Advanced Maya Texturing And Lighting-Books Pdf

Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting

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got his start in 3D at Buena Vista Visual Effects at Walt Disney Studios, where he cre-ated digital special effects for such films as Mortal Kombat. Lee currently lives in Boulder City, Nevada, where he serves as manager of BeezleBug Bit, LLC ( and director of the Dam Short Film Festival (

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Maya Texturing
and Lighting
Second Edition
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Maya Texturing
and Lighting
Second Edition
Lee Lanier
Wiley Publishing Inc
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Acquisitions Editor Mariann Barsolo
Development Editor Susan Herman
Technical Editors Keith Reicher Eric Keller
Production Editor Laurel Ibey
Copy Editor Liz Welch
Production Manager Tim Tate
Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Richard Swadley
Vice President and Executive Publisher Joseph B Wikert
Vice President and Publisher Neil Edde
Project Manager Laura Moss Hollister
Assistant Producer Kit Malone
Book Designer Franz Baumhackl Lori Barra
Compositor Kate Kaminski Happenstance Type O Rama
Proofreader Ian Golder Word One
Indexer Nancy Guenther
Cover Designer Ryan Sneed
Cover Image Lee Lanier
Copyright 2008 by Wiley Publishing Inc Indianapolis Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
ISBN 978 0 470 29273 0
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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Lanier Lee 1966
Advanced Maya texturing and lighting Lee Lanier 2nd ed
ISBN 978 0 470 29273 0 pbk CD ROM
1 Computer animation 2 Maya Computer file I Title
TR897 7L367 2008
006 6 96 dc22
TRADEMARKS Wiley the Wiley logo and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley Sons Inc and or its affiliates in
the United States and other countries and may not be used without written permission Maya is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc All other trade
marks are the property of their respective owners Wiley Publishing Inc is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book
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Dear Reader
Thank you for choosing Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting Second Edition This book is part
of a family of premium quality Sybex books all written by outstanding authors who combine practical
experience with a gift for teaching
Sybex was founded in 1976 More than thirty years later we re still committed to producing
consistently exceptional books With each of our graphics titles we re working hard to set a new stan
dard for the industry From the writers and artists we work with to the paper we print on our goal is
to bring you the best graphics books available
I hope you see all that reflected in these pages I d be very interested to hear your comments and
get your feedback on how we re doing Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other
Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde wiley com or if you think you ve found an error in this book
please visit http wiley custhelp com Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex
Best regards
Vice President and Publisher
Sybex an Imprint of Wiley
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To all the dreamers and artists out there
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My thanks to the excellent editorial production and compositing staff at Sybex and
Wiley Sons including Acquisitions Editor Mariann Barsolo Development Editor
Susan Herman Production Editor Laurel Ibey Technical Editors Keith Reicher and Eric
Keller Copy Editor Liz Welch and Proofreader Ian Golder
Special thanks to the faculty staff and students at the Art Institute of Las Vegas
and Westwood College Online for inspiring me to perfect my craft Special thanks also
to my family and friends who supported my wild ambitions And the biggest thanks to
my beautiful wife Anita who encouraged me all the way despite all those late late
Several of the photos in this book were provided by the photographers of Stock
XCHNG www sxc hu This is a wonderful site that provides royalty free restriction free
material simply out of love of the medium Additional models were purchased from
