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Adaptive Thinking amp Leadership Simulation Game Training
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Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005. MAJ Edwin A Deagle MS in Clinical Psychology is the Behavioral Science Coordinator for the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School at Fort Bragg NC MAJ Deagle is the primary instructor and training. developer for the Adaptive Thinking and Leadership Program at the Special Warfare Center MAJ Deagle is a. doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology and previously served as the Division Psychologist for the 82d Airborne. Division and the 2nd Infantry Division, Jerry Heneghan is the founder and CEO of Virtual Heroes Inc located in Cary North Carolina Virtual Heroes. Inc creates collaborative simulation learning solutions for government military and corporate clients that enable. users to learn by doing Before Virtual Heroes Jerry was a Game Producer at Tom Clancy s Red Storm. Entertainment Prior to work in the interactive entertainment industry Jerry served as a U S Army Aviator AH 64. pilot in assignments all over the world Jerry holds an MBA from the Fuqua School of Business at Duke. University and a BS in Engineering from the U S Military Academy. Kip Mendini MSW is the senior program analyst for training development and future concepts at the. USAJFKSWCS and is a licensed clinical social worker specializing mental health and trauma therapy Mr Mendini. retired from active duty after 24 years as a commissioned officer in the U S Army serving in a myriad of combat. arms intelligence and special operations positions. 2005 Paper No 2370 Page 2 of 9, Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005. Raybourn E M Deagle E Mendini K Heneghan J 2005 Adaptive Thinking Leadership Simulation. Game Training for Special Forces Officers I ITSEC 2005 Proceedings Interservice Industry Training Simulation. and Education Conference Proceedings November 28 December 1 Orlando Florida USA. Adaptive Thinking Leadership, Simulation Game Training for Special Forces Officers. Elaine M Raybourn MAJ Ed Deagle Kip Mendini Jerry Heneghan. Sandia National Laboratories USA JFKSWCS DOTD Virtual Heroes Inc. Albuquerque NM 87106 Ft Bragg NC Cary NC, emraybo sandia gov deaglee soc mil mendinik soc mil Jerry virtualheroes com. INTRODUCTION,Complex problem solving approaches and novel.
Non governmental organizations NGO and strategies employed by first responders emergency and. government organizations such as the military and first catastrophe managers or the military are often best. responders are confronted with uncertain times and learned experientially through exercises role plays or. resources to operate in a perplexing geopolitical world live action simulation Since live action exercises can. These uncertain times are characterized by vague and be costly advances in simulation game training. ambiguous situations across a broad spectrum of technology offer exciting ways to augment current. activities An essential element to meeting this training Since 2003 Sandia National Labs has led a. challenge is the development of the appropriate leader team comprised of the U S Army Office of Economic. competencies Leaders at all levels and across different Manpower Analysis OEMA Virtual Heroes Inc and. disciplines or agencies require specific competencies to U S Army JFK Special Warfare Center and School. succeed such as languages regional and technical USA JFKSWCS in the design development and. expertise cross cultural communications interpersonal deployment of a multiplayer simulation training system. skills and adaptive thinking In this paper adaptive that fosters cultural awareness adaptability flexible. thinking is defined as consisting of competencies such problem solving and leadership development. as negotiation and consensus building skills the ability. to communicate effectively analyze ambiguous The objective of our training approach is to create. situations be self aware think innovatively and immersive digital environments in which participants. critically and exercise creative problem solving skills share lessons learned and create new knowledge via. Each of these competencies is an essential element of experiential training that hones their critical thinking. leader development training for the U S Army Special mental agility interpersonal adaptability cultural. Forces Officers acumen and observational skills It is our goal to. create interactive environments that sharpen, Computer games provide an environment for active participants focus by unleashing their cognitive. critical learning Through games one learns to abilities and compelling them to make critical. appreciate the inter relationship of complex behaviors decisions In designing a simulation for use by U S. signs images words actions symbols etc systems Army Special Forces Officers we carefully considered. and the formation of social groups Gee 2003 Games the efficacy of technology enhanced training in the. are not only used for entertainment purposes Games context of existing training techniques and curricula. and social simulations are often used for training and Our goal was to focus on training participants to think. teaching in management science economics on their feet while confidently and consistently making. psychology sociology intercultural communication good decisions especially when faced with stressful. political science military strategy interpersonal skill settings novel situations and ambiguous phenomena In. development and education Games open up short the focus of the simulation is on learning how to. possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple think not what to think. levels players may learn from contextual information. embedded in the dynamics of the game the organic In the present paper we discuss the project. process or story generated by the game and through the background simulation design approach training. risks benefits costs outcomes and rewards of system description and user feedback from the. alternative strategies that result from decision making deployment of an immersive multiplayer training. Raybourn Waern 2004b simulation that is used in the U S Army Special Forces. 