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An Introduction to English Semantics, and Pragmatics. Edinburgh Textbooks on the English Language, General Editor. Heinz Giegerich Professor of English Linguistics University of Edinburgh. Editorial Board, Laurie Bauer University of Wellington. Derek Britton University of Edinburgh, Olga Fischer University of Amsterdam. Norman Macleod University of Edinburgh, Donka Minkova UCLA.
Katie Wales University of Leeds, Anthony Warner University of York. titles in the series include, An Introduction to English Syntax. Jim Miller, An Introduction to English Phonology, April McMahon. An Introduction to English Morphology, Andrew Carstairs McCarthy. An Introduction to International Varieties of English. Laurie Bauer, An Introduction to Middle English, Simon Horobin and Jeremy Smith.
An Introduction to Old English, Richard Hogg, An Introduction to Early Modern English. Terttu Nevalainen, An Introduction to, English Semantics. and Pragmatics, Patrick Griffiths, Edinburgh University Press. Patrick Griffiths 2006, Edinburgh University Press Ltd. 22 George Square Edinburgh, Typeset in Janson and Neue Helvetica.
by Norman Tilley Graphics and, printed and bound in Great Britain. by Antony Rowe Ltd Chippenham Wilts, A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 10 0 7486 1631 4 hardback, ISBN 13 978 0 7486 1631 2. ISBN 10 0 7486 1632 2 paperback, ISBN 13 978 0 7486 1632 9. The right of Patrick Griffiths, to be identified as author of this work.
has been asserted in accordance with, the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988. List of figures and tables viii, 1 Studying meaning 1. Overview 1, 1 1 Pragmatics distinguished from semantics 4. 1 2 Types of meaning 9, 1 3 Semantics 15, Summary 21. Exercises 22, Recommendations for reading 23, 2 Adjective meanings 24.
Overview 24, 2 1 Using language to give the meanings of words 24. 2 2 Sense relations relevant to adjectives 25, 2 3 Constructions with adjectives 34. Summary 38, Exercises 38, Recommendations for reading 40. 3 Noun vocabulary 41, Overview 41, 3 1 The has relation 41. 3 2 Hyponymy 46, 3 3 Incompatibility 52, 3 4 Count nouns and mass nouns 54.
Summary 56, Exercises 57, vi AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS. Recommendations for reading 58, 4 Verbs and situations 59. Overview 59, 4 1 Causatives 60, 4 2 Situation types 66. Summary 75, Exercises 75, Recommendations for reading 76. 5 Figurative language 78, Overview 78, 5 1 Literal and figurative usage 79.
5 2 Irony presuppositions and metonymy 82, 5 3 Metaphor 86. Summary 90, Exercises 90, Recommendations for reading 91. 6 Tense and aspect 93, Overview 93, 6 1 Tense 96, 6 2 Aspect 100. Summary 107, Exercises 108, Recommendations for reading 109. 7 Modality scope and quantification 110, Overview 110.
7 1 Modality 111, 7 2 Relative scope 121, 7 3 Quantification 123. Summary 129, Exercises 129, Recommendations for reading 130. CONTENTS vii, 8 Pragmatics 132, Overview 132, 8 1 Conversational implicature 134. 8 2 Presuppositions 143, 8 3 Speech acts 148, Summary 153. Exercises 153, Recommendations for reading 155, 9 Connecting utterances to the background 157.
