African Americans In The United States Economy A Legacy-Books Pdf

African Americans in the United States Economy A Legacy
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African Americans in the U S Economy 2,I Abstract, For years African Americans have been subject to labor market unfairness and economic. inequality discrimination and oppression Although the concept of economic inequality and. labor market discrimination within the African American community is not a new concept in the. United States it continues to garner attention as African Americans continue to be one of the top. minority groups who live in poverty BLS 2016 In order to understand the inequalities African. Americans face in the United States economy it is vital that one first takes into account one of. the many concepts the black political economy paradigm and liberals emphasize history The. division between Whites and Blacks set forth during the slave era in the seventeen and. eighteenth centuries was the first stage in which African American inequality was established. though they helped build the world economy through the fruit of their labor African Americans. were set to economically fail, During the slave period the Europeans carried much of the economic power whereas. African Americans were the properties slaves of the Whites With slavery came the building. of the concepts white supremacy and race which have played an immense factor in maintaining. economic inequality and labor market unfairness Though the quest for equality still has a long. way to go scholars such as James B Stewart Major Coleman William Darity Jr John. Whitehead Peter Bohmer and Jessica Gordon Nembhard have all helped pave the way for. African American economic and labor market justice in the United States In the quest to. examine African American economic inequality and labor market unfairness this paper will. analyze the historical economic context of slavery in the United States neoclassical and liberal. ideologies the black political economy paradigm the reality of African American economic. inequality in the 21st century and social movements. African Americans in the U S Economy 3,II Slavery the Rise of a World Economy. During the seventeen century many countries mainly European began to partake in the. deplorable practice of slavery Slavery as defined by the Abolition Project n d was the practice. in which individuals were owned classified as a form of property and thus forced to do as was. told for no pay The practice of slavery as put forth by Darity n d made hundreds of Africans. available at high prices which ultimately raised profits in American agriculture these profits. however were unbalanced Darity n d also notes that the enslavement of African Americans. was driven by one main reason greed for profits which later allowed for the production of anti. Black sentiment The ongoing slave trade during this era allowed various participating countries. to experience rapid economic development, The consequence in Africa was failure The Atlantic Slave Trade helped set forth the. imbalance of economic power between Africans and Whites In Africa Europe and the Origins. of Uneven Development The Role of Slavery William A Darity Jr n d notes the following. The labor force for development of a manufacturing sector was not present Furthermore. depopulation undermined the presence of sufficient density of population to produce the. market demand that would have provided the necessary stimulus for the growth of. industry p 18, As the trade entered the United States it comes as no surprise that the disbursement of uneven.
benefits was also brought in for African Americans In The Critical Role of African Americans. in the Development of the Pre Civil War U S Economy James B Stewart n d notes that. enslaved Africans was especially vital to the development and performance of the U S. economy in the latter decades of the eighteenth century and the first decade of the nineteenth. African Americans in the U S Economy 4, The slave based system helped produce immense profits through the abuse of black labor. and set forth an economy that was becoming dependent of slave labor far into the civil war. Stewart n d As profits were generating the widening of economic gains between Whites and. Blacks were evident Stewart n d states that Blacks were unable to participate in post civil war. economic development In regards to property ownership Stewart concludes by providing an. alarming statistic that still lingers today the average per capita property assessments for Blacks. were 9 73 in 1880 compared to 296 18 for whites this disparity in wealth holdings between. both races constitutes one of the most enduring legacies of the exploitation experienced by. Blacks during slavery p 29 With slavery came the building of racism and discrimination. towards the Black race,III Establishment of Race Racism White Supremacy. According to Keith Lawrence and Terry Keleher 2004 in Chronic Disparity Strong and. Pervasive Evidence of Racial Inequalities POVERTY OUTCOMES race was used as a. classification to assign ones social worth and status which would ultimately establish and. maintain the individual s privilege and power With the concept of race came the concepts of. white supremacy and prejudice White supremacy as put forth by Lawrence and Keleher 2004. has been a historically perpetuated system where whites are economically held at a higher. pedestal while accommodating institutions to exploit and oppress people of color The concept of. white supremacy eventually led to the notions of discrimination prejudice and racism that create. labor market unfairness Today many forms of racism exist but the two most prevailing forms. that have maintained African Americans at a lower economic platform than Whites are structural. and institutional racism,African Americans in the U S Economy 5. Lawrence and Keleher 2004 note that structural racism routinely advantages whites. while producing cumulative and chronic adverse outcomes for people of color p 1 and. institutional racism is the discriminatory treatment unfair policies and inequitable. opportunities and impacts based on race produced and perpetuated by institutions p 1. institutional racism is embedded within our educational system government and business sector. James B Stewart 2008 notes in Africana Studies and Economics In Search of a New. Progressive Partnership that the racism formed early on was the result of the successful efforts. of capitalists to divide the proletariat and expressed caution about analyses emphasizing race as a. primary factor in explaining economic oppression p 799 these forms of racism can arguably. be one of the many barriers that continue to stunt black economic progress In Thomas and. Powell s Toward a Path to Structural Racism 2006 the authors note that social structures. have promoted unequal economic good and services distributions The establishment of. institutions have helped limit the access to opportunity restricting African American economic. success in the United States Thomas Powell 2006,IV Neoclassical v Liberal Ideologies. When discussing economic and labor market inequality it is important to discuss the. views of the neoclassicals and liberals In Cecilia A Conrad s 2005 work titled African. Americans in the U S Economy the author emphasizes from the very beginning that neoclassical. economics has failed to explain the current differences in economic status between African. Americans and Whites Neoclassicals also known as the conservatives revolve around two. main arguments to explain the economic differences between the two races these two arguments. include the following 1 competitive markets will eliminate discrimination and 2 Black White. income disparities are a result of racial differences in culture taste etc However liberal. African Americans in the U S Economy 6, economists have repeatedly argued that competitive markets will do the exact opposite.