2005 Paper No 2370 Page 3 of 9, Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005. Officer Qualification Course at Ft Bragg North The Adaptive Thinking Leadership ATL training. Carolina simulation game currently consists of a scripted single. player and an immersive multiplayer environment for. ADAPTIVE THINKING LEADERSHIP classroom use which leverages both Epic s Unreal. Tournament game engine and the America s Army, Special Forces are people centric Though fully capable. Game Platform Figures 1 3 Instructors and students. and skilled in high technology operations their unique. are provided an initial set of scenarios and may also. strength is their ability to accomplish goals and, create their own and or modify scenarios easily in real. objectives by operating in cross cultural contexts. alongside host nationals As mentioned above Special. Forces soldiers are trained in languages regional and. The After Action Review AAR of individual,technical expertise cross cultural communications.
performance was informed by 5 years of research,interpersonal skills and adaptive thinking. conducted by the Army Research Institute and the,University of Central Florida Knerr et al 2002 An. In 2003 Sandia National Laboratories was sponsored. AAR allows instructors and students to critically,by the U S Army John F Kennedy Special Warfare. review the decisions made and actions taken in the. Center and School to lead and assemble a team to, develop interactive leadership training technologies. The team consists of Sandia National Laboratories,USA JFKSWCS OEMA Virtual Heroes Inc a k a.
Army Game Project Government Applications and the, University of Central Florida Institute for Simulation. Training The Army Game Project is directed by the,U S Army Office of Economic Manpower Analysis. OEMA and best known for its development of an, internet based multiplayer game called America s Army. that currently enjoys over 5 million registered users. worldwide Wardynski 2004,PROJECT APPROACH,Figure 1 ATL Single Player Level Student View. In nine months a single player tutorial and multiplayer. computer simulation was created for adaptive thinking. leadership ATL training and skill development in, intercultural and interpersonal communication among INTERACTION SIMULATION DESIGN.
teams and in cross cultural settings with host nationals During the first 3 month phase of project work Sandia. Sandia provided the theoretical approach new human National Labs Sandia worked closely with USA. performance measurement techniques novel AAR JFKSWCS by conducting an in depth study of the. techniques and culturally relevant game content organization s training program in order to best. design We drew upon previous experience with determine how simulations could reinforce existing. designing simulation games for interpersonal and training content efforts as well as provide an. intercultural communication and intelligent innovative approach to learning Throughout the. multicultural collaborative groupware systems collaboration USA JFKSWCS ensured that Sandia. Raybourn 2001 2003 2004a USA JFKSWCS gained an intimate understanding of their complex. provided subject matter expertise instructional and qualification courses assessment and training program. development feedback along with simulation testing as well as expected training outcomes Research. The Army Game Project Government Applications methods included observing experiential field. provided game production and networking capability exercises live action role plays and classroom. UCF IST served as consultants for the development of training and conducting design workshops focus. the After Action Review AAR Together the team groups interviews with instructors and subject matter. was able to produce a collaborative virtual learning experts and administering feedback questionnaires. system that met the needs of the end users and project. sponsors The second 9 month project phase consisted of. designing and developing a training simulation for use. in the classroom which was based upon the learning. 2005 Paper No 2370 Page 4 of 9, Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005. principles mentioned in previous sections The other individuals over time provide cues that we use to. simulation content is based on real world lessons interpret culture situations and environments to reduce. learned and stories from subject matter experts that uncertainty Raybourn 2004 One s simulation. reinforce the need for adaptive thinking in cross experience is unpredictable and has no right or wrong. cultural contexts The content and interaction design approach Thus the Simulation Experience Design. efforts included working closely with subject matter Method focuses on creating problem solving. experts and incorporating diverse content into a virtual opportunities in open ended culturally relevant. environment in a unified manner such that the environments in which users build awareness of the. simulation facilitates participant experimentation with problem domain internalize strategic thinking and. decision making and communication under stressed hypothesis building discover their own strengths and. conditions while in a relatively safe setting Our goal weaknesses develop intercultural communication. was for participants to hone their ability to anticipate skills and hone the perceptual sensitivity to confidently. the ramifications of different courses of action to navigate complex phenomena. problems that may not have a right answer by role,playing in a dynamically changing environment. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION, The design of the multiplayer simulation environment. The Adaptive Thinking Leadership Training ATL,involved the development of personas Cooper 1999. Simulation Game currently supports classroom training. content storyboarding creating single player and, for up to 24 players and one instructor includes players.
