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vv ant r vt uer Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Remediation and Management. Research UFZ Cape Breton University,Magdeburg Sydney NS BlP 6L2. Germany Canada,Martin Schultze and,Helmholtz Centre for Environmental. Research UFZ International Mine Water Association,Lake Research General Secretary. Briickstr 3A Ginsterweg 4,39108 Magdeburg 90530 Wendelstein. Germany Germany,Robert Kleinmann,Beachwood Boulevard 2737.
Pittsburgh Vence metallicce lavantur quce lotura quia. PA 15217 venenis inficit rivos fiuvios pisces aut,necat aut ex eis abigit. Further when the ores are washed the water,which has been used poisons the brooks and. streams and either destroys the fish or drives,ISSN 1431 6250 them away. ISBN 978 3 642 29383 2 ISBN 978 3 642 29384 9 eBook. DOI 10 1007 978 3 642 29384 9, Springer Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Georgius Agricola. De re metallica libris XII,Library of Congress Control Number 3012940726.
Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013, This work is subject to copyright All rights are reserved by the Publisher whether the whole or part of. First book page 5, the material is concerned specifically the rights of translation reprinting reuse of illustrations. recitation broadcasting reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way and transmission or. information storage and retrieval electronic adaptation computer software or by similar or dissimilar. English translation Hoover Hoover 1912, methodology now known or hereafter developed Exempted from this legal reservation are brief. excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the. purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system for exclusive use by the purchaser of the. work Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of. the Copyright Law of the Publisher s location in its current version and permission for use must always. be obtained from Springer Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright. Clearance Center Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names registered names trademarks service marks etc in this. publication does not imply even in the absence of a specific statement that such names are exempt. from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of. publication neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for. any errors or omissions that may be made The publisher makes no warranty express or implied with. respect to the material contained herein,Printed on acid free paper. Springer is part of Springer Science Business Media www springer com. 74 3 Limnology of Pit Lakes 3 2 Limnochemistry of Water and Sediments of Acidic Pit Lakes 75. an expression of the percentage of Fe sequestered in FeSx form as an essential a b. indicator for P mobility, Groundwater seepage into MLs largely determines water geochemistry due to.
14 o acid Mls,ML Golpa IV,MLGolpa IV, the import of elevated quantities of dissolved metals and sulfur associated with 12. Cl neutral M Ls J 100, mining activities Blodau et al 2006 Graupner et al 2005 Wisotzky and Ober Cl. meromictic Mls, mann 2001 As the cycling of P relates to the quantity of this mining impact. various indicators for P mobility have been used reflecting the interconnections. between P Fe Al and S Fig 3 27 A high mining impact metal import and their. I natural iakes, pelagic precipitation as oxyhydroxides leads to very low benthic P mobility in 0 0. acid MLs Under anoxic conditions P mobility remains low due to a upward 3 5 7 9 3 5 7 9. propagation of the aforementioned ferrous wheel which leads to a high P PHwater PHwater. binding capacity of Fe rich ML sediments beyond the period of a massive AMD c d. despite decreasing Fe and Al import and ongoing deposition of organic and P rich 1so e. sediment b the possibility of vivianite formation as a permanent P sink con 120 120 i100. J 100 J 100 I, current with sulfide formation given a Fe2 surplus and c the higher thermo Cl Cl.
