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Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting
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92730ffirs indd 3 6 21 08 12 56 05 PM,Maya Texturing. and Lighting,Second Edition,92730ffirs indd 1 6 19 08 9 38 36 PM. 92730ffirs indd 2 6 19 08 1 23 24 AM,Maya Texturing. and Lighting,Second Edition,Lee Lanier,Wiley Publishing Inc. 92730ffirs indd 3 6 21 08 12 56 05 PM,Acquisitions Editor Mariann Barsolo.
Development Editor Susan Herman,Technical Editors Keith Reicher Eric Keller. Production Editor Laurel Ibey,Copy Editor Liz Welch. Production Manager Tim Tate, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher Richard Swadley. Vice President and Executive Publisher Joseph B Wikert. Vice President and Publisher Neil Edde,Project Manager Laura Moss Hollister. Assistant Producer Kit Malone,Book Designer Franz Baumhackl Lori Barra.
Compositor Kate Kaminski Happenstance Type O Rama,Proofreader Ian Golder Word One. Indexer Nancy Guenther,Cover Designer Ryan Sneed,Cover Image Lee Lanier. Copyright 2008 by Wiley Publishing Inc Indianapolis Indiana. Published simultaneously in Canada,ISBN 978 0 470 29273 0. No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical. photocopying recording scanning or otherwise except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without either. the prior written permission of the Publisher or authorization through payment of the appropriate per copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. 222 Rosewood Drive Danvers MA 01923 978 750 8400 fax 978 646 8600 Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the. Legal Department Wiley Publishing Inc 10475 Crosspoint Blvd Indianapolis IN 46256 317 572 3447 fax 317 572 4355 or online at http. www wiley com go permissions, Limit of Liability Disclaimer of Warranty The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or complete. ness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose No. warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situa. tion This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal accounting or other professional services If profes. sional assistance is required the services of a competent professional person should be sought Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for. damages arising herefrom The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and or a potential source of further informa. tion does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and. when it is read, For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support please contact our Customer Care Department within the.
U S at 800 762 2974 outside the U S at 317 572 3993 or fax 317 572 4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Lanier Lee 1966, Advanced Maya texturing and lighting Lee Lanier 2nd ed. ISBN 978 0 470 29273 0 pbk CD ROM,1 Computer animation 2 Maya Computer file I Title. TR897 7L367 2008,006 6 96 dc22,2008019683, TRADEMARKS Wiley the Wiley logo and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley Sons Inc and or its affiliates in. the United States and other countries and may not be used without written permission Maya is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc All other trade. marks are the property of their respective owners Wiley Publishing Inc is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1,92730ffirs indd 4 6 19 08 1 23 26 AM. Dear Reader, Thank you for choosing Advanced Maya Texturing and Lighting Second Edition This book is part.
of a family of premium quality Sybex books all written by outstanding authors who combine practical. experience with a gift for teaching, Sybex was founded in 1976 More than thirty years later we re still committed to producing. consistently exceptional books With each of our graphics titles we re working hard to set a new stan. dard for the industry From the writers and artists we work with to the paper we print on our goal is. to bring you the best graphics books available, I hope you see all that reflected in these pages I d be very interested to hear your comments and. get your feedback on how we re doing Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other. Sybex book by sending me an email at nedde wiley com or if you think you ve found an error in this book. please visit http wiley custhelp com Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards,Vice President and Publisher,Sybex an Imprint of Wiley. 92730ffirs indd 5 6 19 08 1 23 27 AM,To all the dreamers and artists out there. 92730ffirs indd 6 6 19 08 1 23 27 AM,Acknowledgments.
My thanks to the excellent editorial production and compositing staff at Sybex and. Wiley Sons including Acquisitions Editor Mariann Barsolo Development Editor. Susan Herman Production Editor Laurel Ibey Technical Editors Keith Reicher and Eric. Keller Copy Editor Liz Welch and Proofreader Ian Golder. Special thanks to the faculty staff and students at the Art Institute of Las Vegas. and Westwood College Online for inspiring me to perfect my craft Special thanks also. to my family and friends who supported my wild ambitions And the biggest thanks to. my beautiful wife Anita who encouraged me all the way despite all those late late. Several of the photos in this book were provided by the photographers of Stock. XCHNG www sxc hu This is a wonderful site that provides royalty free restriction free. material simply out of love of the medium Additional models were purchased from. Turbo Squid www turbosquid com another excellent service. 92730ffirs indd 7 6 19 08 1 23 29 AM,About the Author. Lee Lanier is an award winning 3D animator and director His films have. played in more than 200 film festivals museums and galleries worldwide Before. directing the shorts Millennium Bug Mirror Day Off the Dead Weapons of. Mass Destruction and 13 Ways to Die at Home Lee served as a senior animator in. the Lighting and Modeling Departments of Pacific Data Images on Shrek and Antz He. got his start in 3D at Buena Vista Visual Effects at Walt Disney Studios where he cre. ated digital special effects for such films as Mortal Kombat Lee currently lives in Boulder. City Nevada where he serves as manager of BeezleBug Bit LLC www BeezleBugBit com. and director of the Dam Short Film Festival www DamShortFilm org. 92730ffirs indd 8 6 19 08 1 23 30 AM,Introduction xvi. Chapter 1 Understanding Lighting Color and Composition 1. Understanding the Art of Lighting 2,Using 1 Point Lighting 2. Using 2 Point Lighting 8,Using 3 Point Lighting 11. Using Naturalistic Lighting 16,Using Stylized Lighting 21.