Overview 157, 9 1 Definiteness 158, 9 2 Clefts and passives 160. 9 3 Focal stress 167, Summary 169, Exercises 170, Recommendations for reading 171. Suggested answers to the exercises 172, Bibliography 186. List of figures and tables, 2 1 Complementaries divide their domain without remainder 28. 2 2 There is middle ground between antonyms 30, 2 3 Simple cases of an adjective modifying a noun are like the.
intersection of sets 36, 3 1 Suburbs and houses parts can have parts 43. 3 2 Superordinates can be hyponyms and vice versa 48. 3 3 Hyponymy passes through intermediate levels 48. 3 4 Hyponym senses get successively more detailed 49. 3 5 Part of the hyponym hierarchy of English nouns 50. 3 6 Parts that some superordinates have 51, 3 7 Some hyponyms of meal 52. 6 1 The main time relationships in Example 6 1 94, 7 1 Corgis and vegetarians I labels the intersection of the two. sets C V 124, 7 2 Corgis and meat eaters M labels a subset of corgis that. are not meat eaters C M 125, 1 1 Semantic information and pragmatic considerations in the.
interpretation of Example 1 1 3, 2 1 The patterns of entailment that define four different sense. relations 32, 3 1 Examples of two kinds of spatial parts 44. 3 2 Distinguishing between count and mass nouns 55. 4 1 Examples of causative sentences with an entailment from. 4 2 Three kinds of one clause causative with an entailment. from each 64, LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES ix, 4 3 Tests to distinguish four verb based situation types 69. 4 4 The four situation types classified on presence of goals. and agents 71, 6 1 Two part labels for tense aspect combinations with. examples 96, 6 2 The compatibility of some deictic adverbials with past.
present and future time 99, 6 3 A range of sentences which all have habitual as a possible. interpretation 101, 7 1 Core semantics of some markers of modality in English 119. 9 1 A selection of indefinite and definite forms 158. I chose Edinburgh University for postgraduate studies because I wanted. to learn semantics from John Lyons one of whose books I had read It. turned out that he was not teaching semantics the year that I took the. taught graduate course but there were eventually seminars of his that. I could attend and I read more of his work His influence can be traced. in this book It was Martin Atkinson a fellow research assistant on an. Edinburgh University Linguistics Department project who first ex. plained to me how the study of meaning can be split between semantics. and pragmatics Semantics is concerned with the resources vocabulary. and a system for calculating phrase clause and sentence meanings. provided by a language and pragmatics is concerned with how those. resources are put to use in communication My grasp got firmer when. I began to teach semantics and pragmatics myself at York University. UK and later at the University of the South Pacific York St John and. Beppu University Japan Finding examples that communicate a point. but which cannot easily be dismissed or misunderstood by students is a. valuable discipline especially when one tries to figure out in relation to. particular theoretical notions what it takes to be a good example. I am grateful that Heinz Giegerich general editor of this series came. up with the idea of introductory textbooks offering compact descrip. tions of English unobtrusively grounded in defensible theory it is an. approach congenial to my ways of teaching and learning My contribu. tion to the series aims to present a reasonably detailed first look at the. main features of the meaning system of English and the pragmatics of. using that system I owe thanks to Anthony Warner for encouraging me. to write the book In lunchtime conversations that I used to have with. him at York University he several times straightened out muddled ideas. of mine regarding meaning Beppu University provided me with an. environment conducive to writing Professor Kenji Ueda Head of the. English Language and Literature Department encouraged me and also. kindly authorised the purchase of some of the books that I needed to. PREFACE xi, Pragmatics deals with inferences that listeners and readers make or. that when speaking or writing they invite others to make These. inferences are often conscious so pragmatics tends to be easier to. understand than semantics because the latter is about abstract potential. meanings that are often best described by means of notations drawn from. logic and set theory Linguistic meaning cannot usefully be studied by. someone who knows only about pragmatics however A view widely. shared among linguists is that semantics and pragmatics are essential. components that work together in a full description of meaning. In this book I attempt to integrate semantics with pragmatics but. I hold back a detailed exposition of pragmatics until near the end. Chapter 8 with a detailed illustration of it in the closing chapter. Chapter 9 But Chapter 1 has a brief introduction to pragmatics and it. is mentioned in all chapters sometimes there is rather more than a. mention for instance Chapter 5 introduces presupposition and puts the. notion to work The pragmatics is Gricean supplemented by Austin. Searle speech acts and making use in a couple of places of ideas from. Relevance Theory, The point of the early concentration on semantics is to encourage. readers to grapple with semantics before they have seen pragmatics as a. possible soft option Chapter 1 introduces entailment as the foundation. of semantics together with compositionality and scope the latter seeing. some service in Chapters 2 and 7 Chapters 2 and 3 show how lexical. sense relations are based on entailment Throughout but particularly. in Chapter 4 on verbs and situation types the text presents not just. analyses of meanings but the evidence and reasoning that motivates. them Exercises at the end of each chapter with suggested solutions at. the end of the book are intended for consolidation and to encourage. further exploration Chapter 5 is a short account of figurative elabor. ations of meaning mainly through a non technical retelling of Josef. Stern s theory of metaphor Chapter 6 treats the basics of English tense. and aspect Chapter 7 on the inter related topics of modality scope and. quantification is the semantic summit of the book including a short. introduction to Generalised Quantifier Theory, Theoretical concepts and technical terms are introduced to the extent.