dynamic stability of the Fe OH rP complex compared to Fe OH 3 so that an 2 80 2 80. almost complete transformation of ferric Fe to FeSx 75 is required before P. 60 Walds Dobern,60 0 2 4 6 B 10 12, release becomes significant Golterman 1995 Cl 40 3. Cl 40 Fe S aoc11ment, A high pore water Fe P ratio and low SRP concentrations was found to assure. 20 Moritzteich,ect 0 0 0 oO, efficient adsorption onto re precipitated Fe oxyhydroxides an indicator concept 0 100 200 300 400 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0. also suggested for natural lakes e g Baccini 1985 The surface sediment Fe P atomic Fe Psedlment log Fe S xlog Fe P sed. ratio suggested as an indicator for shallow oxic lakes Jensen et al 1992. Sondergaard et al 1993 can be used for MLs only when the DOP is low Fig 3 26 Concentration of total P of water TPwater and sediment TP sedimenJ versus indicators. Analogously the AI P ratio Rydin et al 2000 Welch and Cooke 1999 may be ratios in water and sediment supposed to indicate conditions of low and high P concentrations in. used with AI hydroxide as the binding partner Kopacek et al 2005 proposed the MLs n 27 see Fig 3 23 compared to natural Jakes n 5. ratio NaOH AI BD H2 0 P 25 as an indicator for efficient Al based p. sorption MaaBen 2003 and Jin et al 2006 suggested combined AI and Fe. indicators a concept not tested for MLs yet We recommend the application of the. 3 2 2 Hardrock Metal Mine Pit Lakes Occurrence, Fe S ratio or log Fe S x Iog Fe P ratio to account for the fact that DOP deter. mines the availability of Fe as binding partner and Geochemical Characteristics. L Edmond Eary and Devin N Castendyk, Phosphorus Retention in Mining Lakes and Prognosis of Trophic State.
3 2 2 1 Introduction, Acid MLs exhibit a high availability of P binding partners as a result of mining. activities as indicated by sediment Fe P ratios up to 370 Fig 3 23 Even Pit lakes are an increasing y common legacy of modem large scale surface mining. neutral MLs without unusually high P loading have significantly higher sedi operations Pit lakes formed in open pit metal mines where base and precious. ment Fe P ratios 17 148 than natural lakes 8 Fig 3 23 As a consequence metals are extracted from ore deposits hosted in predominantly igneous and. of this elevated sediment based P binding capacity whole lake P retention for a metamorphic silicate rocks comprise one category of pit lakes This category is. set of eight Lusatian MLs was 14 7 5 5 higher than predic ted from the referred to as hardrock metal mine pit lakes to distinguish them from pit lakes. empirical OECD 1982 model Giiineberg unpublished Data indicate that formed in above ground hydrocarbon industrial minerals and aggregate mining. even a slight mining impact e g Fe surplus leads to significantly increased p operations. retention We suggest that empirical P retention models be adapted for MLs Ore deposits exploited by mining consist of rock assemblages with naturally. sine t is underestimation of permissible loading may for instance lead to usage elevated concentrations of metals These include the base metals e g Co Cu Pb. restnct1ons Mo Ni and Zn and precious metals e g Ag and Au Base metals are typically. 76 3 Ljmnology of Pit Lakes 3 2 Limnochemistry of Water and Sediments of Acidic Pit Lakes 77. P mobility 3 2 2 2 Occurrence of Hardrock Metal Mine Pit Lakes. process mechanism,Low I High,1 S C 1Jmport, at piE sent Fe AJ P The metal mining industry has faced an increasing challenge of meeting society s. I mlnh g Impact j future fe Al d ecrease P C lnc e. demand for metals to maintain economic growth while ore grades in metallic ore. I and sediment, iiv e rf lo od ln g c bu rl al o fF el A l 1 ayc e ri x. Sedimentation Fe Al oxides high sorption capacity,c scavenging metal organic. c plexation, deposits have steadily declined F r example worldwide production of copper has.
