Advanced Grammar For Ielts Amp Toefl Ibt-Books Pdf

Advanced Grammar for IELTS amp TOEFL iBT
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Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, Advanced Grammar for IELTS Modal verbs 1 can could may. might be able to Diagnose Test Grammar Explanation Practice. A DIAGNOSTIC TEST Modal verbs 1 can could may might be able to. Fifteen of the sentences below contain mistakes with modal verbs Tick the correct. sentences then find and correct the mistakes, We took an exam yesterday and I couldn t answer any of the questions. I could be promoted last year but I preferred to stay on the shop floor could have been. 1 When I finish the course next year I can speak perfect French. 2 You ll have to call a cab I can t have been able to drive since I broke my arm last June. 3 This computer is so simple that it is able to be operated by anyone. 4 The job interview was a disaster I could only answer half the questions. 5 When she was riding in the woods last week Helen fell off her horse but luckily she. could get back on and ride home, 6 It s really annoying Surely you knew they didn t accept traveller s cheques at that hotel. You could warn me before I left, 7 These days she is rather slow but as a child she could run like the wind. 8 What an excellent choice of restaurant I can t have chosen better if I d made the. reservation myself, 9 There can be life on Saturn, 10 My father could be a star in the 1980s it s a pity that he never really tried.
11 Watching TV soaps can become very addictive, 12 Jane s late She can be stuck in a traffic jam. 13 A new car What can she be thinking of, Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 2. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, 14 I heard your sales results were excellent May you get a bonus this year. 15 Don t get too anxious there may well be a simple explanation for it. 16 Don t bother replying as I may have changed address by the time you read this. 17 Steve couldn t steal it I m sure he was at home all week. 18 Elizabeth can get better results if she paid more attention to her homework. 19 I ll be able to meet you after the lesson, 20 I m not sure about tomorrow night I may be on call. 21 Excuse me Am I able to use your phone, 22 Well don t worry You could always try again tomorrow.
23 I could leave work early yesterday my boss gave me permission. 24 You might get me some bin liners if it s not too much trouble. 25 People might not smoke on British Airways flights it s forbidden. B GRAMMAR EXPLANATION Modal verbs 1 can could may might be able to. Modal verbs can be confusing for learners because individual modal forms can be used to. express a number of different meanings This unit looks at the modals we use to describe ability. and possibility to make deductions arrangements suggestions and offers and to ask for and. give permission, 1A Present and future, We use can to describe an ability and cannot or can t to describe a lack of ability in the. present She can speak Spanish but she can t speak Italian. If the present ability is surprising or involves overcoming some difficulty we can also use is. areable to, Despite his handicap he is able to drive a car. Note We cannot usually use be able to with a passive. Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 3. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, X This book is able to be used by complete beginners. This book can be used by complete beginners, To emphasise the difficulty or to suggest a great effort in the present past or future we. use manage to In more formal English we can also use succeed in ing form. Do you think she ll manage to get a visa, The army succeeded in defeating their enemy.
To describe a future ability we use will be able to not can. X Can I speak fluently by the end of the course, Will I be able to speak fluently by the end of the course. We also use be able to where can could is grammatically impossible for example. I haven t been able to drive since I dislocated my wrist with the perfect aspect. We love being able to talk the local language with ing forms and infinitives. Another form for not be able to is be unable to It is more common in formal English. The lawyer was unable to persuade the jury of her client s innocence. We use can present and could past before sense verbs. I think I can smell something burning in the kitchen. We use could to describe the possession of an ability in the past. Past Mozart could play the piano at the age of five. Note To describe the successful use of an ability on a specific occasion we do not use could we. use a past tense or was were able to, X Mike s car broke down but fortunately he could repair it. Mike s car broke down but fortunately he was able to repair it. But we can use could in questions and in sentences with limiting adverbs such as only or hardly. Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 4. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, Could you fix the computer yourself No I could only back up the key files. She was so exhausted she could hardly speak, We use couldn t or was were not able to to describe a lack of ability or success. Mozart couldn t speak French, Despite being a mechanic Mike couldn t fix his car when it broke down yesterday.
We use could might have past participle to describe a past ability which wasn t used or a past. opportunity which wasn t taken The meaning is similar to would have been able to. She could have paid by credit card but she preferred to use cash She had the ability to pay by. credit card but she didn t use it, I might have gone to university after leaving school but I chose to get a job instead I had the. opportunity to go but I didn t take it, We often use these forms to make a criticism. You might could have told me about the party You had the chance to tell me but you didn t. We can use couldn t have past participle comparative adjective when we want to emphasise. a past action or feeling, They couldn t have tried harder to make me feel welcome They tried very hard. I couldn t have been more pleased when I heard about your results congratulations I was. very pleased, 2 POSSIBILITY DEDUCTION AND SPECULATION. 2A Present, We use can to describe things which are generally possible we know they sometimes happen.