multiplayer mini games motion capture animating, and observer roles although observer roles may easily. cross cultural nonverbal gestures incorporating, be increased to accommodate the size of the class The. culturally relevant ambient sounds and voiceovers, goal of the ATL environment was to serve as a virtual. scenario scriptwriting and developing the AAR, sandbox within which participants can role play and. student and instructor interfaces which are discussed in. practice the content they learn from classroom,more detail in subsequent sections Figures 1 3.
instruction and related activities throughout their. training program The ATL system consists of the, The third phase of the project currently underway and. following interfaces,discussed in more detail in subsequent sections. involves a formal evaluation of the efficacy of the. multiplayer simulation game and its deployment and. use in classrooms at training facilities Preliminary user. feedback is presented later in this paper The, subsequent section describes our simulation design. methodology and approach,Simulation Experience Design Method The. Simulation Experience Design methodology advanced, by Raybourn for the design of simulations and other.
collaborative technologies 2001 2003a b 2004 was,employed in the design of the ATL simulation. environment and scenarios This design method is, based on the notion that the one s total experience in. the simulated environment or crucible is integral to the. learning process A crucible experience is a Figure 2 ATL Multiplayer Instructor Interface. defining moment that unleashes abilities forces crucial Student Viewpoint. choices and sharpens focus Bennis Thomas 2002, p 16 Wong 2004 Simulation Experience Design lies Instructor Interface Figure 2 3 From the instructor. in purposefully weaving players interactions with all interface one can assign students to different roles of. entities and variables in the game environment in order the multiplayer session as well as set a time limit for the. to guide certain communication events The system of scenario role play The instructor client initiates and. interactions executed in the simulation game guides sets the ATL game server manages the training. players to experience the effects or consequences of session and operates the AAR playback The. behaving responding thinking identifying acting and instructor is able to communicate with each team. feeling in certain ways The consistent patterns of our privately broadcast to all on a public channel or. interaction with artifacts our physical environment and participate in text chat with persons who are observing. 2005 Paper No 2370 Page 5 of 9, Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005. and evaluating the session The instructor may alter or. introduce certain events in the game scenario in real. time such as initiating a helicopter flyover celebration. fire etc that are designed to impact the rapport, building and negotiation role playing The instructor is.
also able to monitor the role playing session from ten. different fixed camera views including student view. The instructor s views are recorded and serve as the. AAR playback The instructor may bookmark events, that occur during role play with text or an icon in order. to facilitate reference during the AAR, Student Interfaces Each Special Forces team leader. instructor or subject matter expert playing in a student. role is equipped with a Student client on a laptop along. Figure 3 ATL Multiplayer Instructor Interface, with a mouse and headphone microphone set Students. Student Viewpoint, may participate in a self paced single player tutorial. After Action Review An AAR provides the,where they learn multiplayer game navigation and.
mechanism by which instructors and trainees discuss. operation of the nonverbal gesture menu in a relevant. the outcomes of each simulation experience or session. cross cultural context In the multiplayer session,using time stamped synchronized sound and video. students play the roles of either Special Forces soldiers. sequences statistical analyses of actions taken and. or host nationals In either case they learn about team. evaluations of observers The AAR system allows users. communication cultural expectations negotiating from. to verify decision points and discuss them in detail. different perspectives and how to be more self aware. AAR sessions are stored and may be provided to, Students may communicate to others on their team on a. individuals for personal team or peer review later. private VOIP channel or communicate to all on a,public channel They also communicate using. nonverbal gestures selected from a pull down menu SIMULATION DEPLOYMENT IN CLASSROOM. The simulation was designed such that it could be,The ATL simulation was deployed in the USA. conducted in foreign languages as required Voice,JFKSWCS training program for a 3 day course for.