Turbo Squid www turbosquid com another excellent service
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About the Author
Lee Lanier is an award winning 3D animator and director His films have
played in more than 200 film festivals museums and galleries worldwide Before
directing the shorts Millennium Bug Mirror Day Off the Dead Weapons of
Mass Destruction and 13 Ways to Die at Home Lee served as a senior animator in
the Lighting and Modeling Departments of Pacific Data Images on Shrek and Antz He
got his start in 3D at Buena Vista Visual Effects at Walt Disney Studios where he cre
ated digital special effects for such films as Mortal Kombat Lee currently lives in Boulder
City Nevada where he serves as manager of BeezleBug Bit LLC www BeezleBugBit com
and director of the Dam Short Film Festival www DamShortFilm org
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Introduction xvi
Chapter 1 Understanding Lighting Color and Composition 1
Understanding the Art of Lighting 2
Using 1 Point Lighting 2
Using 2 Point Lighting 8
Using 3 Point Lighting 11
Using Naturalistic Lighting 16
Using Stylized Lighting 21
Understanding Color and Composition 22
Color Theory Overview 23
Checking Color Calibration 26
A Note on Color Temperature 27
Setting a White Point 28
Applying the Golden Mean 29
Rule of Thirds 31
Step by Step 3D Lighting Examples 32
Chapter 2 Applying the Correct Maya Light Type 37
Maya Light Types 38
Common Light Attributes 38
Using Spot Lights 41
Using Directional Lights 46
Using Ambient Lights 47
Using Point Lights 49
Using Area Lights 49
Using Volume Lights 51
Linking and Unlinking Lights 53
Using Light Fog and Light Glow 54
Creating Light Fog 55
A Note on Environment and Volume Fog 57
Light Glow 60
Chapter Tutorial Lighting an Interior 62
Chapter 3 Creating High Quality Shadows 69
Rendering Depth Maps 70
Understanding Depth Maps 70
Refining Depth Maps 77
Solving Light Gap Errors 82
Comparing Shadows 85
Raytracing Shadows 87
Linking and Unlinking Shadows 88
Creating Effects Shadows 88
Shadowing with Light Fog 89
Shadowing with Paint Effects 89
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Shadowing with Maya Fur 92
Shadowing with Maya Hair 95
Shadowing with nCloth 96
Shadowing with the Toon System 97
Chapter Tutorial Lighting a Flickering Fire Pit with Shadows 99
Chapter 4 Applying the Correct Material and 2D Texture 103
Reviewing Shading Models and Materials 104
Shading with Lambert 104
Shading with Phong 106
Shading with Blinn 108
Shading with Phong E 109
Shading with the Anisotropic Material 111
Shading with a Shading Map 113
Shading with a Surface Shader 114
Shading with Use Background 115
Reviewing 2D Textures 117
Applying Cloth 117
Applying Water 118
Applying Perlin Noise 119
Applying Ramps Bitmaps and Square Textures 121
Mastering Extra Map Options 122
Setting the Filter Type 122
Shifting Color with Invert and Color Remap 126
Stacking Materials and Textures 126
Mastering the Blinn Material 129
Re Creating Wood 130
Re Creating Metal 131
Re Creating Plastic 132
Chapter Tutorial Re Creating Copper with Basic
Texturing Techniques 133
Chapter 5 Applying 3D Textures and Projections 137
Exploring 3D Textures 138
Applying Random Textures 139
Applying Natural Textures 147
Applying Granular Textures 151
Applying Abstract Textures 153
Applying Environment Textures 155
2D Texture Projection Options 158
Placing Placement Boxes and Projection Icons 162
Applying the Convert To File Texture Tool 163
Chapter Tutorial Creating Skin with Procedural Textures 165
Chapter 6 Creating Custom Connections and Applying Color Utilities 169
Mastering the Hypershade Window 170
Reviewing the Basics 170
Creating Custom Connections 171
Cleaning Up 176
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Shifting Colors 180
Converting RGB to HSV 180
Converting RGB to Luminance 182
Blending Colors 183
Remapping Color 184
Remapping HSV 187
Remapping Value 188
Smearing Colors 189
Correcting Gamma 190
Adjusting Contrast 192
A Note on Sliders and Super White 192
Clamping Values 194
Reading Surface Luminance 194
Chapter Tutorial Creating a Custom Paint Material 196
Chapter 7 Automating a Scene with Sampler Nodes 201
Employing Samplers 202
A Review of the Ramp Shader Material 202
Coordinate Space Refresher 203
Using the Sampler Info Utility 204
