Adaptation Of Agriculture To Climate Change In Semi Arid-Books Pdf

Adaptation of agriculture to climate change in semi arid
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2318 S K Ng ang a et al, precipitation Thornton et al 2010 Thus the livelihoods 2011 Tambo and Abdoulaye 2012 Below et al 2010. of many low income households are likely to suffer from showed that improving rural transportation infrastructure. declining food production Jones and Thornton 2009 weather forecasts investment in public health care and. Adaptation is an urgent priority for farm households to policies that improve local governance and coordinate. reduce the negative effects of climate change and effective donor activities can increase adaptive capacity for African. policies are needed to support farm households to adapt farmers Recent literature on farmers behaviour in relation. Kurukulasuriya et al 2006 to climate change and variability shows that age education. The ability of pastoral and agro pastoral households to household size and income are important determinants of. adapt is constrained by many factors including land adaptation Bryan et al 2013 Deressa et al 2009 Hisali. degradation limited education poor access to financial et al 2011 The importance of institutions and entitle. resources and markets to diversify their livelihoods gender ments such as access to common property resources. inequalities and marginalization Njuki and Sanginga enabling households to adapt has received less attention. 2013 How the negative effects associated with climate Jones et al 2010 Despite the large body of literature on. change can be reduced depends on a favourable institu adaptation and the increasing importance of promotion of. tional environment to alleviate these constraints thereby agricultural technologies for climate adaptation little. increasing the capacity of farm households to adopt empirical research has explored the link between adoption. effective adaptation practices Di Falco et al 2011 Jones of agricultural adaptation practices and determinants of. et al 2010 Thornton et al 2007 Many householders in adaptive capacity A better understanding of this link is. ASALs are unable to test new adaptation practices such as needed to inform policies that aim to promote adaptation to. new crop varieties drought tolerant livestock and reducing climate change in the ASALs. soil degradation due to their low capacity to invest lack of We focus on autonomous adaptation and investigated. inputs and access to information Bryan et al 2013 the relationship between adoption of agricultural options. Adaptive capacity as used in this paper refers to the ability that can decrease the vulnerability to climate change and. of the human system to adjust to climate change in adaptive capacity among pastoralists in Borena Ethiopia. cluding climate variability and extremes to moderate The Borena region is one of the 13 administrative zones. potential damages to take advantage of opportunities or to within Ethiopia s Oromia state The region is semi arid. cope with the consequences Field et al 2012 The savannah marked by flood plains vegetated predominantly. implication is that capacity to adapt varies among house with grass and bush land and frequently exposed to. holds and that the forces that influence the ability of the droughts Borena was chosen as a case study because it is. system to adapt are the drivers or determinants of adaptive typical for the agro pastoral areas in the horn of Africa. capacity Adger 2003 2006 Low adaptive capacity is where biophysical constraints and social rules and institu. mostly attributed to a deteriorating ecological base wide tions may limit the space for adaptation We hypothesized. spread poverty high dependence on natural resources and that 1 the quality of local institutions is a key driver of. poor access to these resources Hulme et al 2001 Inter adaptation at household level influencing overall adoption. governmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC 2013 by governing access to resources and 2 adoption of. Kelly and Adger 2000 Smit and Pilifosova 2001 specific adaptation options is determined by household. We define vulnerability as the the level of exposure and assets farming experience financial resources household. defencelessness against risks Dercon 2006 In ASALs of age and gender and membership to community groups. East Africa four main risk categories have been identified. climate variability disease outbreaks market imperfec. tions and risks of policy shocks Ouma et al 2011 Of Methods. these risks associated with climate extremes primarily. drought with occasional flooding are the most severe and Study area. constraining for pastoralists or agro pastoralists Ouma. et al 2011 Scoones 2009 and Babulo et al 2009 This study was conducted in southern Ethiopia in the. suggest that the ability of households to pursue different Borena zone of Oromia regional state in the districts of. livelihood strategies and thereby adapt to climate change Yabello and Arero which lies between 4 410 5 030 N and. depends on ownership of assets 38 170 38 330 E The zone covers an area of approxi. In Ethiopia research suggests that adoption of adapta mately 95 000 km2 with an overall population density of. tion practices increases food production per unit land area six inhabitants per km2 The climate is hot and dry with. and households net income Di Falco et al 2011 Adap mean monthly temperature ranging between 15 C July. tation can be supported by policy makers through provision and 24 C January with little variation between seasons. of credit information inputs and extension Hisali et al The area is semi arid with highly variable rainfall ranging. Adaptation of agriculture to climate change in semi arid Borena Ethiopia 2319. between 500 and 900 mm per annum The rainfall is bi encountered in northern Borena From the two woredas six. modally distributed with long rain occurring between PAs were randomly selected from a PAs list Then using a. March and June and short rains between August and list of village names in each of the PA that had been. October Solomon and Coppock 2004 The elevation developed with the help of key persons 40 villages locally. ranges between 1000 m above sea level on the plains to referred to as olla were randomly selected A key person. 