Understanding Color and Composition 22,Color Theory Overview 23. Checking Color Calibration 26,A Note on Color Temperature 27. Setting a White Point 28,Applying the Golden Mean 29. Rule of Thirds 31,Step by Step 3D Lighting Examples 32. Chapter 2 Applying the Correct Maya Light Type 37,Maya Light Types 38.
Common Light Attributes 38,Using Spot Lights 41,Using Directional Lights 46. Using Ambient Lights 47,Using Point Lights 49,Using Area Lights 49. Using Volume Lights 51,Linking and Unlinking Lights 53. Using Light Fog and Light Glow 54,Creating Light Fog 55. A Note on Environment and Volume Fog 57,Light Glow 60.
Chapter Tutorial Lighting an Interior 62,Chapter 3 Creating High Quality Shadows 69. Rendering Depth Maps 70,Understanding Depth Maps 70. Refining Depth Maps 77,Solving Light Gap Errors 82. Comparing Shadows 85,Raytracing Shadows 87,Linking and Unlinking Shadows 88. Creating Effects Shadows 88,Shadowing with Light Fog 89.
Shadowing with Paint Effects 89,92730ftoc indd 9 6 19 08 9 55 02 PM. Shadowing with Maya Fur 92,Shadowing with Maya Hair 95. Shadowing with nCloth 96,Shadowing with the Toon System 97. Chapter Tutorial Lighting a Flickering Fire Pit with Shadows 99. Chapter 4 Applying the Correct Material and 2D Texture 103. Reviewing Shading Models and Materials 104,Shading with Lambert 104. Shading with Phong 106,Shading with Blinn 108,Shading with Phong E 109.
Shading with the Anisotropic Material 111,Shading with a Shading Map 113. Shading with a Surface Shader 114,Shading with Use Background 115. Reviewing 2D Textures 117,Applying Cloth 117,Applying Water 118. Applying Perlin Noise 119,Applying Ramps Bitmaps and Square Textures 121. Mastering Extra Map Options 122,Setting the Filter Type 122.
Shifting Color with Invert and Color Remap 126,Stacking Materials and Textures 126. Mastering the Blinn Material 129,Re Creating Wood 130. Re Creating Metal 131,Re Creating Plastic 132,Chapter Tutorial Re Creating Copper with Basic. Texturing Techniques 133, Chapter 5 Applying 3D Textures and Projections 137. Exploring 3D Textures 138,Applying Random Textures 139.
Applying Natural Textures 147,Applying Granular Textures 151. Applying Abstract Textures 153,Applying Environment Textures 155. 2D Texture Projection Options 158,Placing Placement Boxes and Projection Icons 162. Applying the Convert To File Texture Tool 163, Chapter Tutorial Creating Skin with Procedural Textures 165. Chapter 6 Creating Custom Connections and Applying Color Utilities 169. Mastering the Hypershade Window 170,Reviewing the Basics 170.
Creating Custom Connections 171,Cleaning Up 176,92730ftoc indd 10 6 19 08 9 55 06 PM. Shifting Colors 180,Converting RGB to HSV 180,Converting RGB to Luminance 182. Blending Colors 183,Remapping Color 184,Remapping HSV 187. Remapping Value 188,Smearing Colors 189,Correcting Gamma 190. Adjusting Contrast 192,A Note on Sliders and Super White 192.
Clamping Values 194,Reading Surface Luminance 194, Chapter Tutorial Creating a Custom Paint Material 196. Chapter 7 Automating a Scene with Sampler Nodes 201. Employing Samplers 202,A Review of the Ramp Shader Material 202. Coordinate Space Refresher 203,Using the Sampler Info Utility 204. Using the Light Info Utility 207,Using the Particle Sampler Utility 213. Using the Distance Between Utility 218,Tying into Nonmaterial Nodes 218.