steadily increased at an annual rate of about 4 since 1910 while average re. grades have declined by about 50 Fig 3 28 The long term trends m worldwide. Fe tOHh P c D i g en e si s Fe O H re du c tiv e di ss o lut io n F e S. h and release formation, gold production and ore grade are similar to copper Fig 3 29 although the tre d. Fe2 upward diffusion and re oxidation data for gold show more ups and downs due to various factors such as econo 1c. vivianite formation due to Fe surplus disruptions opening of new mining districts and improvements m extract10n. Indication for pore water Fe P 10 000 0 04 4 technologies Since 1910 worldwide gold production has increased from about. P mobility sediment Fe P 5 5 8 3 700 2 500 t year in 2006 This increase in production has taken place even thoug. Al P 4 6 27 5 ore grades have decreased by 50 75 since the early 1900s Fig 3 29 Obvi. Fe S 2 12 2 ously gold recovery from lower and lower grade ores has become increasingly. log Fe P xlog Fe S 0 7 2 0 7,important for maintaining production rates. Fig 3 27 Processes in MLs with implications for low or high P mobility and indicators for P An important technology for efficiently extracting gold from low grade oxide. mobility no quantitative relation for P mobility versus pore water Fe P or threshold value for ores is heap leaching with cyanide In this process crushed ore is saturated ith a. MLs established yet only if Fe is not immobilized as FeS only as Al hydroxide not cyanide solution which dissolves microscopic grains of gold The solut10n 1s. as clay constituent recovered and processed to extract the gold First trialed in New Zealand at the. tum of the 20th century gold heap leaching became a primary extraction method. found as metal sulfides and sulfosalt minerals and precious metals as sulfide for oxide ores starting in the 1970s By 1986 about 30 of the world s production. minerals e g acanthite Ag2S or as native metals gold silver electrum in of gold was through heap leaching with cyanide Dorey et al 198 8. association with iron sulfides Accessory minerals containing As and Se are Increasing metal production from decreasing ore grades requires processmg. common Due to the ubiquitous presence of iron sulfides acid rock drainage is a more material Thus open pit mining has become the dominant method for metal. II major water quality problem in metal mine pit lakes Thus the environmental recovery over time because it is a more efficient method o excava ng huge. problems with metal mine pit lakes are similar to those at coal and lignite pit lakes amounts of ore The dominance of open pit mining can be seen m a comp1lat1on of. 1 where acid rock drainage from iron sulfide oxidation occurs but hardrock metal data on yearly worldwide investments in mining projects from 2001 to 2007. mines often have a more diverse set of metals at high concentrations available for which was a period of rapid increase in mine production Figure 3 30 shows these. dissolution and release to surface and groundwater systems compared to coal and data for all base metals precious metals iron and diamonds Figure 3 31 shows. lignite pit lakes data specifically for gold and copper Each of t ese c arts shows ha the p o. portion of mines planned to be operated as open pits has mcreased comc1dent with. Water quality in pit lakes is often an important issue that affects permitting of. new mines expansion of existing mines and planning for closure There are the recent increase in mining activity This trend is especially evident for gold and. numerous approaches for using numerical models to predict future water quality in copper mines Fig 3 31 For all metal mines the pro portion pl anned to be. pit lakes e g Balistrieri et al 2006 Castendyk and Webster Brown 2007a b Eary operated ii s open pits increased from 61 in 2001 to 79 m 2007 Fig 3 31 F r. et al 2008 Kempton et al 1997 Schafer et al 2006 However one of the best copper and gold mines the proportion planned as open pits increased froi n 63 m. 2001 to 87 in 2007 Fig 3 31 While these data represent only a short time span. ways to assess whether predictions are credible is to compare them to water quality. patterns that occur in existing pit lakes located in ore deposits with similar geo they show how open pits have become the dominant mining method for metals due. environmental characteristics This chapter provides an overview of the geo m to the need to increase production while ore grades have decreased. The data on mining project investments also provides a good depiction of where. vironmental characteristics and associated water quality patterns for metal mine. metal mines are located and where they will be located in the future Figure 3 32. pit lakes that provides a starting point for comparative purposes The frequency of. shows the trends in investment by region Australia included as part of Oceania. occurrence of metal mine pit lakes is also discussed These topics are fundamental. has consistently been the leading country for investments in metal mining projects. to understanding the importance of geoenvironmental models for guiding the setup. since 2001 Overall investments are distributed across all geographic regions and. of numerical models offuture pit lake water quality and assessing the credibility of. Acidic Pit Lakes The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surf ace Mines fl Springer vv ant r vt uer Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ Magdeburg Germany Martin Schultze Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ Lake Research Briickstr 3A 39108 Magdeburg Germany Robert Kleinmann Beachwood Boulevard 2737 Pittsburgh PA 15217 USA ISSN 1431 6250 Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water

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