communications are slightly distorted to preserve,Special Forces Officers called Adaptive Thinking. trainee anonymity Finally some students do not role. Leadership in December 2004 Officers participate in. play but instead observe and evaluate the game play. three different 30 minute simulation AAR sessions, from fixed camera views that they can switch between. over the 3 day course which includes interface and. independently from the instructor or other students. cultural awareness training in a single player tutorial. They are able to listen to all communications on the. negotiations practice in the multi player environment. VOIP channels but not speak They may also text chat. and a final formal negotiation exercise in the simulation. with other observers and the instructor Their, environment with members of the training cadre or host. evaluation statistics and text feedback are included in. national role players Observer evaluation statistics are. the AAR replay sessions,calculated and displayed by the AAR system This. assessment feedback is an integral learning and,teaching component of the AAR The group discusses.
decision making communication strategies employed,and actions taken or not taken. Participants are provided user feedback questionnaires. upon conclusion of the simulation exercise Due to the. dynamic changes that occur during the wartime,program of instruction currently in effect at USA. JFKSWCS gathering quantitative longitudinal or, experimental data has proven to be a challenge All. feedback is collected with Special Forces Officers. participating in the Adaptive Thinking Leadership, course Therefore while current feedback discussed in. the present paper is focused on user attitudes and. 2005 Paper No 2370 Page 6 of 9, Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005.
usability of the simulation future feedback will also be were self report Likert type scale instruments. gathered on the simulation s ability to foster measuring the participants attitudes toward their. intercultural discovery learning Raybourn 2004 simulation experience Frequency statistics on the two. items described above indicate positive user, In summary the simulation augments and enhances expectations after having participated in the simulation. current training methods used throughout the Officer Figures 4 5. Qualifications Course training program and builds on. content the Officers are exposed to through traditional In addition 18 Officers evaluated the culturally. instruction or live action role plays The use of virtual relevant content and scenario of the single player. simulations does not replace training efforts currently tutorial They agreed that the interface was easy to use. underway in the USA JFKSWCS program instead and that they learned how to navigate simulation. these efforts are leveraged and reinforced environment and use the nonverbal gesture menu in an. engaging manner They also indicated that the scenario. depicted in the simulation was realistic Figure 6,PRELIMINARY USER FEEDBACK. Focus groups and interviews with Special Forces I anticipated being actively engaged by a simulation. instructors and subject matter experts were conducted. throughout the iterative design and development 35. process These data were used by the development team 30. to design the simulation and are not reported in the 25. present paper End user characteristics and their,feedback are discussed below 20. To date 85 Special Forces Officers who are also Team 10. Leaders have participated in our user feedback studies. All respondents are male ranging between 26 38 years. old They vary in degrees of field experience and 0. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly, familiarity with the content of the course The Disagree. respondents reported playing computer games 0 5 Figure 4 I anticipated being actively engaged by a. hours per week Younger Officers were more familiar simulation. with computer games played more often than those, who were over age 30 Of those who played computer I learned more about my strengths and weaknesses by participating in this.
games most preferred first person shooters sports simulation than I would if I did not participate. role playing and strategy games 40, Feedback questionnaires on general simulation use 30. were administered to end users over a 3 month period 25. Responses were used to inform the project team about 20. the expectations of Special Forces Officers Thirty 15. four Special Forces Officers participated in the baseline 10. feedback of their perceptions of general simulation use 5. in the classroom In general these Officers anticipated 0. Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly, being engaged by a simulation and believed that they Disagree. would learn more about their strengths and weaknesses Figure 5 I learned more about my strengths and. from participating in a simulation than they would if weaknesses by participating in this simulation than I. they did not participate would if I did not participate. Upon delivery of the simulation and its deployment in. the classroom in December 2004 focus groups were, conducted and questionnaires administered on the same. topics above as well as usability of the simulation. Fifty one Officers completed questionnaires on their. experience with the simulation after the simulation s. use in the classroom and before participating in the. feedback focus group sessions The questionnaires,2005 Paper No 2370 Page 7 of 9. Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005. The scenario depicted in the simulation was realistic Special Forces training school We will evaluate. whether our careful design of unobtrusive reasoning. principles in computer games may help guide,participants to have aha experiences in context.