Creating Simulated Propeller Spin 219,Reproducing the Hitchcock Zoom Dolly 221. Tapping into Construction History Nodes 222,Redirecting the Initial Shading Group Node 224. Connecting Multiple Materials in One Network 224,Using the Studio Clear Coat Utility 225. Chapter Tutorial Building a Custom Cartoon Shading Network 227. Default Light Set, Light Linker Chapter 8 Harnessing the Power of Math Utilities 233. Math Utilities 234,Render Partition Reversing Input 234.
Multiplying and Dividing 234,Default Render Utility List. Adding Subtracting and Averaging Values 236,Using Expressions 238. Changing the Range of a Value 239,Mapping Per Particle Attributes 242. Working with Vectors and Matrices 247,Testing a Condition 251. Switching Outputs 252,Using Esoteric Utilities and Scene Nodes 255.
Stenciling Color 256,Applying Optical FX 257,Converting Units 258. Understanding Scene Nodes 259, Chapter Tutorial Creating Eye Glow with Advanced Math Utilities 260. 92730ftoc indd 11 6 19 08 9 55 14 PM, Chapter 9 Improving Textures through Custom UVs Maps and Sliders 265. Preparing UV Texture Space 266,Prepping NURBS Surfaces 266. Preparing Polygons 272,Using the 3D Paint Tool 284.
The Basic Workflow 284,Roughing in a Texture 286,PSD Support 287. Bump and Displacement Mapping 289,Bump Mapping 289. Displacement Mapping 291,The Height Field Utility 293. Custom Sliders 295, Chapter Tutorial Preparing the UVs of a Polygon Model 296. Chapter 10 Prepping for Successful Renders 301,Determining Critical Project Settings 302.
Deciphering Aspect Ratios 302,Switching between Square and Nonsquare Pixels 304. Selecting a Film Back 305,Displaying Gates 307,Selecting a Focal Length 308. Selecting Frame Rates and Interlacing 309,A Note on Frame Rate Conversion 310. Mastering the Render Settings Window 311,Prepping Maya Software Renders 313. Prepping Maya Hardware Renders 315,Prepping Maya Vector Renders 317.
Rendering with the Command Line 318,Organizing the Render 319. Cleaning Up 319,Recovering Lost Bitmaps 320, Selecting Image Formats and Render Resolutions 321. Differentiating Image Formats 322,A Note on 16 Bit Color Space 323. Changing Compression Settings 324,Oversized Rendering 325. Creating Depth of Field 325,Applying Motion Blur 328.
Industry Examples Splitting Up a Render 331, Chapter 11 Raytracing with Maya Software and mental ray 337. Maya Software vs mental ray 338,Raytracing with Maya Software 338. Comparing the Scanline and Raytracing Processes 339. 92730ftoc indd 12 6 19 08 9 55 18 PM,Setting Up a Raytrace 342. Creating Reflections 344,Managing Refractions and Aberrations 345. Raytracing with mental ray 349,Mastering mental ray Quality Settings 349.
Using mental ray Motion Blur 352,Controlling mental ray Shadows 355. Creating Reflections and Refractions with mental ray 357. Reproducing Water 359,Water as a Liquid 359,Water as a Solid 364. Reproducing Glass 366,Creating Glass with Maya Software 368. Chapter Tutorial Texturing and Rendering an Ice Cube 371. Chapter 12 Working with Global Illumination Final Gather and mental ray Shaders 375. Understanding Indirect Illumination 376,Tracing Photons 377. Rendering Global Illumination with mental ray 379,Adjusting Global Illumination Attributes 380.
Reviewing Photon Hits 383,Applying Caustics 385,Applying mental ray Shaders 389. Using Dgs material 389,Using Dielectric material 390. Using Mib Shaders 392,Using Misss Shaders 393,Using Lens Shaders 395. Using Environment Shaders 396,Using Mib volume and Parti volume 398. Preparing mental ray Shaders for Global Illumination 399. Using Final Gather 400,Adjusting Final Gather Attributes 402.
Using Irradiance 404,Fine Tuning mental ray Renders 405. Rendering the Cornell Box 405,Rendering the Cornell Box with Maya Software 410. Chapter Tutorial Creating Caustics with Final Gather 411. Chapter 13 Texturing and Lighting with Advanced Techniques 415. Adding Realism with HDRI 416,Comparing LDR and HDR Images 416. An Overview of Supported HDR Formats 419,Displaying HDR Images 419. Texturing with HDR Images 421,Tone Mapping with mental ray Lens Shaders 423.
Lighting with HDR and LDR Images 424,An Introduction to RenderMan For Maya 431.

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