needed for making essential points in the description of meaning in. English Though the book is a self standing introduction to English. semantics and pragmatics I hope that readers will be interested enough. to want to learn more For any who have the opportunity to do additional. reading the terminology introduced here should suffice for them to. make headway with a range of intermediate level books about semantics. and pragmatics At the end of each chapter there is a section of recom. xii AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS. mendations for further reading Bold printed items in the index point to. places in the text where technical terms are explained not just when. they first come up but also to any subsequent elaborations. Sarah Edwards Commissioning Editor at Edinburgh University Press. provided clear guidance and responded efficiently to queries She. earned even greater gratitude from me for her forbearance in the face of. my repeated failures to deliver chapters on time Norman Macleod as a. member of the Editorial Board scrutinised first drafts of all the chapters. and read a revised version of the whole book too Norman made very. concise suggestions for improvements and alerted me to a number. of subtleties in English meaning and usage It was he who reminded me. that a reversing dog is not followed by its tail see Chapter 2 Heinz. Giegerich kindly read a near final version of the whole text I thank. James Dale the Managing Desk Editor and Sarah Burnett the Copy. Editor for quality control on the text Near the end Andrew Merrison. doing it simply as a favour for a fellow linguist read the book and passed. on a list of inconsistencies mistypings and questionable punctuations. many of which have now been eliminated Sole responsibility for the. published wording and content lies with me however. Slow food with time lavished on it in the growing preparation and. savouring tastes better It took me a long time to write this book. Unfortunately not all of it was composed in a measured and reflective. way Some was done in haste because other jobs and projects demanded. attention I hope that there are enough considered bits to make it an. interesting read and that the fast food intrusions will not be too off. Janet Griffiths my spouse supported me throughout and was the. person most available for verification or a headshake of my intuitions. about meaning She checked drafts of several of the chapters and. diagnosed confusing wording in quite a few places I thank her with. all my heart Jane Griffiths visited around the time that I finished a. second version of Chapter 5 She read it and offered comments that I. appreciated Thanks Jane, 1 Studying meaning, This is a book about how English enables people who know the language. to convey meanings Semantics and pragmatics are the two main. branches of the linguistic study of meaning Both are named in the title. of the book and they are going to be introduced here Semantics is the. study of the toolkit for meaning knowledge encoded in the vocabulary. of the language and in its patterns for building more elaborate meanings. up to the level of sentence meanings Pragmatics is concerned with the. use of these tools in meaningful communication Pragmatics is about the. interaction of semantic knowledge with our knowledge of the world. taking into account contexts of use, Bold print for explanations of terms. In the index at the back of the book bold printed page numbers indi. cate places where technical terms such as semantics and pragmatics. Linguistic meaning cannot usefully be studied by someone who knows only about pragmatics however A view widely shared among linguists is that semantics and pragmatics are essential components that work together in a full description of meaning In this book I attempt to integrate semantics with pragmatics but I hold back a detailed exposition of pragmatics until near the end Chapter 8

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