1500 m in the highlands Solomon et al 2007 was somebody with good insight about the area such as. The predominant form of livelihood is semi nomadic village boundaries and on social dynamics Finally using. pastoralism but current estimates indicate that less than household lists for each of the selected olla developed with. 15 of households in Borena rely on livestock production the help of village leader ten households were randomly. alone The majority of households rely on both arable selected so that the total sample size was 400 households. farming and livestock production Angassa and Oba 2008 Data were collected with the help of six local enumerators. Rain fed cropping of maize sorghum teff and barley is the who were trained for 5 days in both English and the Oro. common practice Fences are often erected to protect crops miffa language spoken by the largest ethnic group in. from damage by livestock and wildlife Cash for buying Borena to ensure a good understanding of the research. maize the main staple food is derived from the sale of questions To maintain consistency during the interviews. livestock and livestock products The common livestock each enumerator was provided with an Oromiffa version of. species are goat sheep and cattle with an increasing the questionnaire to serve as a reference point throughout. population of camels Areas with good quality pastures are the survey period although data were recorded in English. reserved as enclosures for use in dry periods by calves and We collected information on a range of households char. to a lesser extent milking cows Croplands pastures and acteristics to estimate human natural financial physical. watering points are communally owned and access to them and social capital as summarized in Table A1 In this paper. is regulated through local institutions Solomon et al households socio economic characteristics are considered. 2007 as availability of resources for household and access to. The behaviour of households in Borena zone is regu them i e they constitute five capitals. lated by local institutions which are part of the Borena. wide Appendix 1 generation1 grading Gada system Human capital. Watson 2003 In the Gada system rights to water use are. organized and regulated by the well owners locally known Education is an important measure of human capital due to. as Abba hirega The management of pasture including its importance to secure employment and skills for. migration of livestock is under a territorial unit leader managing scarce resources Saenz and Morales 2005 We. locally known as Abba dheeda The village leader or measure education as the number of years spent in school. Abba olla is the person who started a village and is in Large household size provides labour thus enabling. charge of resolving conflicts Several villages make up an households to accomplish various tasks in a short time. olla The olla leader locally known as Abba eela is in Croppenstedt et al 2003 To estimate household size the. charge of organization of all villages encompassed in their age and gender of household members who share shelter. olla as defined by the Gada system Conflicts relating to production and consumption activities i e eat from the. land water pastures and social issues in villages are same food pot were recorded and converted into adult. mediated by the local judiciary known as Ayyu equivalents AE following the method by Martin 1985. Then we compute a human dependence ratio HDR as the. Data proportion of households members aged below 15 and. above 65 years of age to AE Experience increases the. Data were collected between August and September 2013 ability to adopt adaptation measures Nhemachena and. interviewing 400 households from 40 villages randomly Hassan 2007 In this study experience was estimated by. selected from six pastoral associations PAs the admin the number of years the households head practiced farming. istrative level encompassing several villages Gada Hal To estimate hired labour we assigned a dummy variable. lona Dambala Saden Dikale Harboro and Abunu These 1 to households that hired labour during the last 12 months. PAs constitute Yabello and Allona woredas Thus data and zero otherwise. were collected in the two woredas i e Yabello and Allona. that were selected as representative of climate soil Natural capital. geography and household socio economic conditions, Natural capital was estimated as access to land water and. One generation rules for 8 years and then succeeded by the next wildlife products Arable land was measured using a geo. one graphical positioning system GPS To assess natural. 2320 S K Ng ang a et al, resources constraint we asked two questions 1 whether Social capital. households pay to access natural resources i e water. forest shrub land and pastures and assigned a value of 1 if We assumed that social capital is characterized by a strong. the answer was affirmative and 0 if otherwise and 2 social network and rural reciprocity Binswanger and. whether there are rules2 regulating access and use of these McIntire 1987 Bowles and Gintis 2002 Fafchamps and. resources Table A2 and assigned a value of 1 if the Minten 2001 We use five proxies for social capital. answer was affirmative and 0 if otherwise These values sharing during hard times 3 group membership degree of. were summed and averaged to constitute the natural participation in group meetings and participation in group. resource constraint We used equal weighing as we lacked activities including donations To estimate sharing we. field data to indicate preferential weights Our standardized asked respondents to rate their degree of sharing among. scale showed a Cronbach s alpha reliability of 0 507 household members extended kin and fellow village. Natural resource constraint was included because low members where 0 indicated no sharing and 1 indicated. livestock prices after drought may induce households to sharing These variables were then averaged so that a value. pursue alternative coping strategies such as charcoal of 1 indicated sharing in all three groups We asked. making Abule et al 2005 A larger value for natural households whether they were members of any community. resource constraint would minimize unsustainable use of groups To those answering affirmatively we asked how. resources many groups they had joined and their degree of partici. pation in group meetings and activities Participation in. Financial capital meetings was estimated using a 0 4 low to high point. scale We also created a dummy variable to estimate par. Financial capital represents the financial resources e g ticipation in group activities such as elections campaigns. credit saving and income available to a household and conflict resolutions These dummies were then aver. Nawrotzki et al 2012 Principal components analysis aged for each household so that a value of 1 indicated full. PCA was used to identify non correlated financial participation in group activities and 0 indicates no. resources Appendix 2 available to households and used as participation. proxies for financial capital Access to credit and financial. saving were estimated by a dummy variable taking the Local institutions. value of one if the household had used credit and if the. households saved money in the last 12 months Crop and We collected data on three dimensions of local institutions

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