neoclassicals note as put forth by Conrad 2005 competitive markets tend to reproduce the. inequality that racial bias created p 2, Liberals on the other hand recognize that income disparities between Blacks and Whites. are not a result of making poor decisions as argued by William Darity 2003 Scholar John. Whitehead n d notes that liberals have argued for years that it is vital that the concept of. lassiez faire is destroyed According to liberals government intervention is needed Whitehead. notes that the government needs to make education and training readily available for the Black. community in order to improve their skills and have a successful and well paying profession. Conrad 2005 According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics 2015 as of 2015 thirty seven. point seven percent of Whites had a college bachelor s degree compared to the twenty seven. point three of African Americans BLS concluded 2015 individuals with higher levels of. education are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs such as those in management. professional and related occupations than are individuals with less education p 1 By. making education and training available to the African American community thousands of low. income minorities have a better chance at entering the labor market and economically progress. with high paying jobs, Another factor that liberals argue creates economic inequalities for African Americans is. globalization Jessica Gordon Nembhard et al n d argue that though globalization can lead to. economic prosperity minorities are often faced with its downfalls With a rise in technology the. service sector over manufacturing has created labor market inequality Conrad 2005 The. authors also note that during globalization capitalist corporations main objective is to gain. profits with the sole intention to gain profits the capitalists tend to disregard the potential effects. African Americans in the U S Economy 7, of their behavior and who gets hurt For this reason throughout the 1900 s various organizations. began to fight for economic equality which will be discussed later on in this paper. V Black Political Economy Paradigm, One very important paradigm that has fought to give African Americans better economic. opportunities is the black political economy paradigm As James B Stewart and Major Coleman. n d note the black political economy paradigm notes that racial identity is a form of property. which has income and wealth generating characteristics Stewart and Coleman then note that the. two major focuses of this paradigm are that economic forces tend to intensify conflicts that result. from different racial groups and that economic institutions are organized to accommodate. patterns of racial stratification Within this paradigm race plays a very important role because. according to the authors the usage of race by individuals shows that collective identity is a. potentially important dimension of economic behavior p 119 The BPE paradigm also. analyzes racial stratification and economics In Stewart s 2006 Thomas Sowell s Quixotic. Quest to Denigrate African American Culture the author notes the following. Stratification economics is an emerging subfield that examines the structural and. intentional processes generating social hierarchy and income and wealth inequality. between inscriptively distinguished groups p 463, In the black political economy paradigm the term racial stratification helps explain why.
African Americans are held at a lower pedestal than whites According to Stewart and Coleman. n d race is used in various institutions and organizations in order to assign roles and positions. to workers The process by which race is used to assign roles has heavy wage implications for. thousands of African Americans According to Jessica Gordon Nembhard Patrick Mason. Steven C Pitts n d the low positioning of African Americans in organizations and institutions. African Americans in the U S Economy 8, have created immense differences in wages as put forth by the authors African Americans hold. only fifteen cents of wealth to every dollar of wealth held by white households p 215 In. aiding to help African Americans achieve economic equality the black political economy. paradigm has various suggestions similar to that of liberals One of the many suggestions offered. by the black political economy paradigm is that individuals should mutually commit resources. whether they are economic or noneconomic to political activities by doing so the voices of. thousands of African Americans fighting for economic equality will be heard. VI Economic Inequality Today, Today in the twenty first century the racial wealth gap between African Americans and. Whites is widening at an impressive and alarming rate According to the Center for Global. Policy Solutions 2014 the median wealth of White households is twenty times greater when. compared to that of African American households In 2005 African American wealth was. estimated at twelve thousand dollars and in 2009 it declined drastically to five thousand As. many liberals have noted the barriers to economic and social equality that have kept African. Americans behind the economic curtain is largely due to the fact that institutions and. organizations continue to keep it this way Today African American families lack the necessary. savings and investments to climb up the economic ladder p 1. The Center for Global Policy Solutions 2014 sources the widening wealth gap to. income inequality as a result of labor market discrimination In terms of income African. American families earned approximately thirty three thousand dollars compa. way to go scholars such as James B Stewart Major Coleman William Darity Jr John Whitehead Peter Bohmer and Jessica Gordon Nembhard have all helped pave the way for African American economic and labor market justice in the United States In the quest to examine African American economic inequality and labor market unfairness this paper will

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