. they were not free software you could not use them in freedom I wrote. GCC so we could use a compiler without giving up our freedom. A compiler alone is not enough to use a computer system you need. a whole operating system In 1983 all operating system for modern com. puters were non free To remedy this in 1984 I began developing the. GNU operating system a Unix like system that would be free software. Developing GCC was one part of developing GNU, By the early 90s the nearly finished GNU operating system was com.
pleted by the addition of a kernel Linux that became free software in. 1992 The combined GNU Linux operating system has achieved the goal. of making it possible to use a computer in freedom But freedom is never. automatically secure and we need to work to defend it The Free Software. Movement needs your support,Richard M Stallman,February 2004. 2 An Introduction to GCC,Chapter 1 Introduction 3,1 Introduction. The purpose of this book is to explain the use of the GNU C and C. compilers gcc and g After reading this book you should understand. how to compile a program and how to use basic compiler options for. optimization and debugging This book does not attempt to teach the C. or C languages themselves since this material can be found in many. other places see Further reading page 91, Experienced programmers who are familiar with other systems but. new to the GNU compilers can skip the early sections of the chapters. Compiling a C program Using the preprocessor and Compiling a. C program The remaining sections and chapters should provide a. good overview of the features of GCC for those already know how to use. other compilers,1 1 A brief history of GCC, The original author of the GNU C Compiler GCC is Richard Stallman. the founder of the GNU Project, The GNU project was started in 1984 to create a complete Unix like.
operating system as free software in order to promote freedom and coop. eration among computer users and programmers Every Unix like oper. ating system needs a C compiler and as there were no free compilers in. existence at that time the GNU Project had to develop one from scratch. The work was funded by donations from individuals and companies to the. Free Software Foundation a non profit organization set up to support the. work of the GNU Project, The first release of GCC was made in 1987 This was a significant. breakthrough being the first portable ANSI C optimizing compiler re. leased as free software Since that time GCC has become one of the most. important tools in the development of free software. A major revision of the compiler came with the 2 0 series in 1992. which added the ability to compile C In 1997 an experimental branch. of the compiler EGCS was created to improve optimization and C. support Following this work EGCS was adopted as the new main line of. GCC development and these features became widely available in the 3 0. release of GCC in 2001, Over time GCC has been extended to support many additional lan. guages including Fortran ADA Java and Objective C The acronym. 4 An Introduction to GCC, GCC is now used to refer to the GNU Compiler Collection Its devel. opment is guided by the GCC Steering Committee a group composed. of representatives from GCC user communities in industry research and. 1 2 Major features of GCC, This section describes some of the most important features of GCC. First of all GCC is a portable compiler it runs on most platforms. available today and can produce output for many types of processors In. addition to the processors used in personal computers it also supports. microcontrollers DSPs and 64 bit CPUs, GCC is not only a native compiler it can also cross compile any pro.
gram producing executable files for a different system from the one used. by GCC itself This allows software to be compiled for embedded systems. which are not capable of running a compiler GCC is written in C with. a strong focus on portability and can compile itself so it can be adapted. to new systems easily, GCC has multiple language frontends for parsing different languages. Programs in each language can be compiled or cross compiled for any. architecture For example an ADA program can be compiled for a mi. crocontroller or a C program for a supercomputer, GCC has a modular design allowing support for new languages and. architectures to be added Adding a new language front end to GCC. enables the use of that language on any architecture provided that the. necessary run time facilities such as libraries are available Similarly. adding support for a new architecture makes it available to all languages. Finally and most importantly GCC is free software distributed under. the GNU General Public License GNU GPL 1 This means you have. the freedom to use and to modify GCC as with all GNU software If you. need support for a new type of CPU a new language or a new feature. you can add it yourself or hire someone to enhance GCC for you You. can hire someone to fix a bug if it is important for your work. Furthermore you have the freedom to share any enhancements you. make to GCC As a result of this freedom you can also make use of. enhancements to GCC developed by others The many features offered. by GCC today show how this freedom to cooperate works to benefit you. and everyone else who uses GCC, For details see the license file COPYING distributed with GCC. Chapter 1 Introduction 5,1 3 Programming in C and C. C and C are languages that allow direct access to the computer s mem. ory Historically they have been used for writing low level systems soft. ware and applications where high performance or control over resource. usage are critical However great care is required to ensure that mem. ory is accessed correctly to avoid corrupting other data structures This. book describes techniques that will help in detecting potential errors dur. ing compilation but the risk in using languages like C or C can never. be eliminated, In addition to C and C the GNU Project also provides other high.
level languages such as GNU Common Lisp gcl GNU Smalltalk gst. the GNU Scheme extension language guile and the GNU Compiler for. Java gcj These languages do not allow the user to access memory. directly eliminating the possibility of memory access errors They are a. safer alternative to C and C for many applications. 1 4 Conventions used in this manual, This manual contains many examples which can be typed at the keyboard. A command entered at the terminal is shown like this. followed by its output For example,echo hello world. hello world, The first character on the line is the terminal prompt and should not be. typed The dollar sign is used as the standard prompt in this manual. although some systems may use a different character. When a command in an example is too long to fit in a single line it is. wrapped and then indented on subsequent lines like this. echo an example of a line which is too long to fit. in this manual, When entered at the keyboard the entire command should be typed on. a single line, The example source files used in this manual can be downloaded from.
the publisher s website 2 or entered by hand using any text editor such. as the standard GNU editor emacs The example compilation commands. use gcc and g as the names of the GNU C and C compilers and cc. to refer to other compilers The example programs should work with any. See http www network theory co uk gcc intro,6 An Introduction to GCC. version of GCC Any command line options which are only available in. recent versions of GCC are noted in the text, The examples assume the use of a GNU operating system there may. be minor differences in the output on other systems Some non essential. and verbose system dependent output messages such as very long system. 3 3 C language standards 4 An Introduction to GCC Furthermore you have the freedom to share any enhancements you make to GCC

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