Drinks in restaurants can be very expensive Drinks are sometimes expensive. In scientific and academic English we use may in the same way. Over prescribing of antibiotics may lead to the rapid development of resistant strains. To talk about specific possibilities we use may might and could but not can The meaning is. similar to perhaps or maybe, Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 5. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, X There can be life on Mars. There may be life on Mars Perhaps there is life on Mars. The rash could be a symptom of something more serious Maybe it is a symptom. We use the same forms when we are making a deduction based on evidence or on our. experience, He always wears smart suits He could be a businessman. Why isn t she here yet 1 don t know The train may be running late. We can use well after may might and could if we think the possibility is quite strong If we are. very certain of the possibility we use must, Don t worry the contract could well be in the post It is probably in the post. To describe possibilities which depend on certain conditions we use could or might. She could learn much more quickly if she paid attention She would be able to learn more. quickly if she paid attention, We use can or could but not may to talk about specific possibilities in wh questions or with.
adverbs such as only or hardly, X Who may that be at this time of night. Who can could that be at this time of night, Where can could that noise be coming from. It can could hardly be the postman he only comes in the morning. It can could only be Steve He s the only one with a key. We use might for a more tentative less direct question. Might the losses be due to currency fluctuations, We use can t or couldn t for things which we know are impossible and to make negative. deductions, You can t get blood out of a stone I m sure about this it s impossible. Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 6. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, He couldn t be a doctor he isn t wearing a white coat I m certain he isn t.
We also use this form to say that something is impossible because we are unwilling to do it. I couldn t pick up a spider they terrify me, When we think that something is possibly not the case we use might not or may not. The shops may not might not be open today it s a bank holiday Perhaps they are not open. Note In spoken English we often contract might not to mightn t We don t usually. contract maynot, We use could to talk about general possibility in the past things which sometimes happened. Teachers could be very strict at my old school Sometimes they were strict. In scientific and academic English we use might in the same way. Wealthy Victorian families might keep as many as a dozen indoor servants. We use could might have for a specific past possibility. She might have done it she had the opportunity and the motive Perhaps she did it. John could have posted the letter I m not sure whether he did or not. We also use might have for a past opportunity which we know was not taken. I might have gone to drama school but my parents wouldn t let me I had the opportunity but I. We express a negative deduction about the past with can t have or couldn t have. She can t have fixed the computer it s still not working properly I m sure she didn t fix it. When we are less certain we use may not have or might not have. We d better phone them they might not have heard the news Perhaps they haven t heard the. We often use can t have or couldn t have to express surprise or disbelief. She couldn t have done it she s such a nice woman, Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 7. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, If we are certain that something will be possible or impossible in the future we can use will. won t be able to, We ll be able to travel to the moon but we won t be able to travel to Mars.
For predictions which are less certain we use may might or could Could usually describes a. weaker possibility than may or might, The directors may call a stockholders meeting Perhaps they will call a meeting. You never know she could meet someone suitable tomorrow It s possible but unlikely. We sometimes use may might have past participle to talk about a possible completed action by. a time in the future, Call me next Tuesday I might have finished the project by then. 3 ARRANGEMENTS SUGGESTIONS OFFERS ETC, 3A Arrangements. We use can could or be able to to describe possible arrangements for a time in the future. The doctor could see you at six he can t see you before then as he s too busy. I ll be able to see you after the lesson, If the arrangement is uncertain we use may or might. The dentist might be free to see you immediately after lunch I ll have to check the diary. I m not sure if I m available I may be working that weekend. 3B Suggestions offers and requests, The choice of modal verb for suggestions offers and requests depends on the formality of the.
situation May and might tend to be more formal and tentative than can and could. Offers Requests Suggestions, Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 8. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, Can I help you Can you close the window We can try that new cafe. We could do that for you Could you pass me the salt You could lose some weight. More May I help you You might get me some milk You might give John a ring. formal while you re there, Might I be of some, assistance. We use can could always for an alternative or more tentative suggestion. We could always go to the Italian place, When we want to make a suggestion with the meaning there is no better choice available. we can use the phrase might as well, Now the children have left we might as well sell the house and get something smaller.
4 ASKING FOR AND GIVING REFUSING PERMISSION, 4A Present Future. We use can can t for permission granted or refused by the person being asked and for permission. subject to some external authority such as the law. Can I use your phone Yes of course you can No I m afraid you can t I give refuse. permission, You can t smoke on the underground The law doesn t allow you to do this. In more formal situations we can use may and may not in the same way. May I interrupt, Candidates may not bring calculators into the examination room. We use could or might to ask for permission in a more tentative way might is very formal. Excuse me could I leave my coat here, Might I ask the court for an adjournment at this point. To describe general permission in the past we use could couldn t. Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 9. Advanced Grammar for IELTS TOEFL iBT, In the 1950s British children could leave school at the age of fourteen.
But to talk about permission on a specific occasion in the past we do not use could we use was. were allowed to, X I could leave early yesterday, I was allowed to leave early yesterday. C PRACTICE EXERCISE, Choose a suitable form of can could be able to manage to or succeed in to complete the. sentences below, 1 The manager of the shop was a bit reluctant but in the end I get a refund. 2 It was really annoying I get on to any of the websites you recommended. Advanced Grammar for IELTS amp TOEFL iBT Dr Ghaemi IELTS TOEFL iBT Preparation Center Page 4 X This book is able to be used by complete beginners This book can be used by complete beginners To emphasise the difficulty or to suggest a great effort in the present past or future we use manage to

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