7 Representing culture in simulations cannot be, 6 prescribed there is no recipe or standard format nor. should any one cultural perspective be enforced,According to Mudur 2001 p 304 interactive digital. 2 technology is a covert carrier of cultural values. 1 Therefore as designers it behooves us to guide, Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly culturally relevant simulation design to emerge from. the end user s co creation of narratives and the, Figure 6 The scenario depicted in the simulation subsequent communication events transpiring in the. was realistic virtual space, In summary the initial feedback collected has been ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.
very positive although further study is needed The. Officers are engaged with realistic scenarios and they The authors thank the Adaptive Thinking Leadership. believe they learned more about their strengths and Project sponsors USA JFKSWCS DOTD and Epic. weaknesses by participating in the ATL simulation than Games Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated. they would have learned had they not participated by Sandia Corporation a Lockheed Martin Company. Focus group sessions with the 51 Officers have also for the United States Department of Energy under. identified interface enhancements that will be Contract DE AC04 94AL85000. incorporated into our next steps such as enhancing. Voice Over IP communications creating additional REFERENCES. negotiation practice environments and expanding the Bennis W G Thomas R J 2002 Geeks. task and role definitions in the simulation geezers How era values and defining moments. shape leaders Harvard Business School Press,FUTURE DIRECTIONS Boston MA. The ATL system is currently designed to support Cooper A 1999 The inmates are running the. classroom training Multiplayer Online Role Playing asylum SAMS Indianapolis Indiana. Gaming MORPG support is among the options under Gee J P 2003 What video games have to teach us. consideration for future phases of the ongoing project about learning and literacy Palgrave MacMillan. Current enhancements include expanding the AAR NY,mini games and human performance measurement. Additionally the simulation may be used in embedded Knerr B W Lampton D R Martin G A Washburn. training virtual or augmented reality systems JFK D A Cope D 2002 Developing an after action. SWCS will use the simulation in Civil Affairs and review system for virtual dismounted infantry. Psychological Operations Qualification Courses also simulations I ITSEC Conference Orlando FL. concerned with developing Team Leader interpersonal Mudur S 2001 On the need for cultural. communication and rapport building skills representation in interactive systems in Frontiers of. human centered computing online communities and, CONCLUSIONS virtual environments Earnshaw R Guedj A van. Dam Vince J Eds pp299 310 Springer,The ATL multiplayer simulation game training. environment is aimed to assist the participant through Raybourn E M 2001 Designing an emergent culture. its focus on problem solving in open ended culturally of negotiation in collaborative virtual communities. relevant settings which can help build awareness of the The DomeCityMOO Simulation In E Churchill D. problem domain internalize strategic thinking and Snowden A Munro Eds Collaborative Virtual. hypothesis building develop cultural recognition skills Environments Digital Places and Spaces for. and hone the perceptual sensitivity to confidently Interaction Springer London UK 247 64. navigate complex phenomena Now that we have Raybourn E M 2003 Design cycle usability and. completed the careful development of the system we evaluations of an intercultural virtual simulation. can begin a formal evaluation in cooperation with the game for collaborative virtual learning In C Ghaoui. 2005 Paper No 2370 Page 8 of 9, Interservice Industry Training Simulation and Education Conference I ITSEC 2005.
Ed Usability Evaluation of Online Learning Raybourn E M Waern A 2004b Social learning. Programs Information Science Publishing 233 53 through gaming In Extended Abstracts of CHI. Raybourn E M 2004a Designing intercultural Proceedings 2004 ACM Press 1733. agents for multicultural interactions In Sabine Payr Wardynski C 2004 America s Army project briefing. Robert Trappl Eds Agent Culture Human Presentation given at Sandia National Laboratories. Agent Interaction in a Multicultural World January 19 2004. Lawrence Erlbaum 267 285 Wong L 2004 Developing adaptive leaders the. crucible experience of Operation Iraqi Freedom,Strategic Studies Institute Carlisle Barracks PA.

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