Using the Light Info Utility 207
Using the Particle Sampler Utility 213
Using the Distance Between Utility 218
Tying into Nonmaterial Nodes 218
Creating Simulated Propeller Spin 219
Reproducing the Hitchcock Zoom Dolly 221
Tapping into Construction History Nodes 222
Redirecting the Initial Shading Group Node 224
Connecting Multiple Materials in One Network 224
Using the Studio Clear Coat Utility 225
Chapter Tutorial Building a Custom Cartoon Shading Network 227
Default Light Set
Light Linker Chapter 8 Harnessing the Power of Math Utilities 233
Math Utilities 234
Render Partition Reversing Input 234
Multiplying and Dividing 234
Default Render Utility List
Adding Subtracting and Averaging Values 236
Using Expressions 238
Changing the Range of a Value 239
Mapping Per Particle Attributes 242
Working with Vectors and Matrices 247
Testing a Condition 251
Switching Outputs 252
Using Esoteric Utilities and Scene Nodes 255
Stenciling Color 256
Applying Optical FX 257
Converting Units 258
Understanding Scene Nodes 259
Chapter Tutorial Creating Eye Glow with Advanced Math Utilities 260
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Chapter 9 Improving Textures through Custom UVs Maps and Sliders 265
Preparing UV Texture Space 266
Prepping NURBS Surfaces 266
Preparing Polygons 272
Using the 3D Paint Tool 284
The Basic Workflow 284
Roughing in a Texture 286
PSD Support 287
Bump and Displacement Mapping 289
Bump Mapping 289
Displacement Mapping 291
The Height Field Utility 293
Custom Sliders 295
Chapter Tutorial Preparing the UVs of a Polygon Model 296
Chapter 10 Prepping for Successful Renders 301
Determining Critical Project Settings 302
Deciphering Aspect Ratios 302
Switching between Square and Nonsquare Pixels 304
Selecting a Film Back 305
Displaying Gates 307
Selecting a Focal Length 308
Selecting Frame Rates and Interlacing 309
A Note on Frame Rate Conversion 310
Mastering the Render Settings Window 311
Prepping Maya Software Renders 313
Prepping Maya Hardware Renders 315
Prepping Maya Vector Renders 317
Rendering with the Command Line 318
Organizing the Render 319
Cleaning Up 319
Recovering Lost Bitmaps 320
Selecting Image Formats and Render Resolutions 321
Differentiating Image Formats 322
A Note on 16 Bit Color Space 323
Changing Compression Settings 324
Oversized Rendering 325
Creating Depth of Field 325
Applying Motion Blur 328
Industry Examples Splitting Up a Render 331
Chapter 11 Raytracing with Maya Software and mental ray 337
Maya Software vs mental ray 338
Raytracing with Maya Software 338
Comparing the Scanline and Raytracing Processes 339
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Setting Up a Raytrace 342
Creating Reflections 344
Managing Refractions and Aberrations 345
Raytracing with mental ray 349
Mastering mental ray Quality Settings 349
Using mental ray Motion Blur 352
Controlling mental ray Shadows 355
Creating Reflections and Refractions with mental ray 357
Reproducing Water 359
Water as a Liquid 359
Water as a Solid 364
Reproducing Glass 366
Creating Glass with Maya Software 368
Chapter Tutorial Texturing and Rendering an Ice Cube 371
Chapter 12 Working with Global Illumination Final Gather and mental ray Shaders 375
Understanding Indirect Illumination 376
Tracing Photons 377
Rendering Global Illumination with mental ray 379
Adjusting Global Illumination Attributes 380
Reviewing Photon Hits 383
Applying Caustics 385
Applying mental ray Shaders 389
Using Dgs material 389
Using Dielectric material 390
Using Mib Shaders 392
Using Misss Shaders 393
Using Lens Shaders 395
Using Environment Shaders 396
Using Mib volume and Parti volume 398
Preparing mental ray Shaders for Global Illumination 399
Using Final Gather 400
Adjusting Final Gather Attributes 402
Using Irradiance 404
Fine Tuning mental ray Renders 405
Rendering the Cornell Box 405
Rendering the Cornell Box with Maya Software 410
Chapter Tutorial Creating Caustics with Final Gather 411
Chapter 13 Texturing and Lighting with Advanced Techniques 415
Adding Realism with HDRI 416
Comparing LDR and HDR Images 416
An Overview of Supported HDR Formats 419
Displaying HDR Images 419
Texturing with HDR Images 421
Tone Mapping with mental ray Lens Shaders 423
Lighting with HDR and LDR Images 424
An Introduction to RenderMan For Maya 431
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